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Seminar Presentation 
on 
SCOPE OF SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN INDIA 
Under the Guidance of: Presented By: 
Dr. R. P. Sa...
OUTLINES 
1. Introduction 
2. Energy scenario 
3. Potential for solar energy in india 
4. Solar thermal energy 
5. Solar t...
INTRODUCTION 
 For economic development Energy is 
the basic requirement. 
 Coal , Nuclear , Natural gases and 
Petroleu...
ENERGY SCENARIO 
POWER SUPPLY POSITION IN INDIA IN 2014-15 
4 
REGION 
ENERGY PEAK POWER 
REQUIREMENT 
(MU) 
AVAILABILITY ...
RENEWABLE ENERGY 
5 
ENERGY SCENARIO 
TYPE TECHNOLOGY INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) 
OFF GRID / CAPTIVE 
POWER 
Bagasse Cogenera...
SOLAR POWER POTENTIAL 
6 
 Globally:
POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ENERGY IN 
INDIA 
 About 5000 trillion kWh/year energy is 
incident over India’s land area. 
 Most pa...
SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY (STE) 
8 
 Principle: Sunlight – Heat – Electricity 
Sunlight is concentrated, using mirrors or 
dir...
SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS 
(STPP) 
 Solar energy can be tapped to produce 
electricity by using solar concentrators. 
9 ...
WORKING OF SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT 
10
COMPONENTS OF STPP 
11
COMPONENTS OF STPP….. 
12
13 
Concentrating Solar 
Technologies 
Low Temperature 
(<100°C) 
Flat Plate Collectors 
Solar Chimney 
Solar Pond 
High T...
Commercial CSP 
Parabolic 
Trough 
Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel 
Collector 
• Temp~400°C 
• Line Focusing 
• Linear...
Commercial CSP 
Parabolic 
Trough 
Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel 
Collector 
• Temp~600-800°C 
• Point Focusing 
• F...
Commercial CSP 
Parabolic 
Trough 
Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel 
Collector 
16 
• Temp~700-800°C 
• Point Focusing ...
Commercial CSP 
Parabolic 
Trough 
Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel 
Collector 
• Temp~400°C 
• Line Focusing type 
• L...
LIST OF SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN INDIA 
18 
Sr. 
no. 
Project name Location 
Turbine 
Description 
Technology 
Heat-T...
19 
ADVANTAGES OVER COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES 
(EG. PV & WIND) 
 Heat Storage option – Electricity Supply after Sunset 
 ...
Feasible Applications 
Utility / Commercial scale Domestic/small Scale 
 Electricity Generation 
 Stand alone 
 Grid pr...
LITERATURE REVIEW 
21 
S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 
1 
Naveen Kumar 
Sharma et al. [1] 
Summarize the av...
Literature Review Continued … 
22 
S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 
4. 
J.D. Nixon et al. 
[9] 
Study the ma...
Literature Review Continued … 
23 
S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 
7. 
Richa Mahtta et 
al. [12] 
They dete...
Literature Review Continued … 
24 
S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 
9. 
K.S. Reddy et al. 
[14] 
A techno-ec...
Literature Review Continued … 
25 
S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 
12. 
Ishan Purohit et 
al. [17] 
They do...
CONCLUSION 
26 
A large amount of Indian STE output is consumed in Delhi, Haryana, and Punjab, 
drawing upon supply sites ...
GAPS IDENTIFIED 
Though all three basic types of storage media (sensible, latent, thermochemical) 
have the potential to m...
REFERENCES 
[1] Sharma N.K, Tiwari P.K, Sood Y.R. Solar energy in India: Strategies, policies, perspectives and future pot...
REFERENCES CONTINUED… 
[9] Nixon J.D., Dey P.K., Davies P.A., Which is the best solar thermal collection technology for el...
REFERENCES CONTINUED… 
[17] Purohit I., Purohit P., Techno-economic evaluation of concentrating solar power generation in ...
Earth receives around 174 Petawatts of energy from sun 
and only a small part of it is sufficient to meet the annual 
worl...
