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Thermal energy storage system

A Brief introduction to thermal energy storage system (TES)

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Thermal energy storage system

  1. 1. Thermal Energy Storage system By Abhinav Bhaskar 1
  2. 2. Content Layout Introduction To TESS Classification Latent Heat Storage Phase change materials and application Case study application References 2
  3. 3. Thermal energy storage –Why do we need it ? Energy demands vary on daily, weekly and seasonal bases. TES is helpful for balancing between the supply and demand of energy Thermal energy storage (TES) is defined as the temporary holding of thermal energy in the form of hot or cold substances for later utilization. TES systems deal with the storage of energy by cooling, heating, melting, solidifying or vaporizing a material and the thermal energy becomes available when the process is reversed. TES system for a particular application depends on storage duration, economics, supply and utilization temperature requirements, storage capacity, heat losses and available space Peak Shaving 3
  4. 4. Demand Supply mismatch during peak hours State Demand Supply Surplus/Deficit Percentage Chandigarh 367 367 0 0.00 Delhi 6006 5925 81 1.35 Haryana 9152 9152 0 0.00 Himachal Pradesh 1422 1422 0 0.00 Jammu and Kashmir 2554 2043 511 20.01 Punjab 11534 10023 1511 13.10 Rajasthan 10642 10642 0 0.00 Uttar Pradesh 15670 13003 2667 17.02 Uttrakhand 1930 1930 0 0.00 4
  5. 5. Regional Supply Demand Mismatch-Year 2014 Region Energy Peak Requirem ent Availabilit y Surplus/Def icit % Demand Met Surplus/D eficit % Northern 332453 311589 20864 6.2757743 51977 47642 4335 8.340227 Western 317637 314923 2714 0.8544345 44166 43145 1021 2.311733 Southern 285797 274316 11481 4.017187 39094 37047 2047 5.236098 Eastern 119082 117155 1927 1.6182127 17040 16932 108 0.633803 North-Eastern 14224 12982 1242 8.731721 2528 2202 326 12.89557 5
  6. 6. Thermal Energy storage projects –World Wide 6
  7. 7. TES : Thermal Energy Storage 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 5 10 15 20 25 Temperature Heat added Q Solid -Solid Solid-liquid liquid-vapour Latent Heat Latent Heat B C D E O A
  8. 8. Process flow in a TES 8 Charging Storing DischargingExcess Heat/Cold
  9. 9. Thermal Energy Storage types 9 Thermal energy storage Cryogenic heat storage Latent heat storage Sensible heat storage Thermo- chemical heat storage Combination of LHES and SHES
  10. 10. Sensible Heat Storage Thermal energy is stored by raising the temperature of a solid orliquid. SHS system utilizes the heat capacity and the change in temperature of the material during the process of charging and discharging. Amount of heat stored depends on the specific heat of the medium, the temperature change and the amount of storage material. Ti = Initial Temperature Tf= Final Temperature Q= Heat stored Cp =Specific Heat m= mass of the material 10
  11. 11. LHES 11 The earliest Latent Heat energy storage system
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Phase change material-Classification 13 Phase change materials Organic Paraffin compounds Non-paraffin compounds Inorganic Salt Hydrates Metallics Eutectics Organic-Organic Inorganic-Inorganic Inorganic-organic
  14. 14. Selection Criteria for PCM material Melting temperature latent and sensible heat capacities Thermal stability, mechanical stability Cyclic property degradation Heat transfer characteristics Cost Corrosiveness Ozone depleting potential Fire hazard Ease of encapsulation 14
  15. 15. Melting Enthalpy and Temperature of PCM materials 15 Melting temperatures help in choosing the correct material for an application
