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    Ccna training report Ccna training report Document Transcript

    • A Report on Industrial Training CCNA, IIHT , Hudson lines Submitted for the partial fulfillment of Bachelor of technology In E .C . E Submitted By :TALVINDER SINGH (04013202810) 4th year , E.C.E-1 Guru TeghBahadur Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Sector-16 Dwarka , New delhi
    • Acknowledgement I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide (kalyansingh/GTBIT) for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this thesis. The blessing, help and guidance given by him time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Er. Naveen Bansal&Vinaykohli ,IIHT, for cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through various stages. I am obliged to staff members of IIHT, for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my training. Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents, brother and teachers for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.
    • About the Institute IIHT is Asia's No. 1 IT training organization with more than 200 centres in the country and presence in more than 17 countries worldwide. IIHT, over the years, has mastered the training delivery process and its flair for imparting education is impeccable. Also, IIHT has successfully maintained standards in terms of ambience, infrastructure and courseware across all its centres. Vision - To provide high quality IT training services at an international level reaching out to global audience. IIHT Cisco Training Courses Cisco is a leading provider of IT products and services that ensures business benefits and helps in overcoming various IT challenges. Cisco also offers a variety of certification programs for professionals, employees and students. Cisco offers five levels of IT certification with eight different career paths including routing and switching, design, network security, service provider, service provider operations, storage networking, voice and wireless. The five levels of Cisco certification are Entry, Associate, Professional, Expert and Architect. Cisco certification is one of the most demanded technology certifications in the global job market. IIHT offers Cisco training courses for CCNA, CCNP and CCIE.
    • INTRODUCTION A JOURNEY TOWARDS CISCO-CERTIFIED NETWORK ASSOCIATION (CCNA) Candidates have the option of gaining the certification by passing two tests (ICNDI 640-822 and ICND2 640-816), or one single test (CCNA 640-802); the two-test option has the advantage of allowing the candidate to focus on certain subjects. The certification is valid for three years; at the time a CCNA holder must either re-take the CCNA or ICND exam, or take and pass an exam for one of the Professional (e.g., CCNP) or Specialist level; certifications (excluding the sales specialist exam), or pass the CCIE written exam. These exams are known by their corresponding numbers. When the curriculum of the exam changes the exam number also changes. The current exam number for CCNA is 640-802 (from 15 Aug 2007). New ICND Part 1 (640822 ICND1) and ICND Part 2 (640-816 ICND2) are available from 15 Aug 2007. Part 1 by itself will give you a CCENT. These exams are conducted by authorized test centers at a cost of $125 USD each for the ICND1 or ICND2 exams and $150 USD for the full CCNA exam.. Cisco Systems, Inc is a multinational corporation with more than 63,000 employees and annual revenue of US$35 billion as of 2007. Headquartered in San Jose, California, it designs and sells networking and communications technology and services under five brands, namely Cisco, Linksys, WebEx, IronPort, and Scientific Atlanta. CCNA was launched by CISCO SYSTEMS. It stands for CISCO CERTIFIED NETWORK ASSOCIATE. CISCO has 37% market shares in internetworking devices. Hence, when we study and complete CCNA certification you are recognized internationally. CCNA is recognized all over the world and prepares you for carrier that spans all over the globe.
    • INTERNETWORKING BASIC & DEVICES. Internetworking involves connecting two or more distinct computer networks or network segments together to form an internetwork (often shortened to internet), using devices which operate at layer 3 (Network layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model (such as routers or layer 3 switches) to connect them together to allow traffic to flow back and forth between them. The layer 3 routing devices guide traffic on the correct path (among several different ones available) across the complete internetwork to their destination. Computer Computer JON LIN HUB The Basic LAN (Figure 1b) JON starts with converting name to its corresponding IP address using Name resolution technique; generally it involves the DNS or WINS. Here is the output cut how resolution process going on, when JON sends the data to LIN’s computer.
    • Time Source Destination 16.145236 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.255 Protocol NBNS Info Name QueryNB LIN <00> To overcome the LAN traffic congestion, a large network is segmented into some bunch of smaller networks which is called segmentation. Segmentation is done using Switches. A Switch has multiple collision domains and single broadcast domains, or a Router, which has multiple collision domains as well as multiple broadcast domains. The figure below, fig. 1c, displays a network that is segmented using a switch. It now separates the collision domain which is not done by HUB in figure 1b.
    • Switch A switch replaced by HUB to break the collision domain (Figure 1c) Broadcast storms Less Bandwidth Large number of hosts in a single broadcast domain Multicasting Using HUB for connectivity A bundle of name resolution and address alteration traffic like ARP or IPX.
    • In the above discussion we have dealt with how to minimize the LAN congestion. Now it’s time to minimize the broadcast storming occurring at WAN links or, better to say, splitting the broadcast domain. The broadcast domain can be split by the router, because routers have the following advantage: Router don’t forward broadcast by default. Router can filter the data packets depending upon the Layer 3 (i.e. Network Layer) information (i.e. IP address) The functions which are done by the router in an internetwork are mentioned below … Packet switching Packet filtering Path selection Internetwork communication Remember that routers are really switches but better to say that they are actually layer 3 switches. Router will forward data packets or frames depending upon the IP address, which is called packet switching. Let’s conclude about collision domain and broadcast domain… Collision: The effect of two nodes sending transmissions simultaneously in Ethernet. When they meet on the physical media, the frames from each node collide and are damaged. Collision Domain: The network area in Ethernet over which frames that have collided will be detected. Collisions are propagated by HUBS and Repeaters, but not by LAN switches, routers or bridges. Broadcast: A data frame or packet that is transmitted to every node on the local network segment. Broadcasts are known by their broadcast address, which is a destination network and host address with all the bits turned ON.
