Webinar - Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid
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Webinar - Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid

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Policy makers are showing increased interest in making electricity grids ‘smarter.’ This webinar will help policy makers design policies to encourage ‘smart grids’ by defining what makes an ...

Policy makers are showing increased interest in making electricity grids ‘smarter.’ This webinar will help policy makers design policies to encourage ‘smart grids’ by defining what makes an electricity grid smart and proposing a methodology to measure the smartness of the electricity grid. Participants will also learn how to track the status of smart grid development with a defined framework of six characteristics which a smart grid should meet. Progress in the development of each characteristic is assessed by several key performance indicators.

Panelist : Leen Vandezande obtained her Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the K.U.Leuven, Belgium, with her Ph.D. manuscript on balancing market design and integration. Currently, she is working as a post-doctoral researcher in the Electric Energy Research Group ELECTA at the K.U.Leuven. Being involved in several European projects in the field of smart grids and in smart grid industry associations, Vandezande is acquainted with research, policy and market activities in the area of smart grids. Her research interests include European energy policy and energy market design.

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  • Can be a good introduction to what a smart grid is, but focus is on benchmarking through Key Performance Indicators. So the technical side of a smart grid gets less in the picture and the regulatory/policy nature is stressed.
  • 20-20-20:formulatedJanuary 2008Target 2050?: Cut GHG emissions by 80%Smart grids: Key issue towards these goals Confirmed by numerous working groups, projects, and organisations
  • Set-plan: strategic-energy-technology-plan. Objective is to accelerate the development of low carbon technologies leading to their market take-up: estimate investment of 2bn for gridAcceleratingdevelopment and deploymentof cost-effectivelow carbon technologiesIndustrial Initiativewith large scale pilot projectsEEGI: European electricity grid initiative: TSOs and DSOs  progress smart tools by field testingAcceleratingdevelopment and deployment of electricity networkscapable of handling the massivedeployment of renewable and decentralised energy sources as proposed by the SET-planInitiative of the System Operators (EDSO, ENTSOE)ERGEG: european regulatory group for energy and gas: Ensure benefits for users by adequate regulation9-year RD&D programme for electricity networks with acost estimated at 2 B€ covering the expected participation of regulated networks, marketplayers, research centres and universities
  • Can be a good introduction to what a smart grid is, but focus is on benchmarking through Key Performance Indicators. So the technical side of a smart grid gets less in the picture and the regulatory/policy nature is stressed.
  • For a business to define and evaluate how succesfull it is. Different understandings between several stakeholders
  • Idea necessary of what constitutes a smart grid. Towards a quantification of smartness…
  • Can be a good introduction to what a smart grid is, but focus is on benchmarking through Key Performance Indicators. So the technical side of a smart grid gets less in the picture and the regulatory/policy nature is stressed.
  • KPIs: Importance of measurability!ETP: European Technology platformImportance of measurability/quantificationA good KPI must be:Understandable (by TSO, DSO, EC, wide public)Meaningful (for TSO, DSO, EC, wide public) Measurable (measured by TSO or DSO, and validated by EC)
  • Policy makers should encourage progress in all six characterisitics.
  • Enable informed part: In a Smart grid, customers become an integrel part of the electric power system. A SG allows customers to take new choices resulting from new technologies, information about electricity consumption, and new ways of pricing.5 categories defined: to measure progress of the grid on this characteristic…. Each category clusters a set of KPIs
  • Heading for a CO2 neutral society against 2050, DG and storage will play a key role in accomplishing this target. A SG supports the growing array of these technologies all along the value chain.  integration in a plug-and-play environment
  • New products, services and markets rise in the energy system. End users can purchase new technologies and services. New market players like aggregators, who optimize supply and demand, will arise.Energy services ‘beyond’ the meter
  • Replacement is needed because ageing grid. Advanced equipment and information and cummunication technologies van be used for optimizing the existing assets.
  • A SG should operate in a reliable way, wheter system disturbances like voltage sags and frequency oscillation occur, or the electricity grid is exposed to physical and cyber attacks or natural disasters. These problems solved by accurately monitoring, controlling and automating the electricity grid.  new devices, equipment, designs, monitoring systems and communication standards are used to operate the grid in a self-healing and resilient way.Saidi: represents the average number of minutes customers are interrupted each year
  • Sunshine regulation: determine a set of performance indicators for each operator display results publicly and compareIncentive regulation: Penalties/rewards for the achievement/non-achievement of a certain targetDirect regulation: impose a strict target which has to be met
  • Can be a good introduction to what a smart grid is, but focus is on benchmarking through Key Performance Indicators. So the technical side of a smart grid gets less in the picture and the regulatory/policy nature is stressed.
  • Not the intention to cover the entire scope of a SG. Discussion and refinement is still needed. Workshops/surveys/studies getting the information: essential for the succeeding of this exercise.