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Scope of solar thermal power plants in India

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study the different technologies of CSP and find the scope in India.

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Scope of solar thermal power plants in India

  1. 1. Seminar Presentation on SCOPE OF SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN INDIA Under the Guidance of: Presented By: Dr. R. P. Saini Raj Kumar Bairwa Head of the department M-Tech (AHES) IIT Roorkee Enroll No.: 13512026 ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE 1
  2. 2. OUTLINES 1. Introduction 2. Energy scenario 3. Potential for solar energy in india 4. Solar thermal energy 5. Solar thermal power plants 6. Components of a CSP power plant 7. CSP technologies 8. Literature review 9. Conclusion 10. Gaps identified 11. References 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  For economic development Energy is the basic requirement.  Coal , Nuclear , Natural gases and Petroleum are used to exploit as main source of high quality energy products.  India is 3rd largest producer of electricity after US and China, even though suffers a major shortage of electricity generation capacity.  Installed capacity of electricity is 249.49 GW as of end June 2014.  Energy sources will play an important role in the world’s future given that the global demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Renewable power plants 12% 3 Sources of energy Non Renewable plants 88% constitute
  4. 4. ENERGY SCENARIO POWER SUPPLY POSITION IN INDIA IN 2014-15 4 REGION ENERGY PEAK POWER REQUIREMENT (MU) AVAILABILITY (MU) SURPLUS(+) / DEFICIT (-) DEMAND (MW) SUPPLY (MW) SURPLUS(+) / DEFICIT (-) Northern 3,28,944 3,18,837 -3.10% 47,570 46,899 -1.40% Southern 2,98,180 2,60,366 -12.70% 41,677 32,423 -22.20% Eastern 1,18,663 1,14,677 -3.40% 17,608 17,782 1.00% North Eastern 14,823 12,248 -17.40% 2,543 2,215 -12.90% Western 2,88,062 2,89,029 0.30% 45,980 52,652 14.50% ALL INDIA 10,48,672 9,95,157 -5.10% 1,47,815 1,44,788 -2.00%
  5. 5. RENEWABLE ENERGY 5 ENERGY SCENARIO TYPE TECHNOLOGY INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) OFF GRID / CAPTIVE POWER Bagasse Cogeneration 517.34 SPV Systems (>1KW) 159.77 Biomass Gasifiers - Industrial 146.40 Waste to Power 119.63 Biomass Gasifiers - Rural 17.63 Water Mills / Micro Hydro 10.18 Aero generator/ Hybrid Systems 2.18 TOTAL OFF GRID/ CAPTIVE POWER 973.13 GRID CONNECTED POWER Wind 20,298.83 Small Hydro Power Projects 3,774.15 Bagasse Cogeneration 2,512.88 Solar 2,208.36 Biomass Power and Gasification 1,285.60 Waste to Power 99.08 TOTAL GRID CONNECTED POWER 30,177.90 TOTAL 31,151.03
  6. 6. SOLAR POWER POTENTIAL 6  Globally:
  7. 7. POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ENERGY IN INDIA  About 5000 trillion kWh/year energy is incident over India’s land area.  Most parts receiving 4 – 7 kWh/m2/day.  1% of land area is sufficient to meet electricity needs of India till 2031.  Highest annual global radiation is received in Rajasthan (5.5 – 6.8 kWh/m2/day) and Northern Gujarat.  Most of India has solar insolation above 1800 kWh/ m2/ day.  250–300 clear and sunny days in a year. 7
  8. 8. SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY (STE) 8  Principle: Sunlight – Heat – Electricity Sunlight is concentrated, using mirrors or directly, on to receivers heating the circulating fluid which further generates steam &/or electricity.  Solar Radiation Components: Direct, Diffuse & Global  CSP uses- Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI)
  9. 9. SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS (STPP)  Solar energy can be tapped to produce electricity by using solar concentrators. 9  It is also called Concentrated solar power (CSP).  India can have a STE installed base of 4–5 GW by 2020.  Solar thermal technology for electricity generation is one of the best solution to the growing fossil fuel crisis.  Concentrating solar power (CSP) is not an innovation of the last few years. Records of its use date as far back as 212 BC when Archimedes used mirrors for the first time to concentrate the Sun’s rays.