  16. 16. Organic PCM materials Paraffins, fatty acids and sugar alcohols can be used as PCM . These material classes cover the temperature range between 0 ºC and about 200 ºC. Due to the covalent bonds in organic materials, most of them are not stable to higher temperatures. The most commonly used organic PCM are paraffins. Paraffin is a technical name for an alkane, but often it is specifically used for linear alkanes with the general formula CnH2n+2 Paraffins show good storage density with respect to mass, and melt and solidify congruently with little or no subcooling. Thermal conductivity is comparatively low. vapor pressure is usually not significant. Their volume increase upon melting is in the order of 10 vol.%; this is similar to that of many inorganic materials, but less critical as paraffins are softer and therefore build up smaller forces upon expansion. 16
  17. 17. Alkanes as PCM materials 17 -Pure Alkanes are expensive -Produced from fractional distillation of petroleum -A mixture of alkanes can be used -This provides better flexibility in terms of temperature ranges A3 A4
  18. 18. Slide 17 A3 Author, 9/2/2015 A4 Tetra Decane is the smallest alkane which has a melting point higher than zero Author, 9/2/2015
  19. 19. Fatty acids as PCM 18 A5
  20. 20. Slide 18 A5 Author, 9/2/2015
  21. 21. Inorganic Phase change materials 19 Material Melting Point © Density (kg/m3) Latent Heat(kJ/kg) Heat stored(kJ/k g) Heat stored(MJ/ m3) NaNO3 310 2260 172 354 800 KNO3 330 2110 266 388 819 NaOH 318 2100 165 373 783 KOH 380 2044 150 297 607 MgCl2/KCl/ NaCl 380 1800 400 496 893 FeCl2 304 2800 266 336 941 KNO3/4.5% KCl 320 2100 150 271 569
  22. 22. Salt hydrates as PCM material 20
  23. 23. Eutectic Mixtures as PCM 21
  24. 24. Technical Data for a RT-25 , Rubitherm GMBH 22
  25. 25. Commercially Available Phase change material 23
  26. 26. Solar thermal-Single tank schematic 24 Source:research.fit.edu/nhc/documents/TES_NAI_Journal_Final.pdf
  27. 27. Solar thermal -Two tank molten salt storage 25 Source:research.fit.edu/nhc/documents/TES_NAI_Journal_Final.pdf
  28. 28. Transportation-Cold chain • PCM materials are used for stabilizing temperatures during transportation of goods • They have replaced water as the temperature stabilization agent in medicine transportation. Due to the fact that PCM’s have higher melting point then water the medicine will not be subjected to lower temperatures then necessary and the risk of crystallization in the product has been eliminated. • PCM can revolutionize the frozen goods transportation market. • Replaced Dry ice is the most common used freeze agent in this type of transportations today. It is 26
  29. 29. PCM performance in cold chain application Generic Name Pros (Cold chain application) Cons(Cold chain application) n-Alkanes: CH3(CH2)nCH3 High latent heat; inert, non-toxic, non- corrosive Limited availability, limited biodegradability Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: CH3(CH2)nCOOCH Biodegradable, non-toxic, non- corrosive Limited availability, strong odor, solvent for EPS, latent heat below alkanes Fatty Alcohols: CH3(CH2)nCH2OH Biodegradable, non-toxic Limited availability, odor, flammable, easily oxidized, latent heat below alkanes Fatty Acids: CH3(CH2)nCOOH Biodegradable, good cycling stability, limited super-cooling Limited availability, causes burns, corrosive, latent heat below alkanes Salt Hydrates (inorganic): Salt∙nH2O Water based systems, packaging compatible, good latent heat Very limited availability, poor cycling stability, may be corrosive 27
  30. 30. Green Buildings 28 PCM materials are used for creating temperature control in Green buildings. • Commercial projects in Australia and Canada are showing good performance . • Encapsulated PCM materials can be mixed with the building construction material according to the requirement. • Lot of research is being done on embedding PCM material in the glasses used in buildings these days . • Both cold and hot climates can benefit from the use of PCM in building applications . • Increases the “thermal inertia” of the buildings by 300%. • Organic PCM materials are being used commercially.
