Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

my It report


Published on

Published in: Entertainment & Humor
  • Be the first to comment

my It report

  1. 1. Chapter one1.0 IntroductionStudent industrial work experience scheme (S.I.W.E.S) is a six-month industrialwork experience as requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science degree incomputer science department of the Benue state university makurdi ,thisreport contains major report on some of the things I learnt in the area of workexperience at Rehoboth ICT Academy makurdi Benue state.1.1 About Rehoboth ICT AcademyThe name of the organization is Rehoboth ICT academy location is at no.12Onitsha street makurdi, Benue state. The company was established in 1996 withthe objective of bringing information technology to the nook and cranny of thestate reaching out to the people from all walks of life especially in oursecondary and tertiary institutions across the state and the country at large.Rehoboth ICT academy is a computer and software engineering appreciationorganization, its establishment has come to redeem computer education andinformation technology problem in the state and country at large.The establishment is being managed by computer professionals who are reallycommitted to ensuring a hitch- free, fulfilled and successful program.Rehoboth’s quest for quality in all her engagement has immensely driven thecompany in staff team selection.Rehoboth ICT academy is getting popular of her dedication to quality service.1.2 Rehoboth sales and servicesThe computer industry requires a great deal of experience. Installing new andservicing existing systems are a significant part of Rehoboth ICT business. The 1|Page
  2. 2. organization currently has a total man power of 18 personnel, out of which 8 areprofessionals,Here are some of the services offered by the organization.* Software Engineering.* Information and communication technology.* Networking (internet and intranet).* Hardware maintenance and repairs.* Web designing and hosting.* E-library* Publications i.e. students journals projects typing and binding etc.* Diploma certificates on information technology, computer education and otherrelated courses for groups and individuals.* Vast and satellite (purchase and installation.1.3 Facilities at Rehoboth ICT AcademyThe organization has a head office at No. 12 Onitsha Street, opposite cool offpark makurdi Benue state, a branch office is at No. 7 old Otukpo Road Highlevel opposite Mr. Biggs fast foods Makurdi Benue state. Her sitting space forstudents is 75 in both centers including her working personnel, a plant capacityof 7.5KVA and a generator of a 2.7 KVA is installed on ground 24 computersconnected to the net 1 printing machine,1 company vehicle and a motorcycle.The computers serve as a basis for students learning most especially those onindustrial attachment, where I too had a lot of experiences through hardware andother basic computer appreciation. 2|Page
  3. 3. The name of the chief executive officer is Engineer B.O Animashaun who wasalso my internal supervisor.Areas of industrial trainingI had my industrial training in software development and computer networkingI learnt how to design a web site, writing a project using J2EE (java 2 enterpriseedition also in networking how to install, maintain and troubleshoot a computernetwork problem for at least a small business establishment.1.4 Challenges faced as a student on ITThe challenges I had faced on the job as an industrial training students (IT) were How to apply the theory aspect of software development to practical, firstly, I could not create a home page of a website. secondly, I could not create a project in java enterprise edition(J2EE) Lastly, I could not troubleshoot a small net work connectivity problem I was able to resolve all these with the aid of my internal supervisor and his instructors just to mention a few of the challenges. 3|Page
  4. 4. 1.5 The Organogram of Rehoboth ICT Academy MD/CEO G M GM (Accounts) (Admin & Operations) Manager(Finance/Acct.) Manager Manager Manager Café 2 Manager Café 1 Computer IT Training Manager Typist Bus. OperationsCa fé Assistant . mp 2 Co uc tor uc . str mp 3 p. tor om ctor 1 tr In C o C u Ins Typist tr Ins Café Assistant r opie i st1 Typ ist2 t3 4 h otoc tor. r Typ pis Typist P pera cto r Ty O to r g tru k/HM to rs t ruc min In s e tw t ruc othe Ins ram N In s b & g Pro We 4|Page
  5. 5. CHAPTER TWOSummary of Experiences Obtained 2.1 Website DesignA website is a set of related WebPages containing content such as texts, images,videos, audios, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessiblevia a network such as the internet or a private LAN through an internet addressknown as a URL (universal resource locator). A publicly accessible websitescollectively constitute the World Wide Web.WebpageA webpage is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed withformatting instructions of hypertext markup language (HTML, XHTML). Awebpage may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable anchors.WebPages are accessed and transported with the hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP secure, HTTPS) toprovide security and privacy for the use of the webpage content. The user’sapplication often a web browser renders the page content according to itsHTML markup instructions into a display terminal.2.2 Types of Website by Purpose A personal website. A commercial website. A government website. A non-profitable website.It could be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, and istypically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain 5|Page
