Opportunities for v2 g integrating plug-in vehicles and the electric grid (tomic) april 6


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CALSTART New Fuel Program Manager, Dr Jasna Tomic, presented on vehicle-to-grid technology at UCLA in April 2011. In this presentation, Dr Tomic addresses some of the barriers and opportunities to use battery power generated by a new generation of electric vehicles by putting it back onto the grid.

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Opportunities for v2 g integrating plug-in vehicles and the electric grid (tomic) april 6

  1. 1. Opportunities for V2G -Integrating Vehicles with the Electric Grid Jasna Tomic UCLA EV Forum Los Angeles, CA April 6, 2011 Clean Transportation Technologies and Solutions
  2. 2. CALSTART: Advanced Transportation National and International in Project Areas 2008 155+ Worldwide Participant Network 4 Offices in US Four focus areas: Tech Commercialization Fleet, Port Consulting Industry Services Policy Development
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Definition of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) </li></ul><ul><li>Background- why the interest in V2G </li></ul><ul><li>V2G model </li></ul><ul><li>Current Status – important cross point </li></ul><ul><li>Additions and Challanges </li></ul><ul><li>Next steps – projects for California </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vehicle-to-Grid Definition <ul><li>Vehicle-to-Grid refers to flow of electricity and communications between and electric-drive vehicle and the electric grid </li></ul>Power Grid EV of PHEV
  5. 5. Why V2G - background <ul><li>Three main reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrification of transportation – number of EV and PHEV models growing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Smart Grid” – upgrading of the current power grid system </li></ul><ul><li>V2G allows merging of two large sectors – transportation and electric grid system </li></ul>
  6. 6. Battery Electric Vehicles -Cost Still of Concern- Mitsubishi IMiEV Nissan Leaf Daimler Electric Smart Wheego Tesla Roadster Electric Mini Think Citi Ford Electric Connect CA is Only State in Nation Where All of These Vehicles Will be Available! Coda Sedan
  7. 7. Commercial Trucks - Electrification <ul><li>Navistar and Modec JV for all electric truck E-Star </li></ul><ul><li>Enova and Freightliner Custom Chassis all electric vehicles – E-Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Smith Electric Newton </li></ul><ul><li>40 different hybrid and electric trucks in ride & drive (HTUF 2010) </li></ul>
  8. 8. HTUF 2009
  9. 9. Power Grid Changing <ul><li>“ Smart Grid” </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Distributed Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing generation from renewables </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vehicle & Electric Grid <ul><li>Two large sector that can be integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Smart interaction between vehicle fleet, grid and intermittent renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Large, low-cost storage for renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) power as bridging technology </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vehicle to Grid- Integration of Transportation and Electric Grid Arrows indicate direction of power flow (Kempton &Tomic, JPS, 2005) 2
  12. 12. Uses for V2G Power EDV Base-load Power Peak Power Ancillary Service turbine Energy Storage
  13. 13. Ancillary Services ISO/RTO GENERATION LOAD <ul><li>Grid Management- Maintain grid reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Balance Supply and Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Support transmission of electric power </li></ul><ul><li>A/S requirements 5-10% of the system load </li></ul>
  14. 14. ISOs in North America www.ferc.gov/industries/electric/indus-act/rto.asp
  15. 15. Ancillary Services Market <ul><li>Ancillary services ensure electric power grid is stable and reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation: On-line generation synchronized to the grid to respond to demand variations (voltage and frequency). Energy is increased/decreased instantly (~2-3 min) via automatic generation control (AGC) </li></ul><ul><li>Spinning Reserves: Generating capacity synchronized and ready to respond for ~10 min in case of power failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Require units operating but not producing energy </li></ul><ul><li>Payments consist of: Capacity price ($/MW-h) + Energy price ($/MWh) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Electricity Market Prices <ul><li>Ancillary Services Capacity Price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Regulation $15-55/MW-h </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinning Reserves $20/MW-h </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity price ($/MW-h) + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy price ($/MWh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baseload Power 2-10 c/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Power 5-80 c/kWh </li></ul>5