  10. 10. WORKING OF SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT 10
  11. 11. COMPONENTS OF STPP 11
  12. 12. COMPONENTS OF STPP….. 12
  13. 13. 13 Concentrating Solar Technologies Low Temperature (<100°C) Flat Plate Collectors Solar Chimney Solar Pond High Temperature- Point Focusing (>400°C) Central Tower Parabolic Dish Medium Temperature – Line Focusing (≈ 400°C) Parabolic Trough Fresnel Collectors
  14. 14. Commercial CSP Parabolic Trough Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel Collector • Temp~400°C • Line Focusing • Linear Receiver tube • Water consuming • Conc.: Parabolic Mirrors • Heat Storage feasible • Most Commercialized • Good for Hybrid option • Requires flat land • Good receiver η but low turbine η 14
  15. 15. Commercial CSP Parabolic Trough Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel Collector • Temp~600-800°C • Point Focusing • Flat Conc. Mirrors • Commercially proven • Central Receiver • Water consuming • Heat Storage capability • Feasible on Non Flat sites • Good performance for large capacity & temperatures • Low receiver η but good turbine η 15
  16. 16. Commercial CSP Parabolic Trough Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel Collector 16 • Temp~700-800°C • Point Focusing • Uses Dish concentrator • Stirling Engine • Generally 25 kW units • High Efficiency ~ 30% • Dry cooling • No water requirement • Heat storage difficult • Commercially under development • Dual Axis Tracking 16
  17. 17. Commercial CSP Parabolic Trough Central Tower Dish Stirling Fresnel Collector • Temp~400°C • Line Focusing type • Linear receiver • Fixed absorber row shared among mirrors • Flat or curved conc. mirrors • Commercially under development 17 • Less Structures • 5 MW operational in CA
  18. 18. LIST OF SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN INDIA 18 Sr. no. Project name Location Turbine Description Technology Heat-Transfer fluid Type Turbine Capacity (MW) Thermal Storage Status, Start year Owner(s) 1. Abhijeet Solar Project Rajasthan, (Jaisalmer) SST-700 Parabolic trough Therminol VP-1 Net: 50.0 Gross: 50.0 None Under construction, 2013 Corporate Ispat Alloys Ltd. (100%) 2. AC ME Solar Tower Bikaner (Rajasthan) - Power tower Water/Steam Net: 2.5 Gross: 2.5 None Operational, 2011 AC ME Group (100%) 3. Dhursar Dhursar (Rajasthan) - Linear Fresnel reflector - Net: 125.0 Gross: 125.0 None Under construction, 2014 Reliance Power (100%) 4. Diwakar Askandra (Rajasthan) SST-700 Parabolic trough Synthetic Oil Net: 100.0 Gross: 100.0 4 hours Under construction, 2013 Lanco Infratech (100%) 5. Godawari Solar Project Nokh (Rajhastan) SST-700 Parabolic trough Dowtherm A Net: 50.0 Gross: 50.0 None Operational, 2013 Godawari Green Energy Limited (100%) 6. Gujarat Solar One Kutch (Gujarat) - Parabolic trough Diphyl Net: 25.0 Gross: 28.0 9 hours Under construction, 2014 Cargo Solar Power (100%) 7. KVK Energy Solar Project Askandra (Rajasthan) SST-700 Parabolic trough Synthetic Oil Net: 100.0 Gross: 100.0 4 hours Under construction, 2013 KVK Energy Ventures Ltd (100%) 8. Megha Solar Plant Anantapur (Andhra Pradesh) - Parabolic trough Synthetic Oil Net: 50.0 Gross: 50.0 None Under construction, 2013 Megha Engineering and Infrastructue (100%) 9. National Solar Thermal Power Facility Gurgaon - Parabolic trough Therminol VP-1 Net: 1.0 Gross: 1.0 None Operational, 2012 IIT Bombay (100%) 10. ‘India One’ solar thermal power plant Abu Road (Rajasthan) - Paraboliedal reflector Water 1.0 16 hours Under construction, 2011 WRST
  19. 19. 19 ADVANTAGES OVER COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES (EG. PV & WIND)  Heat Storage option – Electricity Supply after Sunset  Process Heat Generation  Hybrid Option  Good for High temperature regions  Predictable and reliable power (less variable)  Water desalination along with electricity generation OTHER BENEFITS :  Carbon Emission Reduction- CDM benefits Each square meter of CSP can avoid annual emissions of 200 to 300 kilograms (kg) of carbon dioxide, depending on its configuration.  No Fuel or its transportation cost - Substitutes Fossil Fuel use  Energy Security  High share of local contents  Employment Generation