  6. 6. a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites asperceived by the user may sometimes be blurred.Websites are written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML and are accessedusing a software interface classified as a user agent. WebPages can be viewed orotherwise accessed from a range of remote computer-based and internet enableddevices of various sizes including desktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cellphones.A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also calledHTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) server and the terms can also be referred tothe software that runs on those system and retrieves and delivers the WebPagesin response to request from the websites users.Apache is the most commonly used web server software2.3 Types of Website by Built* Static website* Dynamic websiteStatic WebsiteA static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format thatis sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded in hypertext markuplanguage (HTTM). Simple forms include, marketing websites such as five pagewebsites or brochure websites are often staticWebsites, because they present predefined static information to be used.This may include information about a company, its products and servicesthrough text, photos, animations, audio/videos, interactive menus andnavigation.This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors similarto handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients. A staticWebsite will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extendedperiod of time. Although the website owner may make updates 6|Page
  7. 7. Periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and other content thatmay require basic website design skill and software. A static website may still have dynamic behavior provided that, this ishandled entirely client side (i.e. within the browser). This may include suchfeatures as java script image zoom feature to display photographs.In a static web site visitors are not able to control information they receive andinstead settle for whatever content the website owner has decided to offer at thattime information’s are edited using Text editors, such as note pad or text field, where content and HTMLmarkup are manipulated directly within the editor program. WYSIWYG(this, I call what you see is what you get) offline editors suchasMicrosoft front page and Adobe dream weaver.etc.Dynamic WebsiteA dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently andautomatically, based on certain criteria.Dynamic website can have two types of dynamic activity code and contentdynamic code is invisible or fully displayed.Dynamic code.A website with dynamic code refers to its construction or how it is built, andmore specifically refers to the code used to create a single web page. A dynamicweb page is generated on the fly by piecing together certain blocks of code,procedures or routines. A dynamically generated web page would recall variousbits of information from a database and put them together in a pre-definedformat to present the reader with a coherent page. It interacts with users in avariety of ways including by reading cookies recognizing users previous 7|Page
  8. 8. history, session variables, server side variables etc., or by using directinteraction (form elements, mouse over’s, etc.). A site can display the currentstate of a dialogue between users, monitor a changing situation, or provideinformation in some way personalized to the requirements of the individualuser.Dynamic ContentThe second type is a website with dynamic content displayed in plain view.Variable content is displayed dynamically on the fly based on certain criteria,usually by retrieving content stored in a database.A website with dynamic content refers to how its messages, text, images andother information are displayed on the web page and more specifically how itscontent changes at any given moment. The web page content varies based oncertain criteria, either pre-defined rules or variable user input. For example, awebsite with a database of news articles can use a pre-defined rule which tells itto display all news articles for todays date. This type of dynamic website willautomatically show the most current news articles on any given date. Anotherexample of dynamic content is when a retail website with a database of mediaproducts allows a user to input a search request for the keyword Beatles. Inresponse, the content of the web page will spontaneously change the way itlooked before, and will then display a list of Beatles products like CDs, DVDsand books.2.4 Javas 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE)J2EE means Java 2 Enterprise Edition. The functionality of J2EE is developingmultitier web-based applications .The J2EE platform is consists of a set ofservices, application programming interfaces (APIs), and protocols. 8|Page
  9. 9. These Four Components of are the J2EE application Application clients’ components. Servelet and JSP technology are web components. Business components (JavaBeans). Resource adapter components Types of J2EE clients. Applets Application clients Java Web Start-enabled clients, by Java Web Start technology. Wireless clients, based on MIDP technology.web component.Java Servelet and Java Server Pages technology components are webcomponents. Servelets are Java programming language that dynamically receiverequests and make responses. JSP pages execute as servelets but allow a morenatural approach to creating static content.Java server faces (JSFs).Java Server Faces (JSF) is a user interface (UI) designing framework for Javaweb applications. JSF provide a set of reusable UI components, standard forweb applications.JSF is based on MVC design pattern. It automatically savesthe form data to server and populates the form date when display at client side.Java 2 platform Enterprise Edition (J2EE) is a java platform designed for themainframe scale computing typical of large enterprises. Sun micro systems 9|Page