    • Broadcast Domain: A group of devices receiving broadcast frames initiating from any device within the group. Because routers don’t forward broadcast frames, broadcast domains are not forwarded from one broadcast to another. OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION REFERENCE MODEL The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another computer. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it is now considered the primary architectural model for inter-computer communications. Characteristics of the OSI Layers: The seven layers of the OSI reference model can be divided into two categories: upper layers and lower layers. The upper layer of the OSI model deal with application issues and generally are implemented only in software. The lower layers of the OSI model handle data transport issue. The physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in hardware and software.
    • Application Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Transport Data link Physical Protocols: The OSI model provides a conceptual framework for communication between computers, but the model itself is not a method of communication. Actual communication is made possible by using communication protocols. In the context of data networking, a protocol is a formal set of rules and conventions that governs how computers exchange information over a network medium. Physical Layer: The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between communicating network systems. Physical layer
    • specifications define characteristics such as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, and physical connectors. Data Link Layer: The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link. Different data link layer specifications define different network and protocol characteristics, including physical addressing, network topology, error notification, sequencing of frames, and flow control. Physical addressing (as opposed to network addressing) defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer. Network topology consists of the data link layer specifications that often define how devices are to be physically connected, such as in a bus or a ring topology. Error notification alerts upper-layer protocols that a transmission error has occurred, and the sequencing of data frames recorders frames that are transmitted out of sequence. The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer of the data link layer manages communications between devices over a single link of a network. LLC is defined in the IEEE 802.2 specification and supports both connectionless and connection-oriented services used by higher-layer protocols. IEE 802.2 defines a number of fields in data link layer frames that enable multiple high-layer protocols to share a single physical data link. The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayerof the data link layer manages protocol access to the physical network medium. Mac Addresses: Media Access Control (MAC) addresses consist of a subset of data layer addresses. MAC addresses identify network entities in LANs that implement the IEEE MAC addresses of the data link layer. As with most data-link addresses, MAC addresses are unique for each LAN interface.
    • LLC sublayer Data-link addresses MAC sublayer MAC addresses Mac Addresses, Data-Link Addresses, and the IEET Sublayers of the Data Link Layer Are All Related (Figure 1k) Mac addresses are 46 bits in length and are expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. The first 6 hexadecimal digits, which are administrated by the IEEE, identify the manufacturer or vendor and thus comprise the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). The last 6 hexadecimal digits comprise the interface serial number, or another value administered by the specific vendor. Mapping Addresses: Because internetworks generally use network addresses to route traffic around the network, there is a need to map network addresses to MAC addresses. Different protocol suites use different methods for determining the MAC address of a device. The following three methods are used most often. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps network addresses to MAC addresses. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method used I the TCP / IP suite. When a network device needs to send data to another device on the same network, it knows the source and destination network addresses for the data transfer.
    • Network Layer: The network layer defines the network address, which differs from the MAC address. Some network layer implementations, such as the Internet Protocol (IP), define network addresses in a way that route section can be determined systematically by comparing the source network address with the destination network address and applying the subnet mask. Because this layer defines the logical network layout, routers can use this layer to determine how to forward packets. Transport Layer: The transport layer accepts data from the session layer and segments the data for transport across the network. Generally, the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data us delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. Flow control generally occurs at the transport layer. Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process. Flow Control: Flow control is a function that prevents network congestion by ensuring that transmitting devices do not overwhelm receiving devices with data. A high-speed computer, for example, may generate traffic faster than the network can transfer it, or faster than the destination device can receive and process it. The three commonly used methods for handling network congestion are buffering, transmitting source-quench message, and windowing. Buffering is used by network devices to temporarily store bursts of excess data in memory until they can be processed. Occasional data bursts are easily handled by buffering. Excess data brusts can exhaust memory, however, forcing the device to discard any additional datagram’s that arrive.
    • Session Layer: The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. Presentation Layer: The presentation layer provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. These functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one system would be readable by the application layer of another system. Some examples of presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include common data representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data compression schemes, and common data encryption schemes. Application Layer: The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. Data Encapsulation:
    • The sending and receiving of data from a source device to the destination device is possible with the help of networking protocols by using data encapsulation. The data is encapsulated with protocol information at each layer of the OSI reference model when a host transmits data to another device across a network. Protocol Data Unit (PDU): The Protocol Data Units contain the control information attached to the data at each layer. The information is attached to the header of the data field but can also be in end of the data field or trailer. PDUs are encapsulating by attached them to the data at each layer of the OSI reference model. Encapsulation and De-Encapsulation Process: The encapsulation and de-encapsulation of header control information on each layer of the OSI reference model is as follows: ENCAPSULATION The data encapsulation process is defined as below: TCP Header Encapsulation: The application-layers user data is converted for transmission on the network. The data stream is the handed down to the transport layer, which sets up a virtual circuit to the destination. The data stream is then broken up, and a Transport layer header is created and called a segment. The header control information is attached to the
    • Transport layer header of the data field. Each segment is sequenced so that data stream can be put back together on the destination exactly as transmitted. IP Header Encapsulation: Each segment is then handed to the Network layer for logical addressing and routing through a routed protocol, for example, IP, IPX, Apple Talk and DECNET etc. the Network-layer protocol adds a header to the segment handed rd th down to the Data link layer. Remember that the 3 and 4 layers work together to rebuild a data stream on a destination host. Mac Header Encapsulation: The Data Link layer receives the packets from the Network layer and placing them on the network medium such as cable or wireless media. The Data Link layer encapsulates each packet in a frame, and the MAC header carries the source Mac address and destination Mac address. Physical Layer Encapsulation: Once the frame gets to the destination network, a new frame is used to get the packet to the destination host. To put this frame on the network, it must first be put into a digital signal. De-Encapsulation:
    • On destination side, the receiving devices will synchronize on the digital signal and extract the 1s and 0s from the digital signal. At this point the devices build the frames, run a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), and then check their output against the output in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field of the data frame. If the information matches then the packed is pulled from the frame, and the frame is discarded. This process is known as de-encapsulation ETHERNET CABLING Ethernet cabling is an important discussion, especially if you are planning on taking the Cisco exams. Three types of Ethernet cables are available: Straight-through cable Crossover cable Rolled cable Straight Through Cable: In case of straight through cable the 8 wires of cat 5 or cat 6 are connected with Rj45 connectrors serially means 1 to 8. The straight through cable is used to connect Host to switch or hub Router to switch or hub. Means we can say straight through cable is used to connect different devices, the only exception is that, if router’s Ethernet port is directly connected with computer Ethernet port. Four wires are used in straight through cable to connect Ethernet devices.