Webinar - Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid Webinar - Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid Presentation Transcript

  • Measuring the “Smartness” of the Electricity Grid Leen Vandezande Benjamin Dupont – Leonardo Meeus – Ronnie Belmans© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
  • Overview Introduction Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): what & why? Benchmarking the Smart Grid Conclusions © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 2
  • Background: European energy policy Towards a low carbon economy  3 ambitious targets by 2020  Cutting GHG emissions by 20% (compared to 1990 levels)  Reducing energy consumption by 20%  Reaching a 20% share of energy from RES  Min. 80% reduction of GHG emissions targeted by 2050 Reduction of Energy consumption Share of renewablegreenhouse gases Efficiency increase energy -20% -20% Smart electricity grid = key aspect to reach goals +20% 8,5% © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 3
  • Background: European energy policy Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan  6 initiatives Wind energy Bio-energy Solar energy Carbon capture and storage Electricity grid Nuclear energy  European Electricity Grid Initiative (EEGI)  9-year RD&D program – estimated cost of 2 B€  Activities organised in 10 clusters & 29 functional projects ERGEG position paper on Smart Grids CEER status review of regulatory approaches to Smart Grids  Adequate Regulatory framework © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 4
  • Overview Introduction Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): what & why? Benchmarking the Smart Grid Conclusions © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 5
  • What are KPIs? In general  Purpose: performance measurement  Used in business activity monitoring  E.g. in construction industry, health industry, for quality regulation in electricity distribution systems,… In a Smart Grid context  No common view  SET-plan: evaluation of progress towards 2020 targets  EEGI: evaluation of demo projects  ERGEG: evaluation of regulatory incentives No clear framework exists today © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 6
  • Why using KPIs? To answer the questions  What makes an electricity system smart?  How can this smartness be measured? © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 7
  • Overview Introduction Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): what & why? Benchmarking the Smart Grid Conclusions © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 8
  • Methodology 6 Characteristics Derived from U.S. DoE „Smart Grid System Report‟ Adopted by SmartGrids ETP Categories KPIs Bound to SMART-criteria: Specific – Measurable – Attainable – Relevant – Time-Bound© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 9
  • 6 Characteristics Enable informed participation by customers Accommodate all generation & storage options Sell more than kWhs Provide power quality for the 21st century Optimize assets & operate efficiently Operate resiliently to disturbances, attacks & natural disasters © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 10
  • Enable informed participation of customers Categories Advanced Meters Dynamic Pricing Signals Smart Appliances Demand Side Management Prosumer© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 11
  • Enable informed participation of customers  KPIs Enable informed participation by customersAdvanced Meters 1A: Number of advanced meters installed 1B: Percentage of total demand served by advanced metersDynamic Pricing 2A: The fraction of customers served by tariffsSignals 2B: The fraction of load served by tariffsSmart Appliances 3A: Total yearly retail sales volume for purchases of smart appliances [€] 3B: Total load capacity in each consumer category that is actually or potentially modified by behaviours of smart appliances [MW]Demand Side 4A: Fraction of consumers contributing in DSM [%]Management 4B: Percentage of consumer load capacity participating in DSM [MW/MW] 4C: Potential for time shift (before start-up and during operation) [h]Prosumer 5A: Total electrical energy locally (decentralised) produced versus total electrical energy consumed [MWh/MWh] 5B: Minimal demand from grid (maximal own production) versus maximal demand from the grid (own production is zero) [MW/MW] 5C: Fraction of time prosumer is net producer and consumer [h/h] © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 12
  • Accommodate all generation and storage options Categories DG and storage PHEVs DER interconnection© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 13
  • Accommodate all generation and storage options  KPIs Accommodate all generation and storage optionsDistributed 6A: Amount of production generated by local, distributed generation (MW/MW)Generation and 6B: Potential for direct electrical energy storage relative to daily demand for electricalStorage energy [MWhel/MWhel] 6C: Indirect electrical energy storage through the use of heat pumps: time shift allowed for heating/cooling [h]PHEVs 7A: The total number and percentage shares of on-road light-duty vehicles, comprising PHEVs 7B: Percentage of the charging capacity of the vehicles that can be controlled (versus the charging capacity of the vehicles or the total power capacity of the grid) [MW/MW] 7C: Percentage of the stored energy in vehicles that can be controlled (versus the available energy in the vehicles or the total energy consumption in the grid) [MWh/MWh] 7D: Number of charging points that are provided to charge the vehiclesDER Interconnection 8A: The percentage of grid operators with standard distributed resource interconnection policies © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 14
  • Sell more than kWhs Categories New energy services Flexibility Customer Choice Support Mechanisms Interoperability Maturity Level© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 15