  17. 17. Fleet Case -252 EVs <ul><li>For regulation services - 252 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade costs for V2G included </li></ul><ul><li>P line = 15 kW </li></ul><ul><li>t plug = 17 h </li></ul><ul><li>c el = 0.05 $/kWh, c en = 0.15 $/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>NiMH </li></ul><ul><li>CAISO Regulation Capacity price ( 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Reg up p contr = 19.5 $/MW-h </li></ul><ul><li>Reg down p contr = 20.3 $/MW-h </li></ul>
  18. 18. Calculated Profits with V2G for Ancillary Services (Tomic & Kempton, JPS, 2007) 252 RAV4 EVs in CAISO YEAR 2003 FLEET POWER kW Revenue Cost Net Profit @15 kW 3,780 $1,039,000 $380,000 $ 659,000
  19. 19. Commercial Plug-in Trucks Potential for V2G <ul><li>Battery size much larger - up to 80 kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Power output 15 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable use schedule, central location </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate with PV solar for C-free fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary estimates using 2008 CAISO prices – annual profit $1,500 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Important Parameters <ul><li>Important parameters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>market value of A/S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kW capacity of vehicles and electrical connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kWh capacity of vehicle battery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is economic benefit for grid-connected vehicles providing power for A/S markets </li></ul>
  21. 21. Current Status <ul><li>High awareness of V2G </li></ul><ul><li>Huge interest among utilities in impact of grid-connected vehicles on grid </li></ul><ul><li>“ Smart grid” large investment in modernizing the grid (this is NOT a synonym for V2G) </li></ul><ul><li>Car companies realizing that V2G can help the business case of plug-in vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Cars and commercial vehicles are more electric today – hybrid and all electric </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment of V2G is limited but real </li></ul>
  22. 22. Additions & Challenges for V2G <ul><li>V2G Additions – available now </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-directional on-board power electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless communication, vehicle-grid </li></ul><ul><li>On-board metering </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Battery cycle life – what is impact of V2G application </li></ul><ul><li>Optimization of battery design for EVs and PHEVs </li></ul><ul><li>Need for vehicle aggregator managing fleets and individual vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Need standards for V2G provision quality </li></ul>
  23. 23. Deployment of V2G in PJM (Ken Huber, PJM, Plug-in 2009)
  24. 24. What about CA? - Next Steps <ul><li>We are looking for project partners </li></ul><ul><li>We need targeted deployment of V2G now in CA! </li></ul><ul><li>Need to show benefits in targeted demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Discharging of EVs and other distributed generation back to the grid provides greater benefit to the grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of stored electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added generation capacity </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Next Steps – Projects in CA <ul><li>Need to increase regional showcases of V2G deployment in California </li></ul><ul><li>Design projects with fleets or aggregated vehicles – 5 -50 (municipalities, government fleets, campus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Controlled charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Variable rate charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Discharging to grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Added functionality of on-board power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Communication protocols with CAISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6) Understand impact on local disribution </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Next Steps – Projects in CA <ul><li>Commercial vehicles are good initial users for V2G </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial vehicles good early adopters and can provide lessons for the consumer world --- e.g. parcel delivery applications, telecom, utility fleets </li></ul><ul><li>Light-duty vehicles --- Consortium tying together vehicle deployment + infrastructure upgrading + user education </li></ul>
  27. 27. Benefits of V2G <ul><li>Cost of EVs & PHEVs is relatively high </li></ul><ul><li>V2G provides revenue to owner and helps offset that higher cost </li></ul><ul><li>Dual use for clean transportation and grid power support - shared capital cost </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages early adoption of EVs & PHEVs </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed generation – more stable grid </li></ul><ul><li>Energy storage for grid and integration of renewable sources </li></ul>
  28. 28. Jasna Tomic [email_address] 626-744-5695 www.calstart.org Clean Transportation Technologies and Solutions SM