    • Cross Over Cable: The cross over cable is used to connect same device, like… Switch to Switch Hub to Hub Hub to Switch Router Direct to Computer Computer to Computer The same wires (like 1.2.3.6.) are used in this cable as in the straight through cable; we just connect different pins together Rolled Over Cable Although rolled over cable isn’t used to connect any Ethernet connections together, you can use a rolled over Ethernet cable to connect a host to a router console serial communication port. If you have a Cisco Router or Switch, you would use this cable to connect your PC running HyperTerminal to the Cisco hardware. Straight Though Cable Pin Out for T568A: Rj45 Pin # Wire Color Wire Diagram 10Base-T Signal (T568B) (T568B) 1000Base-T Signal 100Base-TX Signal 1 White/Orange Transmit+ BI_DA+ 2 Orange Transmit- BI_DA-
    • 3 White/Green Receive+ BI_DB+ 4 Blue Unused BI_DC+ 5 White/Blue Unused BI_DC- 6 Green Receive- BI_DB- 7 White/Brown Unused BI_DD+ 8 Brown Unused BI_DD-
    • Cross Over Cable (T568B): Rj45 Pin# Wire Color Diagram End Rj45 Pin # #1 (END 2) (END1) Wire Color Diagram End #2 1 White/Orange 1 White/Green 2 Orange 2 Green 3 White/Green 3 White/Orange 4 Blue 4 White/Brown 5 White/Blue 5 Brown 6 Green 6 Orange 7 White/Brown 7 Blue 8 Brown 8 White/Blue ROUTER’S PORT The first thing that you’ll notice when you pull a Cisco 2500 series router out of the box is obviously its physical elements. A Cisco 2501 includes not only Ethernet and serial ports, but also console and auxiliary ports. In this section we’ll look at the purpose of each, their physical characteristics and how devices are attached and cabled. Note that hardware ports are numbered nominally starting at 0. Therefore on a system with only one Ethernet port, that port is referred to as Ethernet 0.
    • ETHERNET PORT AND CONNECTOR WITH CABLE A Cisco 2501 includes a single 10Mb Ethernet port. While many Cisco router models now include an integrated 10/100 Rj-45 port, the 2500 series uses what is referred to as a generic attachment unit interface (AUI) DB-15 port instead. The name of this connector (DB-15) comes from the fact that it is physically shaped like the letter ‘D’ and uses a 15-pin connector. SERIALPORT AND CONNECTOR WITH CABLE A variety of Physical Layer standards are supported over synchronous serial interfaces to connect to different types of DCE equipment. Some of the different signaling standards and connectors that might be found on DCE equipment include EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, X.21, and EIA-530. Cisco and a variety of other vendors manufacturer “transition” cables capable of connecting a router’s DB-60 DTE port to DCE equipment using these different standards. ARCHITECTURE OF TCP/IP MODEL An architectural model provides a common frame of reference for discussing Internet communications. It is used not only to explain communication protocols but to develop them as well. It separates the functions performed by communication protocols into manageable layers stacked on top of each other. Each layer in the stack performs a specific function in the process of communicating over a network. Generally, TCP/IP is described using three to five functional layers. To describe TCP/IP based firewalls more precisely, we have chosen the common DoD reference model, which is also known as the Internet reference model.
    • Layer Description Layer 4: The Application layer consists of application programs and serves as the windows, or network interface. It is Application Layer through this window that all exchange of meaningful information occurs between communication users. Examples include Telnet and SMTP. Layer 3: Provides end-to-end data delivery services. The protocols at this layer are TCP and UDP. Host-to-Host Transport Layer Layer 2: Defines the datagram or frame format and handles routing data through an internetwork. Examples include Internet Layer IP and ICMP. Layer 1: Defines how to access a specific network topology such as Ethernet or Token-Ring. Network Access Layer Field Name Size (bytes) Description SourcePort 2 SourcePort: The 16-but port number of the process that originated the TCP segment on the source device. This will normally be an ephemeral (client) port number for a request sent by a client to a server, or a well-known/registered (server) port number for a reply from a server to a client.
    • DestinationPort 2 DestinationPort: The 16-bit port number of the process that is the ultimate intended recipient of the message on the destination device. This will usually be a well-known / registered (server) port number for a client request, or an ephemeral (client) port number for a server reply. Sequence Number 4 Sequence Number: For normal transmissions, the sequence number of the first byte of data in this segment. In a connection request (SYN) message, this carries the initial sequence number (ISN) of the source TCP. The first byte of data will be given the next sequence number after the contents of this field, as described in the topic on sequence number synchronization. Acknowledgement 4 Number Acknowledgement Number: When the ACK bit is set, this segment Number is serving as an acknowledgement (in addition to other possible duties) and this field contains the sequence number the source is next expecting the destination to send. See the topic describing TCP data transfer for details. Data Offset 1/2 Data Offset: Specifies the number of 32-bit words of data in the TCP header. In other words, this value times four equals the number of (4 bits) bytes in the header, which must always be a multiple of four. It is called a “data offset” since it indicates by how many 32-bit words the start of the data is offset from the beginning of the TCP segment. Reserved 3/4 (6 bits) Reserved: 6 bits reserved for future use; sent as zero.