  • Sell more than kWhs  KPIs Sell more than kWhsNew Energy Services 9A: Number of customers served by ESCO’s 9B: Number of additional energy services offered to the consumer 9C: Number of kWh that the consumer saves in comparison to the consumption before the energy serviceFlexibility 10A: The number of customers offering flexibility to aggregators 10B: The flexibility that aggregators can offer to other market players [MWh] 10C: The time that aggregators can offer a certain flexibility [h] 10D: To what extent are storage and DG able to provide ancillary services as a percentage of the total offered ancillary services 10E: Percentage of storage and DG that can be modified vs. total storage and DG [MW/MW]Customer Choice 11A: Number of tariff plans available to end consumersSupport Mechanisms 12A: The average percentage of smart grid investment that can be recovered through rates or subsidies 12B: The percentage of smart grid investment covered by external financingInteroperability 13A: The weighted average maturity level of interoperability realised amongMaturity Level electricity system stakeholders © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/25/2010 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 16
  • Provide power quality for the 21st century Categories Power Quality Required Power Quality Microgrids© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 17
  • Provide power quality for the 21st century  KPIs Provide power quality for the 21st CenturyPower Quality 14A: Amount of voltage variations in the grid [RMS] 14B: Time of a certain voltage variation [h] 14C: The percentage of customer complaints related to power quality problems (excluding outages)Required Power 15A: Range of frequencies [Hz] contracted and range of voltages [V] contractedQualityMicrogrids 16A: The number of microgrids in operation. 16B: The capacity of microgrids [MW] 16C: The total grid capacity of microgrids to the capacity of the entire grid [MW/MW] © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 18
  • Optimize assets and operate efficiently Categories T&D Automation Dynamic Line Rating Capacity Factors Efficiencies© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 19
  • Optimize assets and operate efficiently  KPIs Optimise assets and operate efficientlyT&D Automation 17A: Percentage of substations applying automation technologiesDynamic Line Rating 18A: Number of lines operated under dynamic line ratings 18B: Percentage of kilometres of transmission circuits operated under dynamic line ratings [km] 18C: Yearly average transmission transfer capacity expansion due to the use of dynamic (versus fixed) line ratings [MW-km]Capacity Factors 19A: Yearly average and peak generation capacity factor (%) 19B: Yearly average and average peak capacity factor for a typical kilometer of transmission line (%-km per km) 19C: Yearly average and average peak distribution transformer capacity factor (%)Efficiencies 20A: Efficiency of generation facilities [energy output (MWh) / energy input (MWh)] 20B: Energy losses in transmission and distribution [MWh/year] © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 20
  • Operate resiliently to disturbances, attacks and natural disasters Categories Advanced sensors Information Exchange T&D Reliability Standards in tele- communication infrastructure© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 21
  • Operate resiliently to disturbances, attacks and natural disasters  KPIs Operate resiliently to disturbances, attacks and natural disastersAdvanced Sensors 21A: Number (or percentage) of grid elements (substations, switches, …) that can be remotely monitored and controlled in real-time 21B: The percentage of substations possessing advanced measurement technology 21C: The number of applications supported by these various measurement technologiesInformation Exchange 22A: Total SCADA points shared per substation (ratio) 22B: Fraction of transmission-level synchrophasor measurement points shared multilaterally (%) 22C: Performance (bandwidth, response speed, availability, adaptability, …) of the communication channels towards grid elementsT&D Reliability 23A: SAIDI represents the average number of minutes customers are interrupted each year [Minutes] 23B: SAIFI represents the total number of customer interruptions per customer for a particular electric supply system [Interruptions] 23C: CAIDI represents the average outage duration that a customer experiences [Minutes] 23D: MAIFI represents the total number of customer interruptions per customer lasting less than five minutes for a particular electric supply system [Interruptions]Standards in 24A: The compliance of electric power industries with European and internationaltelecommunication telecommunication standards and protocols.infrastructure © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 22
  • Using the results for policy making Assess progress towards a smart grid on national & European level  Benchmarking between countries or with other continents Regulation  Sunshine Regulation  Incentive regulation  Direct regulation  … Evaluate project results on smart grids Encourage progress in each of the 6 characteristics © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 23
  • Overview Introduction Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): what & why? Benchmarking the Smart Grid Conclusions © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 24
  • To conclude Differences between initiatives  No common understanding of KPIs  Measurability sometimes neglected List of KPIs  Defined around 6 characteristics  Clustered in categories Further Research  Starting Point  Workshops/Surveys/Studies © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 25
  • Further research: Example Definition of KPIs for evaluation of project results within EEGI programLevel 1 High level, easy to understand „policy indicators‟ related to pillars of EU strategy  Technical KPIs common toLevel 2 different demo projects  Implementation Effectiveness of EEGI Program Project specificLevel 3 indicators – each demo project will define its own KPIs © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa Source: www.gridplus.eu 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 26
  • Further reading Download the full paper at http://www.esat.kuleuven.be/electa/publications/fulltexts /pub_2072.pdf © K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa 06/26/2012 Measuring the "Smartness" of the Electricity Grid 27