  20. 20. Feasible Applications Utility / Commercial scale Domestic/small Scale  Electricity Generation  Stand alone  Grid projects  Hybrid projects  Industrial Process Heat  Boiling  Melting  Sterilizing  Cooling systems  Water Desalination  Hot Water collectors  Solar HVAC  Solar steam Cooking  Solar Ovens/cookers  Solar Food dryers SOPOGY Micro-CSP: SopoFlare 20
  21. 21. LITERATURE REVIEW 21 S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 1 Naveen Kumar Sharma et al. [1] Summarize the availability, current status, strategies, perspectives, promotion policies, major achievements and future potential of solar energy options in India. 1. Major government and industry R&D efforts aim to make solar thermal electricity (STE) and central photovoltaic (CPV) a mainstream power source within the next decade. 2 Atul Sharma [7] Discuss the various technologies, government policies, incentives etc. for harnessing the solar power in India and world. And Examines various ways in which solar power is precisely such an opportunity. 1. The economically exploitable potential of the solar power technology of India is quite high. 2. The development of solar thermal technology is imperative in India. 3. Ishan Purohit et al. [8] Assess the potential, financial viability of CSP generation in the Northwestern (NW) regions of India. Using Solar Advisor Model developed by NREL, USA for four commercially available and mature CSP technologies. 1. It is possible to exploit over 2000 GW CSP potential in the NW India.
  22. 22. Literature Review Continued … 22 S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 4. J.D. Nixon et al. [9] Study the main existing collection technologies and compared based on economical, technical and environmental criteria. This methodology is applied principally to a case study in Gujarat in north-west India. 1. Linear Fresnel lens with a secondary compound parabolic collector, or the parabolic dish reflector, is the preferred technology for north-west India. 5. V. Siva Reddy et al. [10] Case studies of typical 50 MW solar thermal power plants in the Indian climatic conditions at locations such as Jodhpur and Delhi is highlighted with the help of techno-economic model. Considering 30 years lifespan and 10% interest rate on investment. 1. parabolic dish concentrating solar Stirling engine power plant generate electricity at a lower unit cost than the other two solar technologies 6. A.S. Pidaparthi et al. [11] A test facility which would help in gaining experience in design, operation and maintenance of large scale solar thermal power plants by IIT BOMBAY. This facility would also help in facilitating research development in the solar industry in India. 1. The solar field consists of three loops with parabolic troughs of a total of about 1,500 meters in length and covering an area of 8,000 square meters. 2. The solar field configuration of three loops of four collectors includes 12 steel structures of 10 modules, 3,360.
  23. 23. Literature Review Continued … 23 S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 7. Richa Mahtta et al. [12] They determine district-wise potential for concentrating solar power (CSP) and centralized solar photovoltaic (SPV) technology based power plants in India. The evaluation is based on remotely sensed annual average global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI) provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) surface meteorology and solar energy program. 1. There is more scope for SPV as compared to CSP in India. 2. Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur districts of Rajasthan, Kachchh district of Gujarat show very high solar potential. 8. Pranesh Krishnamurthy et al. [13] A framework for calculating the cost of generated electricity from a concentrated solar power (CSP) plant and the internal rate of return on equity and different factors like Plant size, solar insolation and discount rate also consider and effect of variation of these are disused. 1. Important parameters related to cost of solar thermal power include location, availability of capital, thermal storage and plant size. 2. A 20% drop in solar field and power block costs combined with a 10% increase in collector efficiency and an increase by 5% in overall plant efficiency results in a generation cost of Rs.7 ($ 0.15)/kWh.