    • Control Bits 3/4 (6 bits) Control Bits: As mentioned, TCP does not use a separate format for control messages instead certain hits are sent to indicate the communication of control information. Window 2 Windows: Indicates the number of octets of data the sender of this segment is willing to accept from the receiver at one time. This normal corresponds to the current size of the buffer allocated to accept data for this connection. This field is, in other words, the current receive window size for the device sending this segment. See the data transfer mechanics topic for details. Checksum 2 Checksum: A, 16 nit checksum for data integrity protection computed over the entire TCP datagram plus a special “pseudo header” of fields. It is used to protect the entire TCP segment against not just errors in transmission, but also errors in delivery. Optional alternate checksum methods are also supported. Urgent Pointer 2 Urgent Pointer: Used in conjunction with the URG control bit for priority data transfer. This field contains the sequence number of the last byte of urgent data. See the priority data transfer topic for details. Options Variable Options: TCP includes a generic mechanism for including one or more sets of optional data in a TCP segment. Each of the options can be either one byte in length or variable in length. The first byte is the Option-Kind subfield. Subfield Size Name (bytes) Description
    • Option-Kind 1 Option-Kind: Specifies the option type. Option-Length 1 Option-Length: The length of the entire option in bytes, including the Option-Kind and Option-Length fields. Option-Data Variable Option-Data: The option data itself in at least one oddball case, this fields omitted (making Option-Length equal to 2) Padding Variable Padding: If the Option field is not a multiple 0f 32 bits in length enough zeroes are added to pad the header so it is a multiple of 32 bits. Data Variable Data: The bytes of data being sent in the segment. TCP/IP ENCAPSULATION AND DECAPSULATION: Encapsulation is used to isolate each of the layers in the protocol stack. Each layer frames the data prepending the data with its own header information. In the sending machine, the layer places its own header information in front of the data it gets from the layer above before passing it to the layer below. In the receiving machine, each layer first interprets and then strips the header information from frames received from the layer below before passing them up to the layer above. In reality it is not quite so simple.
    • IP TERMINOLOGY INTRODUCTION Internet Protocol (IP) Technology was developed in the 1970s to support some of the first research computer networks. Today, IP has become a worldwide standard for home and business networking as well. Our network routers, Web browsers, email programs, instant messaging software – all rely on IP or other network protocols layered on top of IP. 32 IPv4 uses 32-bit (four type) addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (2 ) possible unique addresses. However, some are reserved for special purposes such as private networks (~ 18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~ 16 million addresses). This reduces the number of addresses that can be allocated as public Internet addresses. IP DEFINITION Internet Protocol is a unique ID which distinguishes one computer from all the other in the world when connected to the internet. The IP is a series of numbers which is called your IP address. IP was first standardized in September 1981. if a device wants to communicate using TCP/P, it needs an IP address. The specification required that each system attached to an IP-based Internet be assigned a unique, 32-bit Internet address value. IP RANGE Class A Valid Network Numbers Total Numbers For This Class Of Network 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 2 – 2 (126) 7 Number Of Hosts Per Network 24 2 -2 (164,777,214) Purpose Few large organizations
    • 14 B 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.0.0 2 (16,384) C 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.0 2 (2097152) 21 16 2 -2 (65,534) 8 2 – 2 (254) Medium-size organizations Relatively small organzations CLASS A NETWORKS (/8 PREFIXES) Each class A network address has an 8-bit network prefix, with the highest order bit set to 0 (zero) and a 7-bit network number, followed by a 24-bit host number. Today, Class A networks are referred to as “/8s” (pronounced “slash eight” or just “eights” ) since they have an 8-bit network prefix. ZERO ADDRESSES Au with the loopback range, the address range from 0.0.0.0 through 0.255.255.255 should not be considered part of the normal Class A range. 0.x.x.x addresses serve no particular function in IP, but nodes attempting to use them will be unable to communicate properly on the Internet. IP LOOPBACK ADDRESS 127.0.0.1 is the loopback address in IP. Loopback is test mechanism of network adapters. Messages sent to 127.0.0.1 do not get delivered to the network. Instead, the adapter intercepts all loopback messages and returns them to the sending application. CLASS B NETWORKS (/16 PREFIXES)
    • Each class B network address has 16-bit network prefix, with the two highest order bits set to 1-0 and a 14-bit network number, followed by a 16-bits host number. Class B networks are now referred to as “/16s” since they have a 16-bit network prefix. AUTOMATIC PRIVATE ADDRESS An automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), feature that will automatically assign an Internet Protocol address to a computer on which it installed. This occurs when the TCP/IP protocol is installed, set to obtain its IP address automatically from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server, and when there is no DHCP server present or the DHCP server is not available. CLASS C NETWORKS (/24 PREFIXES) Each Class C network address has a 24-bit network prefix, with the three highest order bits set to 1-1-0 and a 21-bit network number, followed by an 8bit host number. Class C networks are now referred to as “/24s” since they have a 24-bit network prefix. CLASS D AND MULTICAST The IPv4 networking standard defines Class D addressed as reserved for multicast. Multicast is a mechanism for defining groups of nodes and sending IP messages to that group rather than to every node on the LAN (broadcast) or just one other node (unicast).
    • CLASS E AND LIMITED BROADCAST The IPv4 networking standard defines Class E addressed as reserved, meaning that they should not be used on IP networks. Some research organizations use Class E addressed for experimental purposes. However, nodes that try to use these addresses on the internet will be unable to communicate properly. A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address 255.255.255.255. Class Leftmost bits Start address Finish address Purpose D 1110 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 Multicast E 1111 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 Experimental SUBNET MASK A subnet allows the flow of network traffic between hosts to be segregated based on a network configuration. By organizing hosts into logical groups, subnetting can improve network security and performance. Perhaps the most recognizable aspect of subnetting is the subnet mask. Like IP addresses, a subnet mask contains four bytes (32bits) and is often written using the same “dotted-decimal” notation.
