Phonetics: Consonants
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Phonetics: Consonants

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Phonetics: Consonants Phonetics: Consonants Presentation Transcript

  • Consonants 26/2/2557
  • Egressive Pulmonic Consonantal Sound • Most speech sounds, and all normal English sounds, are made with egressive lung air.
  • Initiation • To produce any kind of sound, there must be movement of air. • To produce sounds that people today can interpret as words, the movement of air must pass through the vocal chords, up through the throat and, into the mouth or nose to then leave the body. • Different sounds are formed by different positions of the mouth—or, as linguists call it, "the oral cavity" (to distinguish it from the nasal cavity).
  • The two classes of sounds • Sounds of all languages fall under two categories: Consonants and Vowels.
  • Consonants • Consonants are produced with some form of restriction or closing in the vocal tract that hinders the air flow from the lungs. • Consonants are classified according to where in the vocal tract the airflow has been restricted. • This is also known as places of articulation.
  • Consonants
  • Places of articulation • Movement of the tongue and lips can create these constrictions and by forming the oral cavity in different ways, different sounds can be produced.
  • Places of articulation
  • Places of articulation
  • Places of articulation
  • Bilabial • When producing a [b], [p] or [m], articulation is done by bringing both lips together.
  • Bilabial
  • Bilabial
  • Bilabial
  • Bilabial
  • Labiodental • [f] and [v] are also used with the lips. • They, however, are also articulated by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
  • Labiodental
  • Labiodental
  • Labiodental
  • Labiodental
  • Interdental • [θ] and [ð] are both spelled as "th". • They are pronounced by inserting the tip of the tongue between the teeth. • (θ as in think) • (ð as in the)
  • Interdental
  • Interdental
  • Interdental
  • Alveolar • [t][d][n][s][z][l][r] are produced in many ways where the tongue is raised towards the alveolar ridge.
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Alveolar
  • Palatal • [ ʃ ] [ ʒ ] [ tʃ ] [ dʒ ] [ j ] are produced by raising the front part of the tongue to the palate.
  • Palatal
  • Palatal
  • Palatal
  • Palatal
  • Velar • [k][g][ŋ] are produced by raising the back part of the tongue to the soft palate or the velum.
  • Palatal
  • Uvular • [ʀ][q][ԍ] these sounds are produced by raising the back of the tongue to the uvula. The 'r' in French is often a uvular trill (symbolized by [ʀ]). The uvular sounds [q] and [ԍ] occur in Arabic. These do not normally occur in English.
  • Uvular
  • Uvular
  • Uvular
  • Uvular
  • Glottal • [h][ʔ] the sound [h] is from the flow of air coming from an open glottis, past the tongue and lips as they prepare to pronounce a vowel sound, which always follows [h]. • if the air is stopped completely at the glottis by tightly closed vocal chords the sound upon release of the chords is called a glottal stop [ʔ].
  • Glottal
  • Glottal
  • Glottal
  • Glottal
  • Glottal
  • Glottal