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Compact Thermal Energy Storage Wim van Helden Webinar Leonardo-Energy 23 Jan. 2009
Contents of this Webinar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PRIMARY ENERGY USE FOR HEATING PURPOSES EU energy consumption
Position of Thermal Energy Storage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Relevance of Thermal Energy Storage For all energy sources buffering of heat is  desirable . For the application of solar thermal   energy and ambient heat   buffering is even  necessary .
Stage of development of TES technologies TCM (chemical) Research Sorption (latent) Development PCM (latent) Demonstration Water (sensible) Mature market
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Principles for Thermal Energy Storage
Classification of Thermal Energy Storage
Characteristics of TES ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
COMPACT HEAT STORAGE ,[object Object],[object Object],kWh/m 3 140-830 70 31 MJ/m 3 500-3000 250 110 Storage density Chemical Latent Sensible
Phase Change Materials ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PCM Energy stored as function of temperature
Latent heat storage in PCMs PCM interesting at small temperature difference (around melting temperature) Left: volume of water and of TH29 needed for storage of 1 MJ heat. Right: mass of water and of TH29 needed for storage of 1 MJ heat. Volume water and TH29  for 1 MJ storage 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 - 100 10 - 60 15 - 40 20 - 30 temperature difference (°C) litres water TH29 Mass of water and TH29  for 1 MJ storage 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 - 100 10 - 60 15 - 40 20 - 30 temperature difference (°C) kilograms water TH29
Water as Phase Change Material ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Latent heat storage in ice Storage tanks for water filled polyethene balls, 2 projects in United States
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Organic PCMs
Organic PCMs Left to right: - powder: 60% paraffine and   silica material - granulate: 35% paraffine    and diatomee earth  - boards: 65% paraffine and   wood fibre board New development.  Compound: 80% paraffine, for direct contact with water, for instance in reservoir
Latent heat storage: PCM for daily storage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Phase change Materials in walls development project with the partners  BASF, caparol, maxit and Sto with Fraunhofer ISE 1/1999 - 9/2004 funded by BMWi FKZ 0329840A-D
measurements  two identical rooms measured without and with two PCM products monitored  one year each result:  - 4 K difference reached - night ventilation  essential
Since 2004 several products: Different products with microcapsules: plaster, plasterbords, porous concrete… ….. Different macrocapsules: Dörken, Rubitherm, SGL, Climator and others BASF: micronal SmartBoard™ Other systems: Energain, Rubitherm granules Foto: BASF
Latent heat storage: inorganic PCMs PCM can of Climator: typically applied in transformer rooms and telecom installations Nodule of Cristopia: HDPE ball filled with eutectic salt
Storage for Concentrated Solar Power CSP ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Two-tank direct molten-salt thermal energy storage system at the Solar Two power plant. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Sorption heat storage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Zeolites ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Crystal structures of three basic zeolite types: ITA, CHA and MFI
Temperature dependance ,[object Object]
Zeolite ,[object Object],[object Object]
Heat Storage with Zeolite ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sorption heat storage: diurnal storage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Chemical heat storage General principle  A + B    AB + heat ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Materials selection (ECN, 2004) ,[object Object]
Thermochemical material – MgSO 4 x7H 2 O ,[object Object],Sample mass decreases at increasing temperature
The scale of chemi-sorption ,[object Object]
Magnesiumsulphate (ECN –NL) ,[object Object]
Sodiumhydroxide Storage (EMPA – CH) ,[object Object]
Chemical heat storage at higher temperatures ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
TCM Research and Development ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
International developments ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Materials and Applications ,[object Object],Energy Conservation through Energy Storage Solar Heating and Cooling
Task 42/24: Compact Thermal Energy Storage: Material Development for System Integration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Objectives ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
IEA Task/Annex 42/24 Matrix approach
The building blocks for Compact Thermal Energy Storage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
References ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Compact Thermal Energy Storage

  • 1. Compact Thermal Energy Storage Wim van Helden Webinar Leonardo-Energy 23 Jan. 2009
  • 2.
  • 3. PRIMARY ENERGY USE FOR HEATING PURPOSES EU energy consumption
  • 4.
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  • 6. Stage of development of TES technologies TCM (chemical) Research Sorption (latent) Development PCM (latent) Demonstration Water (sensible) Mature market
  • 7.
  • 8. Classification of Thermal Energy Storage
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  • 12. PCM Energy stored as function of temperature
  • 13. Latent heat storage in PCMs PCM interesting at small temperature difference (around melting temperature) Left: volume of water and of TH29 needed for storage of 1 MJ heat. Right: mass of water and of TH29 needed for storage of 1 MJ heat. Volume water and TH29 for 1 MJ storage 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 - 100 10 - 60 15 - 40 20 - 30 temperature difference (°C) litres water TH29 Mass of water and TH29 for 1 MJ storage 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 - 100 10 - 60 15 - 40 20 - 30 temperature difference (°C) kilograms water TH29
  • 14.
  • 15. Latent heat storage in ice Storage tanks for water filled polyethene balls, 2 projects in United States
  • 16.
  • 17. Organic PCMs Left to right: - powder: 60% paraffine and silica material - granulate: 35% paraffine and diatomee earth - boards: 65% paraffine and wood fibre board New development. Compound: 80% paraffine, for direct contact with water, for instance in reservoir
  • 18.
  • 19. Phase change Materials in walls development project with the partners BASF, caparol, maxit and Sto with Fraunhofer ISE 1/1999 - 9/2004 funded by BMWi FKZ 0329840A-D
  • 20. measurements two identical rooms measured without and with two PCM products monitored one year each result: - 4 K difference reached - night ventilation essential
  • 21. Since 2004 several products: Different products with microcapsules: plaster, plasterbords, porous concrete… ….. Different macrocapsules: Dörken, Rubitherm, SGL, Climator and others BASF: micronal SmartBoard™ Other systems: Energain, Rubitherm granules Foto: BASF
  • 22. Latent heat storage: inorganic PCMs PCM can of Climator: typically applied in transformer rooms and telecom installations Nodule of Cristopia: HDPE ball filled with eutectic salt
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  • 42. IEA Task/Annex 42/24 Matrix approach
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