  24. 24. Literature Review Continued … 24 S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 9. K.S. Reddy et al. [14] A techno-economic feasibility analysis of a 5MWe solar parabolic dish collector field is carried out for entire India covering 58 locations. 1. The minimum and maximum average annual power generation at Panaji and Tiruchirappalli are 7.25 GWh and 12.68 GWh respectively. 2. The minimum levelised electricity cost (LEC) for a stand-alone solar parabolic dish power plant with the clean development mechanism (CDM) is found to be at Indore with payback period of 10.63 years with cost benefit ratio of 1.48. 10. T.V. Ramachandra et al. [15] They identify the solar hotspots based on the exploitable potential using high resolution global insolation data from NASA SSE in India across federal boundaries and agro-climatic zones. 1. Nearly 58% of the country receives annual average Global insolation of 5 kWh/m2/day. 2. It creates an employment opportunities especially in the village level. 11. Md. Fahim Ansari et al. [16] They try to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement solar power installations in India. Thirteen relevant barriers to implement solar power installations have been identified and interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology has been used. 1. High Pay-back period is coming at top of the model. 2. Lack of trained people and training institutes has been identified as linkage barrier which is an unstable barrier. 3. Need for backup or storage device, unavailability of solar radiation data and lack of R&D work have been identified.
  25. 25. Literature Review Continued … 25 S.No. AUTHOR(S) SYSTEM / PARAMETER(S) RESULTS 12. Ishan Purohit et al. [17] They done a technical and economical assessment of CSP technologies in India and to analyze the techno-economic feasibility in Indian conditions two projects namely PS-10 (Power technology) and ANDASOL-1 (parabolic trough technology) have been taken as reference. These two systems have been simulated at several Indian locations. 1. Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol the use of CSP systems is financially feasible in most of the locations considered in three states viz. Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. 2. The unit cost of electricity generated by these two systems at Rajasthan and Gujarat states is lower. 3. CDM benefits improve the values of financial performance indicators of CSP systems. 13. M.S. Soni et al. [18] They identified the Parameters required for the commissioning of solar power plants in India using solar PV and CSP technologies. And Forty one parameters are considered for the study. 1. For both PV and CSP technologies, direct investment cost was highly preferred economical attribute, while the insurance cost is least preferred. 2. Among technical parameters, location of the site is given top priority and Fire alarm system is given least favored. 3. In CSP, the type of CSP technology used is given top preference with slight variation in perception for other parameters. The module mounting structure is given last preference.
  26. 26. CONCLUSION 26 A large amount of Indian STE output is consumed in Delhi, Haryana, and Punjab, drawing upon supply sites in both Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. Population centers in Gujarat are also well positioned to extract power from Rajasthan. As of early 2010, the global stock of CSP plants neared 1 GW capacity. A number of projects being developed in countries including USA, Spain, India, Egypt, Morocco, and Mexico are expected to total 15 GW. All solar thermal power plants in India not used thermal storage technologies very efficiently. The launch of The JNNSM by MNRE, Government of India is the first step in the promotion and establishment of solar energy as a viable alternative to conventional sources. The establishment of feed-in tariffs and other incentives, passing dynamic government policies, and the cooperation of industry, researchers and other stakeholders will play crucial role in the development of CSP technology solar thermal power generation is totally a new technology in India, thus much more efforts are required for the upliftment of the energy scenario on large scale.
  27. 27. GAPS IDENTIFIED Though all three basic types of storage media (sensible, latent, thermochemical) have the potential to make solar power plants viable, more research is still needed to improve the thermal performance and economics of these systems. Other CSP technologies like Heliostat, parabolic dish system and solar chimney are not used up till now in India. Due to shortage of water in Rajasthan Parabolic dish / Engine system is a suitable option. 27 Dust problem is frequently occur in CSP plants so it requires more R&D.
