A survey of Facebook as a research site:From personal networks to the worldssocial graph and (something) in between Bernie Hogan [ @blurky ] Research Fellow, Oxford Internet Institute Summer Social Webshop 2012 August 21, 2012
Identifying this data is completely tractable• Backstrom, L., Dwork, C., and Kleinberg, J. (2007). Wherefore art thou r3579x? : anonymized social networks, hidden patterns, and structural steganography. In Proceedings of the 16th international conference on World Wide Web, pages 181–190. ACM New York, NY, USA. • Direct attack needs ~ sqrt(log(n)) nodes.• Narayanan, A. and Shmatikov,V. (2009). De-anonymizing social networks. Forthcoming: IEEE C&S. • Starting with even less and matching to existing network can get over 90% of the network accurately.
But network structure isn’t really social capital, is it? $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Me $ $ $ $ $ $
Williams Bridging Scale(Adapted by Ellison et al., 2011)
Williams Bonding Scale (Adapted by Ellison et al., 2011)•There are several people in my Facebook network I trust to help solve my problems.•There is someone in my Facebook network I can turn to for advice about making veryimportant decisions.•There is no one in my Facebook network that I feel comfortable talking to about intimatepersonal problems. (reversed)•When I feel lonely, there are several people in my Facebook network I can talk to.•If I needed an emergency loan of $500, I know someone in my Facebook network I canturn to.•The people I interact with in my Facebook network would put their reputation on the linefor me.•The people I interact with in my Facebook network would be good job references for me.•The people I interact with in my Facebook network would share their last dollar with me.•I do not know people in my Facebook network well enough to get them to do anythingimportant. (reversed)
Using Network Measures as Independent Variables 1. Community Detection. - Using the “Louvain method” to count the number of modularity maximized cohesive subgroups 2. Transitivity. - Using classic triangles over 3*2-paths method to assess global transitive ties 3. Giant Component. - Average network size: 217 - Median 89 percent of network members in the largest component, Median 98 percent in LC + isolates and dyads.
Summarizing the Good News from Structure • People feel differently about Facebook in relation to the connectivity of their network structure. • Not only is active Facebook use associated with social capital, but so is having a cohesive network with global closure, independent of behavior. • Bridging capital appears to be related to subgroups within the giant component, but more strongly to active engagement with the network.
Having two identities for yourself is an example of a lack of integritySource: http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/briansolis/2696198607/
Modern Life Facebook Hometown FamilyNeighbors Friends Sports Friends of Friends Co- Everyone workers
Not a homogenous groupFriends of FriendsEveryone
Oxford Friends Ex-students Hobby group Anonymous Friends Foreign friends
“I remember once one of my friends from University posted a linkon my wall. They know Im into sexual politics and gender and stufflike that – he knew I was doing a module on it. So yeah, this linkwas to a woman’s blog who was some kind of online sex workerwho specialised in weird and creepy fetish porn [laughter]. I mean,it was all reasonably tasteful because it was her blog not a pornsite, but, you know, there was nudity there and some prettyhardcore feminist statements about sex and whatever.So yeah, I sort of fell out with them a bit over it because….thoughthey probably weren’t thinking about it, I’ve got very religious familyback home in Gaza who look at my proﬁle all the time. If, youknow, one of my young cousins had clicked on that [laughter] theywould have just thought it was porn because they don’tunderstand. They wouldn’t get it. I’d have been in a lot of trouble.So, yeah, I was pretty mad. I had to delete it.” (A19)
The stageplay Source: http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/teagrrl/17574687/
Google and Facebook would have youbelieve that you’re a mirror, but we’re actually more like diamonds...Look from a different angle, and you see something completely different.
Special Thanks• Toronto: Barry Wellman, Juan Antonio Carrasco (and SSHRC)• MSU: Brandon Brooks, Nicole Ellison, Cliff Lampe and Jessica Vitek (and the NSF)• Oxford: Joshua Melville (and John Fell Fund)• Microsoft: danah boyd, Jeff Potter• Social Media Research Foundation: Marc A. Smith, Arber Ceni
Thank You Bernie Hogan Research Fellow, OII http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/hogan Twitter: @blurky firstname.lastname@example.orgHogan, Bernie. 2012, forthcoming. “Pseudonyms and the Riseof the Real Name Web”. Hartley, J., Burges, J., Bruns, A.,Blackwell Companion to New Media Dynamics.Hogan, Bernie. 2010. “The Presentation of Self in the Age ofSocial Media: Distinguishing Performances and ExhibitionsOnline.” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 30(6): 377-386.Hogan, Bernie. 2010. “Visualizing and Interpreting FacebookNetworks.” In Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL,eds. D Hansen, Marc A Smith, and Ben Shneiderman.Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann, p. 165-180.Brooks, Brandon, Howard T. Welser, Bernie Hogan & Scotttitsworth. 2011. “Socioeconomic Status Updates: Family SESand emergent social capital in college student Facebooknetworks.” Information, Communication & Society(OnlineFirst): 1-21.