    • APPLYING A SUBNET MASK A subnet mask neither works like an IP address, nor does it exists independently from them. Instead, subnet masks accompany an address and the two values work together. Applying the subnet mask to an IP address splits the address into two parts, an “extended network address” and a host address. For a subnet mask to be valid, its leftmost bits must be set to ‘1’. For example, 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 is an invalid subnet mask because the leftmost bit is set to ‘0’. Conversely, the rightmost bits in a valid subnet mask must be set to ‘0’ not ‘1’. Therefore, 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 is invalid. PUBLIC ADDRESS Public IP addresses are IP addresses that are visible to the public. Because these IP addresses are public, they allow other people to know about and access your computer, like a Web server. In some cases, you do not want people to access your computer or you want to restrict certain individuals from accessing your computer or server. PRIVATE ADDRESSES The IP standard defines specific address ranges within Class A, Class B and Class C reserved for use by private networks (intranets). The table below lists these reserved ranges of the IP address space.
    • Class Private start address Private finish address A 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255 B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255 C 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255 Nodes are effectively free to use addresses in the private ranges I they are not connected to the Internet, or if they reside behind firewalls or other gateways that use Networks Address Translation (NAT). BROADCAST ADDRESS In computer networking, a broadcast address is an IP address that allowa information to be sent to all machines on a given subnet rather than a specific machine. That exact notation can vary by operating system. Generally, the broadcast address is found by taking the bit complement of the subnet mask and then OR-ing it bitwise with the IP address. Example: to broadcast a packet to an entire class B subnet using a private IP address space, the broadcast address would be 172.16.255.255. Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) Classless Inter Domain Routing. CISR was invented several years ago to kep the internet from running out of IP addresses. CIDR was introduced to improve both address space utilization and routing scalability in the internet. It was needed because of the rapid growth of the Internet and growth of the IP routing tables held in the Internet
    • routers The “classfull” system of allocating IP addresses can be very wasteful; anyone who could reasonably show a need for more that 254 host addresses was given a Class B address Block of 65533 host addresses. Notation To convert an IP dotted-quad address to binary, take each decimal number of the dotted-quad and look up the binary equivalent in the Binary Convrsion Table below. You will have a 32-bit binary numbers as the result. Subnetting Subnetting, as this process is more commonly called, is a remarkably logical and mathematical process. Understanding the mathematics of subnetting helps you develop and implement efficient subnetting schemes that make better use of available address spaces. That is the explicit goal of subnetting to use an address space more efficiently. A class A, B, or C TCP/IP network can be further divided, or subnetted, by a system administrator. This becomes necessary as you reconcile the logical address scheme of the Internet (abstract world of IP addresses and subnets) with the physical networks in use by the real world. What are the valid hosts? Valid hosts are the numbers between the subnets, omitting the all 0s and all 1s. For example, if 16 is the subnet number and 31 is the broadcast address, then 17-30 is the valid host range – it’s always the numbers between the subnet address and the broadcast address.
    • Fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) The first significant feature retrofitted to the IPv4 address space was the introduction of support for a third tier in its architecture. “Classical IP: The Way It Was,” the IP address space features a two-tier hierarchy in which each address consists of a network address and a host address within its 32-bit structure. Such flatness distinctly limits scalability in a number of ways. Example Step 1: Router R1 needs 20 network addresses. So, 5 2 = 32-2 (2 is subtract form 32 because in FLSM all 0’s and all 1’s are not consider) = 30 Step 2: Now borrow 5 bit from the host part of the IP address. 172.16.00000 000.00000000 Step 3:So the subnet mask is change, now new subnet mask is 255.255. (128+64+32+26+8) 000.00000000 255.255.248.0 Step 4: After calculating subnet mask, the first network address is Put 1 at the rightmost bit of the network part, like 172.16.00001 000.00000000 IP is 172.168.8.0/21 (CIDR is 21 because 8 bit + 8 bit + 5 bit) Step 5: Now the first host address of this network address is
    • 172.16.8.00000001 = 172.16.8.1/21 (Fast host address) 172.16.8.00000010 = 172.16.8.2/21 172.16.8.00000011 = 172.16.8.3/21 . . . 172.16.8.11111110 = 172.16.8.254/21 (last host address) Step 6: Second network calculation Put 1 in the second bit if the network part like, 172.16.00010 000.00000000 So IP: 172.16.16.0 / 21 Step 7: Go to step 5 for host address calculation Step 8: Do the same method for R2 router.
    • Variable – length subnet mask (VLSM) A VLSM is a sequence of numbers of variable length that streamlines packet routing within the subnets of a proprietary network. A subnet can be a geographically defined local area network (LAN). Alternatively a subnet may define security boundaries, departmental boundaries, multicast or hardware security parameters. Step1: In VLSM, considered the maximum number of host present in a network. Here R2 router has maximum number of hosts. So, requirements is 50 hosts 6 2 = 64 Step2: So, we have to leave 6 bit form the host part of the IP 172.168.00000000.00 000000 So, the subnet mask is 8+8+8+2 = 26 Now network address for R2 is 172.168.0.0 / 26 Step3: nd Now calculate the 2 network address from 172.168.0.0 / 26 172.168.00000000.00000000 / 26 Put 1 at the last bit of network part. 172.168.00000000.01000000 / 26 nd So 2 network address is 172.168.0.64 / 26 Step4: nd Now we calculate the network address of R1 for 2 network address.