  10. 10. (together with industry partners such as IBM (international business machine))design J2EE to simplify application development in a thin client tieredenvironment) what is a thin client? A thin client is a program interface to theapplication that does not have any operations like query of databases, executecomplex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. J2EE simplifiesapplication development and decreases the need for programming andprogrammer training by creating standard reusable modular components and byenabling the tier to handle many aspects of programming automatically. J2EEinclude many components of the java 2 platform standard edition (J2SE). The java development kit (JDK) is included as the core language package. Write once Run anywhere technology is included to ensure portability. Support is provided for Common Object Request broker Architecture(CORBA), a predecessor of Enterprise JavaBeans(EJB)so that java objects can communicate with CORBA objects both locally and over a network through its interface broker Java database connectivity 2.0 (JDBC) the Java equivalent to open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is included as the standard interface for Java databases. A security model is included to protect data both locally and in web- based applications. J2EE also includes a number of components added to the J2SE model, such as the following Full support is included for Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) which is a server based technology for the delivery of program components in an 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. Enterprise Environment it supports the extensible Markup language (XML) And has enhanced deployment and security features. The java servelet API (application program interface) enhances for developers without requiring a graphical user interface(GUI) Java server pages (JSP) is the equivalent to Microsoft’s’ Active server pages (ASP) and is used for dynamic web enabled data access and manipulation. The J2EE architecture consists of four major elements: The J2EE Application programming model is used to facilitate the development of multi- tier thin client applications. The j2EE platform includes necessary policies and APIs such as the java servelets and java message service(JMS) which is used for simple massage Transfer protocol (SMTP) over a web service. The J2EE compatibility test suit ensures that J2EE products are compatible with the platform standard. The J2EE reference implementation explains J2EE capabilities and provides its operational definition. A JNDI name is the name the J2EE server uses to hook enterprise beans .In your code when you look up an enterprise bean, you supply statements similar to your code.2.5 Netwoking.Computer NetworkA computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection ofcomputers and devices interconnected by communications channels that 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. facilitate communications among users and allows users to share resources.Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. Acomputer network allows sharing of resources and information amonginterconnected devices.PurposeComputer networks can be used for a variety of purposes: * Facilitating communications. Using a network, people can communicateefficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, videotelephone calls, and video conferencing. * Sharing hardware. In a networked environment, each computer on anetwork may access and use hardware resources on the network, such asprinting a document on a shared network printer. * Sharing files, data, and information. In a network environment,authorized user may access data and information stored on other computers onthe network. The capability of providing access to data and information onshared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. * Sharing software. Users connected to a network may run applicationprograms on remote computers. * Information preservation. * Security.2.6 Network TopologyComputer networks may be classified according to the network topology uponwhich the network is based, such as bus network, star network, ring network, 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. mesh network. Network topology is the coordination by which devices in thenetwork are arranged in their logical relations to one another, independent ofphysical arrangement. Even if networked computers are physically placed in alinear arrangement and are connected to a hub, the network has a star topology,rather than a bus topology. In this regard the visual and operationalcharacteristics of a network are distinct. Networks may be classified based onthe method of data used to convey the data; these include digital and analoguenetworks.2.7 Types of Computer Networks Based on Physical ScopeCommon types of computer networks may be identified by their scale.Local Area NetworkA local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devicesin a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, officebuilding, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device onthe network is a node. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based onEthernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T also provide away to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phonelines and power lines).All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), becausethey are handling multiple subnets (the different colours). Those inside thelibrary, which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user deviceand a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. Itwould be more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top isa distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networkscustomer access routers. 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide AreaNetworks), include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range,and no need for leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the datatransfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100Gbit/s.Personal Area NetworkA personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communicationamong computer and different information technological devices close to oneperson. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personalcomputers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even videogame consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of aPAN typically extends to 10 meters. A wired PAN is usually constructed withUSB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth andinfrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.Home Area NetworkA home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used forcommunication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usuallya small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers andmobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internetaccess, often a broadband service through a CATV or Digital Subscriber Line(DSL) provider. It can also be referred to as an office area network (OAN).Wide Area NetworkA wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a largegeographic area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances,using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often uses transmission facilitiesprovided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologiesgenerally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: thephysical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.Campus NetworkA campus network is a computer network made up of an interconnection oflocal area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. The networkingequipments (switches, routers) and transmission media (optical fibre, copperplant, Cat5 cabling etc.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant /owner: an enterprise, university, government etc.).In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likelyto link a variety of campus buildings including; academic departments, theuniversity library and student residence halls.Metropolitan Area NetworkA Metropolitan area network is a large computer network that usually spans acity or a large campus. Sample EPN made of Frame relay WAN connectionsand dialup remote access. Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices andremote users.Enterprise Private NetworkAn enterprise private network is a network build by an enterprise tointerconnect various company sites, e.g., production sites, head offices, remoteoffices, shops, in order to share computer resources.Virtual Private NetworkA virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of thelinks between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data linklayer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunnelled through the largernetwork when this is the case. One common application is securecommunications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicitsecurity features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, forexample, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities overan underlying network with strong security features.VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service levelagreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider.Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point.InternetworkAn internetwork is the connection of two or more private computer networksvia a common routing technology (OSI Layer 3) using routers. The Internet isan aggregation of many internetworks; hence its name was shortened toInternet.2.8 Computer Network Basic Hardware ComponentsAll networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnectnetwork nodes, such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), Bridges, Hubs,Switches, and Routers. In addition, some method of connecting these buildingblocks is required, usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonlyCategory 5 cable). Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802.12) oroptical cable ("optical fibre").Network Interface Cards 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface card) is a piece ofcomputer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over acomputer network. It provides physical access to a networking medium andoften provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MACaddresses. Each network interface card has its unique id. This is written on achip which is mounted on the card.RepeatersA repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal, cleans it of unnecessarynoise, regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the otherside of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances withoutdegradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are requiredfor cable that runs longer than 100 meters. A repeater with multiple ports isknown as a hub. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model.Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This cancause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when thereare several repeaters in a row. Many network architectures limit the number ofrepeaters that can be used in a row (e.g. Ethernets 5-4-3 rule).BridgesA network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer(layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port onwhich the broadcast was received. However, bridges do not promiscuously copytraffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC addresses are reachablethrough specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address, it willsend traffic for that address to that port only.Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the sourceaddress of frames that it sees on various ports. Once a frame arrives through aport, its source address is stored and the bridge assumes that MAC address is 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. associated with that port. The first time that a previously unknown destinationaddress is seen, the bridge will forward the frame to all ports other than the oneon which the frame arrived.Bridges come in three basic types: * Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs) * Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers. * Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stationsto LANs.SwitchesA network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagram(chunks of data communication) between ports (connected cables) based on theMAC addresses in the packets.