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Concentrated Solar Power Course - Session 4 - Thermal Storage and Hybridization


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Thermal storage for CSP plants: …

Thermal storage for CSP plants:

* concept
* functions of the thermal energy storage system (tes)
* classification of tes systems
* state of the art
* future developments

Hybridisation of CSP plants:

* concept
* solar – gas hybrid csp plants
* hybridisation with biomass

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  • 1. Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerTechnnology TrainingSession 4 – THERMAL STORAGE AND HYBRIDIZATION
    By Manuel A. Silva Pé
    April 27, 2010
  • 2. ThermalStorageandHybridization
    Manuel A. Silva Pérez
    Group of Thermodynamics and Renewable Energy
    ETSI – University of Seville
  • 3. CSP Markets
    • Utility (centralized)
    • 4. Capacity > 10 MW
    • 5. Typesofutilitygenerators:
    • 6. Base load (nuclear, coal)
    • 7. Dispatchable (gas, CSP)
    • 8. Intermittent (wind, PV)
    • 9. Dispatchability: Theabilitytodispatchpower. Dispatchablegenerationreferstosourcesofelectricitythat can be dispatched at therequestofpowergridoperators; thatis, it can be turnedonor off upondemand
  • 10. CSP Markets
    Distributed generation
    Capacity: 3 kW to 10 MW
    Close to consumer
    Reduces transmission losses
    Reduces investment in transmission infrastructure
    Stand-alone applications
    Modularity, avaliablity, reliability
  • 11. ThermalstorageandHybrization
    CSP unique features within the RE technologies:
    Thermal energy storage. Thermal energy produced by the solar field can be stored, thus decoupling power generation from solar resource.
    Hybridization. Ability to hybridize with an alternative energy source –fossil or renewable fuel.
    Thermal energy storage and/or hybridization provide the basis for CSP to be:
  • 12. Why Energy Storage?
    Increase operational stability
    Reduce intermittence.
    Increase plant utilization and capacity factor
    Provides “peak-shaving” ability (time-shifted operation)
    Reduce generation cost (as long as storage is cheaper than increasing rated power!)
  • 13. Profile of the electricity demand
  • 14. Solar-only electricity generation
  • 15. Solar + Thermal Storage
  • 16. Thermal energy storage
    A fraction of the thermal energy produced at the solar field is stored, increasing the internal energy of the storage medium.
    Sensible heat
    Latent heat
  • 17. Types of thermal storage
    By utilization
    Short term
    Provide operational stability
    Medium term
    Increase capacity factor
    Shift electrical generation hours
    By type
    Direct (same substance as working fluid, does not require HX)
    Indirect (different substance, requires HX)
  • 18. Technical Requirements for TES materials
    High energy density (per-unit mass or per-unit volume)
    Good heat conductivity
    Good heat transfer between heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the storage medium
    Mechanical and chemical stability
    Chemical compatibility between HTF, heat exchanger and/or storage medium
    Reversibility for a large number of charging/discharging cycles
    Low thermal losses
    Easy to control
  • 19. Thermal storage options
    Source: Survey of thermal storage for parabolic trough power plants, Pilkington Solar Int. (2000)
  • 20. Thermal storage past experiences
    Source: Survey of thermal storage for parabolic trough power plants, Pilkington Solar Int. (2000)
  • 21. TES – STP commercial installations
    Short term: pressurized water
    PS10 and PS20
    Mid term: Molten salt, 2 tank
    Direct (CRS) – Gema Solar (Solar Tres)
    Indirect (PT) – Andasol I
  • 22. Short term TES
    PS10 / PS20
    Pressurized water
    Sliding pressure during discharge
    Pressure vessel
    PS10 TES main characteristics
    • Max. pressure: 40 bar
    • 23. Thermal capacity: 20 MWh (50 min at 50% load)
    • 24. Total Volume: 600 m3
    • 25. 4 tanks, sequentially operated
  • 26. Molten salt storage, 2 tank, direct
    Solar Two (Barstow, CA)
    Thermal capacity proportional to ΔT
    Hot – cold tank design
    Commercial (salt widely used in process industry)
    • High operation T limited (salt decomposition)
    • 27. Need for heat – tracing (risk of freezing)
    • 28. Costly equipment (pumps, valves…
  • 29. Molten salt storage, 2 tank, indirect
    Andasol (Granada, Spain)
    • Provides high storage capacity to PT power plants (Thermal oil)
    • 30. Intermediate oil-to-salt HX
    • 31. Freezing Temp = 220 oC
    • 32. High temp. limited by HTF
    • 33. Large volumes
    • 34. Higher investment costs
  • 35. Andasol storage -Technical characteristics
    Type: 2-Tank Molten Salt Storage
    Fluid: Nitrate salt mixture (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3)
    Melting Point: 223°C
    Storage Capacity: 1,010 MWh (~7.5 hrs full load operation)
    Storage Tank Size: 14 m height 37 m diameter
    Salt Mass: 27,500 tons
    Flow Rate: 953 kg/s
    Cold Tank Temperature: 292° C
    Hot Tank Temperature: 386°C
  • 36. ANDASOL, Moltensalt 2-tank TES
  • 37. TES – advanced experiences
  • 38. TES – advanced experiences
  • 39. TES costsandbenefits
    Improves plant controlability and operability, expanding de range of possible operating strategies
    Facilitates Dispatchability
    If adequately designed, can improve
    The efficiency of the plant
    The profitability of the project
    Extends lifetime of equipment (reduces the number of strat-stop cycles)
    Increases investment
    Oversized solar field
    Tanks, HX, molten salt management equipment, heat tracing, safety
    Increases O&M costs
  • 40. Hybrid solar thermal power plants
    • Two energy sources:
    • 41. Solar energy
    • 42. Fossil or renewable fuel
    • 43. Hybridisation of STP plant
    • 44. Eases plant operation during transients
    • 45. Eases turbine startup
    • 46. Reduces number of turbine stops
    • 47. Increases full-load operation time
    • 48. Can be used to maintain temperature of HTF or storage medium
  • 49. Hybridization options
  • 50. SEGS 30 MW
  • 52. ISCCS
    3 projects in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt)
  • 53. HybridizationCostsandbenefits
    Improves controlability and operability
    Faciltates dispatchability
    Improves plant overall efficiency
    Improves capacity factor
    Improves profitability of the plant
    Extends equipment lifetime
    Increases investment and O&M costs
    CO2 emmissions
  • 54. Thanksforyourattention!