    • 172.168.00000000.01000000 / 26 Requirement of R1 is 28 hosts. 5 2 = 32 172.168.00000000.010 00000 So, network address for r1 is 172.168.0.64 / 27 Step5: rd Repeat step 3 for calculate 3 network address and step 4 for calculate network address between two routers. Wildcard Masks You will often come across Wildcard masks, particularly if you work with OSPF and / or Cisco routers. The use of wildcard masks is most prevalent when building Access Control Lists (ACLs) on Cisco routers. ACLs are filters and make use of wildcard masks to define the scope of the address filter. Although ACL wildcard masks are used with other protocols, we will concentrate on IP here. The Routing Routing is a process by which router consider the best path to the destined device amongst to the laded physical circuit to reach the remote site. The election of the best path depends on various parameters and metrics, like bandwidth, time delay, HOP count, congestion and many more. The whole result after the election of a best path that is also known as route is captured or stored under the router memory in a form of Table, i.e. known as Routing Table.
    • If your network has no routers, then it should be apparent that you are not routing. Routers route traffic to all the networks in your internet work. To be able to route packets, a route must know , at a minimum, the following:  Destination Address  Neighbour routers from which it can learn about remote networks  Possible routes to all remote network  How to maintain and verify routing information. The router learns about remote networks from neighbour routers or from an administrator. The router then builds a routing table (a map of the internetwork) that describes how to find the remote networks. If a network is directly connected, then the router already knows how to get to it. PATH DETERMINATION Routing protocols use metrics to evaluate what path will be the best for a packet to travel. A metric is a standard of measurement, such as path bandwidth, that is used by routing algorithms to determine the optimal path to a destination. To aid the process of path determination, routing algorithms initialize and maintain routing tables, which contain route information. Route information varies depending on the routing algorithm used. Routing algorithms fill routing tables with a variety of information. Destination/next hop association tell a router that a particular destination can be reached optimally by sending the packet to a particular router representing the “next hop” on the way to the final destination. Routing Metrics Routing tables contain information used by switching software to select the best route. But how, specifically, are routing tables built? What is the specific nature of the information that they contain? How do routing algorithms determine that one route is preferable to others?
    • Routing algorithms have used many different metrics to determine the best route. Sophisticated routing algorithms can base route selection on multiple metrics, combining them in a single (hybrid) metric. All the following metrics have been used: Path Length Path length is the most common routing metric. Some routing protocols allow network administrators to assign arbitrary costs to each network link. In this case, path length is the sum of the costs associated with each link traversed. Reliability Reliability in the context of routing algorithms, refers to dependability (usually described in terms of the bit-error rate) of each network link. Some network links might go down more often than others. After a network fails, certain network links might be repaired more easily or more quickly than other links. Delay Delay , Routing delay refers to the length of time required to move a packet from source to destination through the internetwork. Delay depends on many factors, including the bandwidth of intermediate network links, the port queues at each router along the way, network congestion on all intermediate network links, the physical distance to be traveled.
    • Bandwidth Bandwidth refers to the available traffic capacity of a link; all other things being equal, a 10Mbps Ethernet link would be preferable to a 64-kbps leased line. Although bandwidth is a rating of the maximum attainable throughput on a link, routes through links with greater bandwidth do not necessarily provide better routes than routes through slower links. Load Load refers to the degree to which a network resource, such as a router, is busy. Load can be calculated in a variety of ways, including CPU utilization and packets processed per second. Monitoring these parameters on a continual basis can be resource-intensive itself. Communication cost another important metric, especially because some companies may not care about performance as much as they care about operating expenditures. Configuring IP routing Once you create an internetwork by connect LANs and WANs to a router, you will need to configure the router with the IP addresses. And after that to route the data packets you have to configure IP routing properly using 1 of 3 methods. Router Network address Interface Address R1 192.168.10.0 F0/1 192.168.10.1
    • R1 192.168.20.0 F0/0 192.168.20.1 R1 172.16.0.0 S0/0 172.16.0.1 R1 172.17.0.0 S0/1 172.17.0.1 R2 172.18.0.0 FO/0 172.18.0.1 R2 172.17.0.0 S0/0 [DCE] 172.17.0.2 R3 172.16.0.0 S0/0 [DCE] 172.16.0.2 R3 172.19.0.0 F0/0 172.19.0.1 871W 192.168.20.0 Vlan1 192.168.20.2 871W 192.168.30.0 Dot11radio0 192.168.30.1 1242AP 192.168.10.0 BVI1 192.168.10.2 R1 Configuration For the router R1 we have to configure total 4 interfaces with IP address along with the host name for each router to identify easily. When we start configuring a router with IP address and host name why not configure the banner and password for the same? It better to adapt the habit to configure a full, it will help you alter on.
    • R2 Configuration Now we are ready to configure the next router that is R2. we have to configure router R2 in the same way as we configured Router R1, only difference is, in router R2 we will not give the same IP addresses as well as the same Hostname and password along with Banner and description. Static Routing Static Routing is not really a protocol, simply the process of manually entering routes into the routing table via a configuration file that is loaded when the routig device starts up. As an alternative, these routes can be entered by a network administrator who configures the routes. Since these routes don’t change after they are configured (unless a human changes them) they are called ‘static’ routes. Static Routing has the following Benefits:  You can use cheaper router due to less processor overhead than that of dynamic routing, where the processor’s overhead is maximum. The processor overhead is less because all the routes are configured manually by the network administrator, so router need not bother about finding or establishing route.  The cost for ISP link is saved, because in case of static routing, router doesn’t take unnecessary WAN link bandwidth for route convergence (convergence means, upgrading, finding or establishing a route in the Routing Table of a router.).  It adds security because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain networks only.