[9] A switch is distinct from a hub in that it onlyforwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than allports connected. A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as abroadcast domain. Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basisof MAC addresses. A switch normally has numerous ports, facilitating a startopology for devices, and cascading additional switches.[10] Some switches arecapable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels;these are called multi-layer switches. The term switch is used loosely inmarketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges, as well asdevices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e.g., a WebURL identifier).Routers 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networksby processing information found in the datagram or packet (Internet protocolinformation from Layer 3 of the OSI Model). In many situations, thisinformation is processed in conjunction with the routing table (also known asforwarding table). Routers use routing tables to determine what interface toforward packets (this can include the "null" also known as the "black hole"interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done forsaid data).FirewallsFirewalls are the most important aspect of a network with respect to security. Afirewalled system does not need every interaction or data transfer monitored bya human, as automated processes can be set up to assist in rejecting accessrequests from unsafe sources, and allowing actions from recognized ones. Thevital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constantincrease in cyber attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data, plantingviruses, etc.2.9 Difference between Network Hub, Switches and RouterSome technicians have a tendency to use the terms routers, hubs and switchesinterchangeably. One minute theyre talking about a switch. Two minutes latertheyre discussing router settings. Throughout all of this, though, theyre stilllooking at only the one box. Ever wonder what the difference is among theseboxes? The functions of the three devices are all quite different from oneanother, even if at times they are all integrated into a single device.HubA common connection point to devices in a network. Hubs are commonly usedto connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LANcan see all packets.SwitchIn networks, is a device that filters and forwards packets between LANsegments. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes thenetwork layer (layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support anypacket protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switchedLANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs.RouterA device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to atleast two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP.snetwork. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or morenetworks connect. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine thebest path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP tocommunicate with each other and configure the best route between any twohosts.The Differences between Hubs, Switches, and Routers on the NetworkToday most routers have become something of a Swiss Army knife, combiningthe features and functionality of a router and switch/hub into a single unit. Soconversations regarding these devices can be a bit misleading — especially tosomeone new to computer networking.The functions of a router, hub and a switch are all quite different from oneanother, even if at times they are all integrated into a single device. Lets startwith the hub and the switch since these two devices have similar roles on thenetwork. Each serves as a central connection for all of your network equipmentand handles a data type known as frames. Frames carry your data. When a 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. frame is received, it is amplified and then transmitted on to the port of thedestination PC. The big difference between these two devices is in the methodin which frames are being delivered.In a hub, a frame is passed along or "broadcast" to every one of its ports. Itdoesnt matter that the frame is only destined for one port. The hub has no wayof distinguishing which port a frame should be sent to. Passing it along to everyport ensures that it will reach its intended destination. This places a lot of trafficon the network and can lead to poor network response times.Additionally, a 10/100Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and everyone of its ports. So when only one PC is broadcasting, it will have access to themaximum available bandwidth. If, however, multiple PCs are broadcasting,then that bandwidth will need to be divided among all of those systems, whichwill degrade performance.A switch, however, keeps a record of the MAC addresses of all the devicesconnected to it. With this information, a switch can identify which system issitting on which port. So when a frame is received, it knows exactly which portto send it to, without significantly increasing network response times. And,unlike a hub, a 10/100Mbps switch will allocate a full 10/100Mbps to each ofits ports. So regardless of the number of PCs transmitting, users will alwayshave access to the maximum amount of bandwidth. Its for these reasons why aswitch is considered to be a much better choice than a hub.Routers are completely different devices. Where a hub or switch is concernedwith transmitting frames, a routers job, as its name implies, is to route packetsto other networks until that packet ultimately reaches its destination. One of thekey features of a packet is that it not only contains data, but the destinationaddress of where its going. 