Automatic RFID Voting System with user authentication
• Many secure systems, such as contactless credit cards and secure entrance
systems are built with contactless smartcard RFID technologies.
• This project includes Low Frequency RFID Reader and transmitter working
at 434 MHz frequency to fetch the information from the user to process it
through microcontroller. Then microcontroller takes the decision whether
to cast the vote of a particular user or not.
• The RFID tag is used to authenticate the voter for voting in the election.
The voter can vote only once after that the tag will be disabled for further
voting in the same election. It is a much secured way of voting in
democratic countries like India.
• The main aim of the project i.e. RFID VOTING SYSTEM is to
provide more security in authentication of a candidate
contesting in elections by providing a unique identity to every
user using the RFID TECHNOLOGY
• Each and every user uses his RFID for casting his vote in the
procedure of electing his choice of candidate from the list of
candidates contesting in the elections. This is purely to
eradicate rigging which will be helpful to elect the genuine
candidates on the basis of number of votes polled to them.
• 1. Legislative Assembly Elections.
• 2. Student union Elections.
• 3. Labor union Elections in factories, and many
• Here is the basic block diagram of the project telling
about the basic working of the system. Card is the user
identity equipped with radio frequency transmitter; the
transmitted sequence is then sent and received by the
receiver circuit which is in the reader module.
• The reader decodes the identity and sent towards the
controller, here the controller check in the database for
authenticity of the user identity and if identified then
allows the user to cast the vote otherwise displays an
error message “illegal user”. If any user tries to cast
vote again it will display “already voted” and disables
the voting circuitry.
The working of this project can be divided into 3
parts with sequence of their work
• Transmitter Module (Voter Identity card)
• Receiver module
• Controller and Balloting unit
• This radio frequency (RF) transmission system employs Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) with
transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operating at 434 MHz The transmitter module takes serial
input and transmits these signals through RF. The transmitted signals are received by the
• The receiver, upon receiving these signals, sends them to the decoder IC (HT12D)
through pin2. The serial data is received at the data pin (DIN, pin14) of HT12D. The
decoder then retrieves the original parallel format from the received serial data
• When no signal is received at data pin of HT12D, it remains in standby
mode and consumes very less current (less than 1μA) for a voltage of 5V.
When signal is received by receiver, it is given to DIN pin (pin14) of HT12D.
On reception of signal, oscillator of HT12D gets activated. IC HT12D then
decodes the serial data and checks the address bits. If these bits match
with the local address pins (pins 1-8) of HT12D, then it puts the data bits
on its data pins (pins 10-13) and makes the VT pin high. An LED is
connected to VT pin (pin17) of the decoder. This LED works as an indicator
to indicate a valid transmission. The corresponding output is thus
generated at the data pins of decoder IC. A signal is sent by lowering any
or all the pins 10-13 of HT12E and corresponding signal is received at
receiver’s end (at HT12D). Address bits are configured by using the by
using the first 8 pins of both encoder and decoder ICs. To send a particular
signal, address bits must be same at encoder and decoder ICs. By
configuring the address bits properly, a single RF transmitter can also be
used to control different RF receivers of same frequency.
• This unit consists of a microcontroller as control unit and some switches as
balloting unit. The function of the control unit is to receive the decoded
sequence from the receiver unit and check for authenticity of the voter by
comparing with the existing database at the controller flash memory.
• Now if the voter is authorized it enables the Balloting
unit to cast the vote, and displays the name of
candidates at the display device and if the user is not
authorized it displays a message “Illegal user” at the
screen and disables the balloting unit.
• Once the voter had casted his vote and tries to cast
again with same identity it shows a message saying
• The balloting unit consists of some push-button
switches to cast the vote with names/signs of the
• We accept that our next generation will develop
this RFID VOTING SYSTEM with more secure,
easily adaptable and less power consumption.
• The RF ID cards can be miniaturized by using
NANO SMT which will not need any power source
for ID cards.
• Database can be increased by using peripheral
memory device, system provides flexibility.
• No of candidates can be increased by increasing
I/O ports of the controller.