    • Static Routing has the following Demerits  The administrator have some sound knowledge about the network topology to configure a router for static routing, because administrator is only liable to give the route information to the router to deliver data packets from or to a Network.  At the time of Network expansion, the new network’s information or route should provided to the entire router’s routing table by hand by administrator.  It’s not a handy for the large network, because maintaining would be a full-time job in time. DESTINATION NETWORK ADDRESS: The network which the administrator wants to place into the routing table. NET MASK: The subnet masks which is used by the destination network. NEXT-HOP ADDRESS: The address of the next HOP router that will receive the packet and forward the same to the destine network. This is a router interface that’s on a directly connected network. Before going to configure the static route check the next HOP using the PING command and the PING utility must successes. If you configure wrong HOP address or the
    • router interface to that router is down, the static route will show UP in the router’s configuration but not in the routing table. EXITINTERFACE: It is used in place of the next-hop address if you want, and shows up a directly connected route. ADMINISTRATICE _DISTANCE: It is a number which represents the weight of a routing process or you may say that the priority of routing algorithm. Like Static Route has the AD of 1 and directly connected route has AD0 by default. According to the AD the router will judge which routing methods is to be use to determine and creating the routing table. PERMANENT: If the interface is logically down or the Next HOP router can’t be communicated by the source router, then the entry for the route automatically will be discarded. To preserve the route at any circumstances we can use the [permanent]. DEFAULT ROUTING:
    • A default route, also known as the gateway of last resort, is the network route used by a outer when no other known route exists for a given IP packet’s destination address. All the packets for destinations not known by the router’s routing table are sent to the default route. This route generally leads to another router, which treats the packet the same way. If the route is known, the packet will get forwarded to the known route. If not, the packet is forwarded to the default-route of that router which generally leads to another router. And so on. Each router traversal adds a one-hop distance to the route. The default route in IPv4 (in CIDR notation) is 0.0.0.0 / 0, often clled the quad-zero routes. Since the subnet mask given is /0, it effectively specifies no network, and is the “shortest” match possible. A route lookup that doesn’t match anything will naturally fall back onto this route. Similarly, in IPv6 the default address is given by ::/0. DYNAMIC ROUTING: Dynamic routing protocols are software applications that dynamically discover network destinations and how to get to them. A router will ‘learn’ routes to all directly connected networks first. It will then learn routes from other routers that run the same routing protocol. The router will then sort through its list of routes and select one or more ‘best’ routes for each network destination it knows or has learned. ROUTING PROTOCOL: A routing protocol is used by a router to dynamically find al, the networks in the internetwork and to ensure that the all the routers have the same routing table. Basically a routing protocol determines the path of a packet through an internetwork. Examples of routing protocols are IGRP, BGP, RIP, OSPF etc. ROUTED PROTOCOL:
    • When all routers know about the internetwork paths a routed protocol can be used to send user data packets through the established path. Routed protocols are assigned to an interface and determine the method of packet delivery. Examples of routed protocols are IPv4 and IPv6 and IPX etc. ROUTING PROTOCOL BASICS: Before looking deeper into RIP, there are several important things that you need to know about routing protocols. You need to have an in-depth knowledge about administrative distances, the three different kinds of routing protocols and finally routing loops. We will look at each of these in details in the following chapters. ADMINISTRATIVE DISTANCE: The administrative distance is used to judge the level of reliability of converged routing information election the best route to a neighbouring or remote router. An administrative distance is represented by numeric from 0 to 255, where the 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traffic can pass through it. If a router receives two updates listing the same remote network, the first thing the router checks it the AD. If one of advertise route contained with lower AD than other, the route with lower AD will placed in the routing table. ROUTING PROTOCOLS: The routing protocols can be divided in to three subsequent groups, they are described.
    • DISTANCE VECTOR: The distance is the main parameter for the distance vector routing protocols, means the best path for the remote network is only be judging by the Distance. Each time when a packet passes through a router is called a HOP, and this HOP is counted as the metric for the best route election or selection. LINKSTATE: In link state protocols, also called shortest-path-first protocols, each router creates three separate tables. One of these table get track of directly attached neighbour information, one determines the physical orientation (topology) of the entire internetwork, and the last one is used as the Routing Table. HYBRID: Hybrid protocols used both aspects of Link-state as well as Distance Vector algorithm. EIGRP is an example of Hybrid routing protocol. DTE: Data Terminal Equipment: any device located at the user end of a user-network interface serving as destination, a source or both. DTE includes devices such as multiplexers, routers, protocols translators and computers. The
    • connection to a data network is made through data communication equipment (DCE) such as a modem, using the clocking signals generated by that device. DCE: Data Communication Equipment ( as defined by the EIA) or data circuit-terminating equipment (as defined by the ITU-T): The mechanism and links of a communications network that make up the network portion of the user-tonetwork interface, such a modems. The DCE supplies the physical connection to the network, forwards traffic, and provides a clocking signal to synchronize data transmission between DTE and DCE devices. ROUTING INFORMATON PROTOCOL: The routing information protocol, or RIP, as it is more commonly called, is one of the most enduring of all routing protocols. RIP is also one of the more easily confused protocols because a variety of RIP-like routing protocols proliferated, some of which even used the same name! RIP and the myriad RIP-like protocols based on the set of algorithms that use distance vectors to mathematically compare routes to identify the best path to any given destination address. ROUTING UPDATES: RIP sends routing-update message at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. When a router receives a routing update that includes changes to an entry, it updates its routing table to reflect the new route.