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two LocalArea Networks (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WAN) or a LAN and its ISPsnetwork, for example, your PC or workgroup and EarthLink. Routers arelocated at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect. Usingheaders and forwarding tables, routers determine the best path for forwardingthe packets. Router use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each otherand configure the best route between any two hosts.Today, a wide variety of services are integrated into most broadband routers. Arouter will typically include a 4 - 8 port Ethernet switch (or hub) and a NetworkAddress Translator (NAT). In addition, they usually include a Dynamic HostConfiguration Protocol (DHCP) server, Domain Name Service (DNS) proxyserver and a hardware firewall to protect the LAN from malicious intrusionfrom the Internet.All routers have a WAN Port that connects to a DSL or cable modem forbroadband Internet service and the integrated switch allows users to easilycreate a LAN. This allows all the PCs on the LAN to have access to the Internetand Windows file and printer sharing services.Some routers have a single WAN port and a single LAN port and are designedto connect an existing LAN hub or switch to a WAN. Ethernet switches andhubs can be connected to a router with multiple PC ports to expand a LAN.Depending on the capabilities (kinds of available ports) of the router and theswitches or hubs, the connection between the router and switches/hubs mayrequire either straight-thru or crossover (null-modem) cables. Some routers evenhave USB ports, and more commonly, wireless access points built into them.Some of the more high-end or business class routers will also incorporate aserial port that can be connected to an external dial-up modem, which is useful 22 | P a g e
  23. 23. as a backup in the event that the primary broadband connection goes down, aswell as a built in LAN printer server and printer port.Besides the inherent protection features provided by the NAT, many routers willalso have a built-in, configurable, hardware-based firewall. Firewall capabilitiescan range from the very basic to quite sophisticated devices. Among thecapabilities found on leading routers are those that permit configuringTCP/UDP ports for games, chat services, and the like, on the LAN behind thefirewall. So, in short, a hub glues together an Ethernet network segment, aswitch can connect multiple Ethernet segments more efficiently and a router cando those functions plus route TCP/IP packets between multiple LANs and/orWANs; and much more of course. 23 | P a g e
  24. 24. CHAPTER THREE3.0 Projects implemented for the Organisation.* Website design project.* Security database (J2EE) project.* Implementation of a small office network.3.1 Website design project:This project was given to me by the organisation singly, specifications were, atthe home page we should include a welcome message, a title and photographsthat could reflect the website purpose the navigation panel were also created.The aim of this project was to design a website for e-resources the title of theproject was given as or rather website name was Rehoboth e-educationresources with an integral purpose of an e-library. the navigation panel weremade of outline boxes with links, this are some of the panels that were createdwith links, Rehoboth ICT Academy, About us, Home, Authors of the year,Book reviews, contact us, Help, Jobs, project Appraisal, Book reviews, scienceresearch for the next generation, Books downloads and information andservices. Selected navigation panels like project appraisal and science researchfor the next generation were loaded to their content and linked to theirnavigation panels other navigation panels were to be left unlinked so that myfellow colleagues work could also be linked. the project was given to me by theorganisation on the 14th of December 2012, I used the Christmas and new yearbreaks to execute the project, I used a designer software called CS3(Adobedream weaver) to make my work more perfect. Below is the HTML code provethe validity of the project. 24 | P a g e
  25. 25. Fig 3.1.1 Code for website project.<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"""><html xmlns=""><!-- DW6 --><head><!-- Copyright 2005 Macromedia, Inc. All rights reserved. --><title>REHOBOTH E-RESOURCES - Home Page</title><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /><link rel="stylesheet" href="mm_entertainment.css"type="text/css" /><style type="text/css"><!--.style3 { font-size: 36px; font-weight: bold;}.style5 {font-size: 18px; color: #FF0000; font-style: italic;}.style6 {font-size: 14px}--></style></head><body bgcolor="#14285f"><table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0"cellpadding="0"> 25 | P a g e
  26. 26. <tr bgcolor="02021e"> <td width="400" colspan="4" rowspan="2"nowrap="nowrap"><p><img width="349" height="232"src="rehoboth_clip_image002.gif" alt="j0195384" /></p></td> <td width="360" height="58" colspan="3" valign="bottom"nowrap="nowrap" class="pageName style3" id="logo">REHOBOTH E-DUCATION RESOURCES</td> <td width="100%">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr bgcolor="02021E"> <td height="57" colspan="3" valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"class="style5" id="tagline"><marquee direction="left"><fontcolor="#FFFFFF">we at rehoboth e-edu.resources we keep ourword</font></marquee></td> <td width="100%">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="8" bgcolor="#cc3300"><img src="mm_spacer.gif"alt="" width="1" height="2" border="0" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="8"><img src="mm_spacer.gif" alt="" width="1"height="2" border="0" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="8" bgcolor="#cc3300"><img src="mm_spacer.gif"alt="" width="1" height="1" border="0" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="8">&nbsp;<br /> 26 | P a g e