  31. 31. PCM Encapsulation 29 Solid PCM Liquid PCM Solid PCM Heating Cooling Shell thickness
  32. 32. Case studies and application Project Name Technology Type Technology Type Category 1 Technology Type Category 2 Rated Power in kW Duration at Rated Power HH:MM Status Web Link India One Solar Thermal Plant Heat Thermal Storage Heat Thermal Storage Thermal Storage 100016:0.00 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming http://india-one.net Clique Solar Solar Thermal HVAC System Chilled Water Thermal Storage Chilled Water Thermal Storage Thermal Storage 17548:0.00 Operational Electric Bill Management with Renewables http://www.cliquesolar.com/latest.a spx# KVK Energy Solar Project Molten Salt Thermal Storage Molten Salt Thermal Storage Thermal Storage 1000004:0.00 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces /project_detail.cfm/projectID=260 Gujarat Solar One Molten Salt Thermal Storage Molten Salt Thermal Storage Thermal Storage 250009:0.00 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces /project_detail.cfm/projectID=263 Diwikar CSP Plant Molten Salt Thermal Storage Molten Salt Thermal Storage Thermal Storage 1000004:0.00 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces /project_detail.cfm/projectID=258 30
  33. 33. Major companies in India TESSOL CoolElectrica- Promthean Power systems Cristopia Energy Clique Solar Pluss (Research , Development and Manufacturing) 31
  34. 34. TESSOL 32 TESSOL Launches PLUGnCHILL Freezebox for grocery e- commerce TESSOL has developed a single and dual temperature freezer box for chilled and frozen transport of food / pharma products in the last mile. The box that comes in 100-200 liter capacity can transport goods in a desired temperature range for 6-8 hours while maintaining the desired temperatures. Some key features of the system: 1. Compressor less system on board (no power connection or additional load required) 2. Contains chargeable cartridges that can be added and removed in a couple of minutes 3. Thermal cartridges charged in an outside chiller and inserted in the vehicle 30 mins before leaving for a delivery Freezebox Fits inside the delivery truck
  35. 35. Promethean Power Systems 33 Feature Benefits Cooling Farm Produce at the Source • First cool and then transport principle enables longer shelf life and higher margins on premium quality produce. • Capture more % of farmers in the catchment area. • Eliminates post harvest losses Cold storage back up • Eliminates Diesel generator sets. • Low maintenance and operation costs. • Unlike electro-chemical batteries , thermal batteries don’t require replacement every 3-5 years. Simple Flexible design • Single phase connection at farms • Easy to operate.
  36. 36. 34 Technical Specifications
  37. 37. Challenges with Phase change materials Material Compatibility Material Properties and Thermal Performance Packaging for Use Conditioning for Use Cost and Availability Health, Safety and Disposal 35
  38. 38. 36 Comparison of water based and PCM based packaging
  39. 39. 37
  40. 40. Thermo Chemical Energy Storage (Brief) 38 • Storage by means of chemical reactions • Using reversible endothermic/exothermic reactions. • Drawbacks may include complexity, cyclability, uncertainties in the thermodynamic properties of the reaction components and of the reaction kinetics under a wide range of operating conditions, high cost, toxicity, and flammability
  41. 41. References http://www.coldchaintech.com/assets/Cold-Chain-Technologies-PCM-White-Paper.pdf http://www.pluss.co.in/consulting.html https://beopt.nrel.gov/sites/beopt.nrel.gov/files/Sharma%20et%20al,%202009%20- %20Review%20on%20thermal%20energy%20storage%20with%20phase%20change.pdf http://www.tessol.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/PLUGnCHILL-Brochure.pdf http://www.rgees.com/technology.php For more comprehensive lists of materials the reader should look at the early publications of Steiner et al. 1980, Abhat 1983, Lane 1983 and 1986, Schröder 1985, and more recent publications like Kakiuchi et al. 1998, Hiebler and Mehling 2001, Zalba et al. 2003, Sharma et al. 2004, Farid et al. 2004, and Kenisarin andMahkamov 2007. 39

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