  28. 28. REFERENCES [1] Sharma N.K, Tiwari P.K, Sood Y.R. Solar energy in India: Strategies, policies, perspectives and future potential. 28 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 933– 941. [2] Singh R, Sood YR. Transmission tariff for restructured Indian power sector with special consideration to promotion of renewable energy sources. IEEE TENCON Conf. 2009:1–7. [3] Sood Y.R, Padhy N.P, Gupta H.O. Wheeling of power under deregulated environment of power system-a bibliographical survey. IEEE Trans Power System 2002; 17(3):870–880. [4] Ministry of New and Renewable Energy source (MNRE), http://www.mnre.gov.in/achievements.htm; 2014 [accessed August 2014]. [5] Purohit I, Purohit P. Techno-economic evaluation of concentrating solar power generation in India. Energy Policy 2010; 38:3015–29. [6] JNNSM. Mission document, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission; 2009, <http://mnre.gov.in/pdf/mission-document-JNNSM.pdf> [accessed 29.7.2014]. [7] Sharma A. A comprehensive study of solar power in India and World. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1767–1776. [8] Purohit I., Purohit P., Shekhar S., Evaluating the potential of concentrating solar power generation in Northwestern India. Energy Policy 62(2013)157–175.
  29. 29. REFERENCES CONTINUED… [9] Nixon J.D., Dey P.K., Davies P.A., Which is the best solar thermal collection technology for electricity generation in 29 north-west India? Evaluation of options using the analytical hierarchy process. Energy 35 (2010) 5230-5240. [10] Reddy V.S., Kaushik S.C., Ranjan K.R., Tyagi S.K., State-of-art of solar thermal power plants-A review, Renewable and sustainable Energy reviews 27 (2013) 258-273. [11] Pidaparthi A.S., Prasad N.R., India’s first solar thermal parabolic trough pilot power plant. SolarPACES 2013, Energy Procedia 49 (2014) 1840 – 1847. [12] Mahtta R., Joshi P.K., Jindal A.K., Solar power potential mapping in India using remote sensing inputs and environmental parameters. Renewable Energy 71 (2014) 255-262. [13] Krishnamurthy P., Mishra S., Banerjee R., An analysis of cost of parabolic trough technology in India. Energy Policy 48 (2012) 407–419. [14] Reddy K.S., Veershetty G., Viability analysis of solar parabolic dish stand-alone power plant for Indian conditions. Applied Energy 102 (2013) 908–922. [15] Ramachandra T.V., Jain R., Krishnadas G., Hotspots of solar potential in india, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 3178– 3186. [16] Ansari M.F., Kharb R.K., Luthra S., Shimmi S.L., Chatterji S., Analysis of barriers to implement solar power installations in India using interpretive structural modeling technique. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 27 (2013) 163–174.
  30. 30. REFERENCES CONTINUED… [17] Purohit I., Purohit P., Techno-economic evaluation of concentrating solar power generation in India. Energy Policy 38 30 (2010) 3015–3029 [18] Soni M.S., Gakkhar N., Techno-economic parametric assessment of solar power in India: A survey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 326–334. [19] IEA. Technology roadmap concentrating solar power; 2010. /<http://www. iea.org/papers/2010/csp_roadmap.pdf >. [20] Behar O., Khellaf A., Mohammedi K., A review of studies on central receiver solar thermal power plants. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 23 (2013) 12–39. [21] Deodhar PS. Dust can reduce energy output. In: Electronics for you; 2010. p. 42 www.efymagonline.com/pdf/Solar- Tips Dusting.pdf. [22] Bhattacharyya CS. An overview of problems and prospects for the Indian power sector. Energy 1999; 19:795–803. [23] http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/projects_by_status.cfm?status=Operational [24] http://www.india-one.net/abouttheproject.html [25] http://energybusinessdaily.com/power/dust-removing-technology-couldincrease- solar-panel-efficiency/.
  31. 31. Earth receives around 174 Petawatts of energy from sun and only a small part of it is sufficient to meet the annual world electricity consumption of 20 Trillion kWh 31 We Just need to tap this potential Thank You

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