  27. 27. &nbsp;<br /> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" valign="top" height="370"> <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"width="155" id="navigation"> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">REHOBOTHICT ACADEMY</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">ABOUTUS</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">HOME</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">AUTHORS OFTHE YEAR</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">BOOKREVIEWS</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">CONTACTUS</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">HELP</a></td> </tr> <tr> 27 | P a g e
  28. 28. <td width="155" height="40"><ahref="">JOBS</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><ahref="file:///c:/users/steve/documents/usongo ictcenter/appraisal.html">PROJECT APPRAISAL</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href=""> BOOKSDOWNLOADS</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155" height="40"><a href="">INFORMATION& SERVICES</a></td> </tr> </table></td> <td width="1" bgcolor="#445DA0"><img src="mm_spacer.gif"alt="" width="1" height="1" border="0" /></td> <td width="50"><img src="mm_spacer.gif" alt="" width="50"height="1" border="0" /></td> <td width="304" colspan="2" valign="top"><imgsrc="mm_spacer.gif" alt="" width="304" height="1" border="0"/><br /> <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"width="304"> <tr><td height="41" class="pageName">Welcome MessageHere</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="bodyText"><spanclass="style6">Here at rehoboth e-ducation resources willprovide the best and are determined to be the no 1. in e-learning so always stay with 28 | P a g e
  29. 29. with us for qualiity services and other e-dumaterials and downloads.</span> <p><span class="subHeader">TitleHere</span>. </p> <span class="style6">e-learning is simply aninternet base source of reading through various researchchannel such as e-library, e-research, e-reviewsetc.</span></td> </tr> </table> <p><br /> </p></td> <td width="50"><img src="mm_spacer.gif" alt="" width="50"height="1" border="0" /></td> <td width="200" valign="top"><img src="mm_spacer.gif"alt="" width="1" height="10" border="0" /><br /> <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"width="200"> <tr> <td colspan="3" id="sidebarHeader"class="sidebarHeader" align="center">SCIENCE THIS WEEK</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="45"><img src="mm_spacer.gif" alt=""width="40" height="1" border="0" /></td> <td width="110" id="sidebar" class="smallText"> <p><img src=" 012.jpg" width="265"height="267" /><br /> Science research for new generation<br/> 29 | P a g e
  30. 30. <a href="file:///c:/users/steve/documents/usongoict center/SCIENCE RE.html">read more...:</a> <p><img src=" 001.jpg" alt="TREC"width="260" height="267" /><br /> LITREATURE REVIEWS AND PROJECT BACKGROUND<br /> <a href="javascript:;">read more &gt;</a><br/> </p> <br /> <td width="45">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </table> <br /> </td> <td width="100%">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="155">&nbsp;</td> <td width="1"></td> <td width="50">&nbsp;</td> <td width="194">&nbsp;</td> <td width="110">&nbsp;</td> <td width="50">&nbssp;</td> <td width="200">&nbsp;</td> <td width="100%">&nbsp;</td> </tr></table></body></html> 30 | P a g e
  31. 31. 3.2 Security database (J2EE) Java 2 Enterprise EditionHere the organisation thought much about the experience we had obtained inJava 2 enterprise edition and wanted to know if we really understood what ourinstructor on Software Development Mr. Vitalis Agbers with Phone No.:08137671244 thought us on J2EE, we were to design a data base for securityonline Report, the project had the following modules: Admin, Arrest, Crime,Complain, Record and Users.The Admin: is the overall boss as his functions were mainly to view all users,Add users and Delete or Remove users, update Records etc.The users were either log in to any of the other modules apart from the Adminand either View Arrest, Complain about a crime etc.This project was carried out between December 7th and January 26th. Here aresome codes from the sessionbean and JSP pages to prove the validity of theproject.This is the Code from one of the JSP pages to be precise the Adminhome pageFig.3.2.1 code for the security data base, one of the JSP pages mainly the adminhome<%-- Document : security2Homepage Created on : Feb 5, 2013, 1:53:43 AM Author : Steve--%> 31 | P a g e
  32. 32. <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%><%@page import =""%><%@page import =""%><%@page import ="java.util.logging.Level"%><%@page import ="java.util.logging.Logger"%><%@page import=" javax.ejb.CreateException"%><%@page import=" javax.naming.Context"%><%@page import=" javax.naming.InitialContext"%><%@page import=" javax.naming.NamingException"%><%@page import=" javax.servlet.ServletException"%><%@page import=" javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet"%><%@page import ="javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest"%><%@page import ="javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse"%><%@page import =" security2Session.security2SessionLocal"%><%@page import ="security2Session.security2SessionLocalHome"%><%security2SessionLocal stl = null;String txt = null;%><%try { Context c = new InitialContext(); 32 | P a g e
  33. 33. security2SessionLocalHome rv =(security2SessionLocalHome)c.lookup("java:comp/env/security2SessionBean"); stl = rv.create(); } catch (NamingException ne) {}%><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" ""><html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> <style type="text/css"><!--#apDiv1 { position:absolute; width:100%; height:85px; z-index:1; background-color:#FF0000}.style1 { font-size: 36px; 33 | P a g e