    • RIP ROUTING METRIC: RIP uses a single routing metric (hop count) to measure the distance between the siurce and a destination network, each hop in a path from source to destination is assigned a hop count value, which is typically 1. RIP TIMERS: RIP uses numerous timers to regulate it performance. These include a routing – update timer, a route time out timer, and a route-flush timer. The routing-update timer clocks the interval between periodic routing updates. ROUTE UPDATE TIMER: Sets the interval (typically 30 seconds) between periodic routing updates in which the router sends a complete copy of its routing table out to all neighbours. ROUTE INVALID TIMER: Determines the length of time that must elapse (180 seconds) before a router determines that a route has become invalid. It will come to this conclusion if it hasn’t heard any updates about a particular route for that period. HOLDDOWN TIMER:
    • This sets the amount of time during which routing information is suppressed. Routes will enter into the holddown state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is unreachable. The default is 180 seconds. ROUTE FLUSH TIMER: Sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its removal from the routing table (240 seconds). Before its removal from the table, the router notifies its neighbours of the route’s impending demise. The value of the route invalid timer must be less than that of the route flush timer. CONFIGURING RIP ROUTIING: To configure RIP routing, just turn on the protocol with the ROUTER RIP command and tell the RIP routing protocol which networks to advertise. That’s it. Let’s configure our three router internertwork (Scenario 3) with RIP routing. RIPv1 RIPv2 1. Distance Vector 1. Distance Vector 2. Maximum hop count 15 2. Maximum hop count 15 3. Classfull 3. Classless 4. Broadcast based 4. Uses multicast 224.0.0.9 5. Do not support VLSM 5. Supports VLSM networks 6. No authentication 6. Allows for MD5 authentication
    • 7. No support for discontiguous networks. 7. Supports discontiguous networks. MAXIMUM HOP COUNT: The routing loop problem can continue to the infinity, the main cause of this due to broadcasts the entire routing table to all active interfaces and wrong information being communicated and propagated throughout the internetwork. Without some form of intervention, the hop count increases indefinitely each time a packet passes through a router. SPLIT HORIZON: Split horizon is another solution to stop the routing kloop. This mechanism reduces erroneous routing information and routing overhead in a distance-vector network by enforcing the rule that routing information cannot be sent back in the direction from which it was received. ROUTE POISONING: Another way to stop routing loops caused by fickle updates is route poisoning. For example, when NetC goes down, R5 initiates route poisoning by advertising NetC as 16, or reachable (sometimesreferred to as infinite).
    • This poisoning of the route to NetC keeps R3 from being susceptible to incorrect updates about the route to NetC. HOLD DOWNS: A holddown is prevented by regular update messages from reinstating a route that is going up and down. This is called flapping. When a serial link is losing connectivity and then coming back up this happens. The entire network could be brought down by that one flapping interference if there was no way to stabilize this. TEL NET: While the initial configuration of your Cisco router using the console port and a rollover cable may be necessary, you will eventually want to access routers on your network using telnet sessions. Since telnet is an IP-based application, your routers will need to be configured with atleast one valid and reachable IP address to use this method. Also remember that in order to connect to a router using telnet, that router will need a virtual terminal (vty) password configured. Cisco2501#telnet 192.168.1.45 Trying 192.168.1.45…Open [Connection to accra closed by foreign host] Cisco2501# CISCO DISCOVERY PROTOCOL (CDP): The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a proprietary layer 2 network protocol developed by Cisco Systems which runs on most Cisco equipment and is used to share information about other directly connected Cisco equipment
    • such as the operating system version and IP address. CDO can also be used for On Demand Routing (ODR) which is a method of including routing information in CDP announcements so that dynamic routing protocols do not need to be used in simple networks. Cisco Discovery Protocol CDP) is primarily used to obtain protocol address of neighbouring devices and discover the platform of those devices. CDP can also be used to show information about the interfaces your router uses. CDP runs on all media that supports Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP), including local-area network (LAN), Frame Relay, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) physical media. CDP runs over the data link layer only. CDP DEFAULT CONFIGURATION FEATURE DEFAULT VALUE CDP global enable state Enabled CDP pot enable state Enabled on all ports CDP message interval 60 seconds CDP holdtime 180 seconds Router_2#sh cdp Global CDP information:
    • Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds Sending a holdtime value of 180 seconds Setting the Holdtime and Timer Use the following commands to set CDP timer and holdtime values. Router_2#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z Router_2 (config) #cdp timer 90 Router_2 (config) #cdpholdtime 360 SHOW CDP ENTRY The show cdp entry [device id] command shows more information about the specified neighbour. Router_2#show cdp entry Router1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • Router modes Modes in routers 1. User Mode or Console Mode 2. Priveledge mode or enable mode 3. Global configuration sign of mode router> router# router(config)# Command to go at priviledge mode Router>enable Command to go at Global configuration mode Router#configure terminal Command to go to previous mode Router# exit User mode :- It allow an administrator to perform very few commands. One can only verify statistics in user mode. One cannot see or change the router configuration. Priviledge mode:- It enables user to view and change the configuration. Global configuration :- It allows user to change those router configuration that effects the entire router.
    • Basic commands in Routers Giving ip address on Serial port Config# int s0/0 Config# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Clock rate 64000 No shut Giving ip address on Fast Ethernet port Config# int f0/0 Config# ip address 13.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 No shut Setting banner Config# banner motd # Message# Ctrl z Changing hostname of router Config# Host name newhostname Ctrl z
    • Setting password Setting enable password Config#enable password talvinder Ctrl z Setting enable(secret) password Config#enable secret talvinder Ctrl z Removing password Config# No enable password Ctrl z Or Config# No enable secret Ctrl z Setting console password Config# line console 0 Password talvinder Login Ctrl z Viewing password # Show running_config
    • How to see the Ipaddress(individually) #show int s0/0 (serial port) #show int f0/0 (Ethernet) How to see ip address in brief manner #show ipint brief How to see protocols #show protocols How to clear counters #clear counters s0/0 Internal configuration components RAM – contains dynamic/ running configuration NVRAM-Contains back up of configuration(start uo configuration) Flash- Contains copy of cisco IOS ROM- contains subset of IOS, bootable IOS image.
    • Router startup sequence 1.Bootstrap program loaded from ROM 2.Bootstrap runs the POST 3.Bootstrap locates IOS in flash. 4.IOS is expanded and then loaded into RAM 5.once IOS is loaded into RAM, it looks for startup config in NVRAM. 6.If found the configuration is loaded into RAM.
    • REFERENCES 1.www.cisco.com 2.www.quizlet.com 3.www.cram.org