  34. 34. font-weight: bold; color: #FFFFFF;}#apDiv2 { position:absolute; width:250px; height:190px; z-index:2; left: 11px; top: 102px; background-color:#FFFF00}.style2 { font-family: "Arial Black"; font-style: italic;}#apDiv3 { position:absolute; width:707px; height:190px; z-index:1; left: 251px; top: 1px; 34 | P a g e
  35. 35. background-color:#00FFFF}.style3 { font-size: 24px; font-style: italic;}--> </style></head> <body> <div id="apDiv1"> <p align="center" class="style1">THIS IS THE BENUE STATESECURITY HOME PAGE</p> </div> <div id="apDiv2"> <a href="allAdminview.jsp">Alladminview</a> <a href="addUser.jsp">addUser</a> <a href="removeuser.jsp">removeuser</a> <a href="">viewAllArrest</a> <table width="100%" border="3" cellspacing="3"cellpadding="2"> <tr> <td valign="middle" bgcolor="#00FFFF"><divalign="center"><a 35 | P a g e
  36. 36. href="secu2Validation.jsp"><strong>ADMINSTRATOR</strong></a></div></td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#99CC00"><div align="center"><ahref="secu2Validation.jsp"><strong>USERS</strong></a></div></td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FF0000"><div align="center"class="style2">ABOUT US</div></td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FF00FF"><div align="center"class="style2">CONTACT US</div></td> </tr> </table> <div id="apDiv3"> <p align="center" class="style3">PLEASE DO NOT BE ALFREDTO REPORT SUSPICIOUS MOVEMENT</p> </div> </div></body></html>3.3 Implementation of small Office NetworkUsing the following steps, I was able to implement a small office Network atRehoboth ICT Academy on the 25th January, 2013 as it is a custom to carry out 36 | P a g e
  37. 37. a practical task at the end of every major project work. Materials used were,computers, internet access and Ethernet cables.Firstly the Cat 5 (Category 5 network cables were connected to the R J 45(Register Jack)) which is used for networking between systems. This connectionwere done for a cross connection which is normally supported for differentcomputers while the straight is done for computer to computer.Step 1: I clicked on the start my Network places under “Network Task” clickedon set up a “Home or small Office Network” and this took me to the Networkset up wizard. The wizard helps me to set up my computer to run on mynetwork where I could share and internet connections, share files and foldersand a printer.Step 2: I clicked next and made sure I had done everything on the “checklist”i.e. modem installed, computers and printers turned on and above all connectionto the internet. I clicked next and selected the way I had wanted my connectionsto the internet to appear, clicking next took me to computer description, withoptions and the computer name was already populated.Step 3: I clicked next, selected a work group name which by default wassteveHome, but I changed it to office, I clicked next again for file and sharing ofprinters turned on. I clicked next again, applied Network settings which took meto where I wanted to save the information which I considered saving to a notepad.Step 4: I clicked next and got a “please wait while the wizard configures thiscomputer for small office Network this process will take a few minutesmessage”. The Network setup wizard was run once for each of the computerthat was found on my Network. TIP to run the wizard on computers that are notwindow XP OS, you can use the window XP CD or a network set up Disk youwill then be asked “what do you want to do?” at this point, you can create a 37 | P a g e
  38. 38. Network set up Disk, use the disk you have, use Windows XP CD, or clickfinish. No need to run wizard on other computers Click Finish.Step 5: A display message appear, that I had successfully set up this computerfor a small office Network. To see other computers on my Network, I clickedstart, and then clicked My Network Places, I clicked finish and I was promptedwith a message restart your computer, I restarted it and saw my Network under“My Network Places” with an icon/picture of a networking cable below thefolder.3.4 Working conditions.The working conditions at Rehoboth ICT Academy included* Crowdedness: At Rehoboth ICT academy since we were working as a teammost of our general practical work were carried out in crowded environment aswe were always divided into smaller factions of five persons per each group. interms of project given to us, it was in a student’s interest to either join aparticular group or carry out his project independent of other groups.* Paid allowances: allowances were not paid to any of the students that wereon industrial training at Rehoboth ICT Academy either by the chief executive orby any individual groups.* Working Days/Hours: the working days at Rehoboth ICT Academy weregenerally same as in the normal working days of the week that is Mondaysthrough Fridays every week we had our normal hours of 9:00 am to 2:00pm.3.5 Responsibilty given to meAs an IT student at Rehoboth ICT academy I was given the responsibility oforganising my colleagues in conduct and information dissemination. 38 | P a g e
  39. 39. I had always handled this responsibility by making sure all and sundry werecarried along throughout our stay at Rehoboth ICT Academy.3.6 Observed Organisations Deficiencies.As it is, in every organisation there exist some lapses, Rehoboth ICT academytoo is not left out the organisation too has a major challenge of facilities such ascomputer sets ,internet services and power fluctuation as the number of studentshad outweigh this facilities on ground.3.7 AttractionsAttractions at Rehoboth ICT Academy are too numerous to mention as to mostof us that got to be attached to this had a good reason to smile, this is simplybecause if not all then almost all facets of the computer must know functionswere touched. 39 | P a g e
  40. 40. CHAPTER FOURConclusionI have learnt so much in the course of my industrial work experience atREHOBOTH ICT ACADEMY. The experience gathered will help me be selfreliance and above all make me do additional jobs in computer science. The(S.I.W.E.S) scheme has helped me a lot to be self confident. 40 | P a g e