Team QuestsBuis, L., T. Poulton, R. Holleman, A. Sen, P. Resnick, D. Goodrich, L. Palma-Davis and C.Richardson (2009). "Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program."BMC Public Health 9(1): 331.
Making the Tracking Social• Richardson et al• J Med Internet Res 2010;12(4):e71• Individual tracking only – 66% completed program• With forums – 79% completed• Same step count increases – 4468 6948 per day
Experimental Conditions: 2x2• Private commitments and results• Public commitments; private results• Private commitments; public results• Public commitments; public results
Design 1: Between Subjects• Each subject randomly assigned to one condition• Stay in the that condition for 14 weeks• Analysis: more walking in some conditions than others?
Power Analysis via Simulation• Each of K times, run a simulated experiment with n subjects – For each subject • Draw results from an assumed distribution – (e.g., condition 2 has 500 steps/day more on average than condition 1; some assumed variance between people, between days) – Run data analysis on the dataset • Record whether difference between conditions is statistically significant or not• Power = percentage of simulated experiments with significant results• Try different values for n, to see how many subjects you need
Design 1: Between Subjects• Each subject randomly assigned to one condition• Stay in the that condition for 14 weeks• Analysis: more walking in some conditions than others?• Power analysis: even 90 subjects per condition not enough!
Design 2: Partially Within-Subjects Design• Each subject starts with a no commitments baseline for a few weeks• Then randomly assigned to one of the four conditions• Analysis: compare difference from baseline, between conditions – Factors our individual• Power analysis: 65 subjects per condition 90% power
Embarrassment“I got people, you know, from my high schoolthat I am friends with that I havent talked toin 25 years. And I have no desire for them toknow about my weight issues or weight status.”“… I did not put that on because I didnt wanteverybody on Facebook knowing that my buttmuscle hurt today.”Newman, M. W., D. Lauterbach, S. A. Munson, P. Resnick and M. E. Morris (2011). Its notthat i dont have problems, Im just not putting them on Facebook: challenges andopportunities in using online social networks for health. Proceedings of the ACM 2011conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Hangzhou, China, ACM: 341-350.
Spamming“…mostly when I make things private, it’s morebecause I think they’d be boring orinsignificant to my friends, not because they’reactually things I wouldn’t want myfriends to know about. I just don’t want to clog uptheir Facebook with it.”Munson, S., D. Lauterbach, M. Newman and P. Resnick (2010). HappierTogether: Integrating a Wellness Application into a Social Network Site.Persuasive Technology. T. Ploug, P. Hasle and H. Oinas-Kukkonen, SpringerBerlin / Heidelberg. 6137: 27-39.
Comparison and Competition Avoidance• Comparisons can demotivate• Some people avoid them• Active U – 1 point increase in BMI 1% decrease in likelihood to join a teamBuis, L., T. Poulton, R. Holleman, A. Sen, P. Resnick, D. Goodrich, L. Palma-Davis and C. Richardson (2009). "Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediatedphysical activity program." BMC Public Health 9(1): 331.
Unhelpful Responses• “Oh, you are counting calories? That will never work, you have to count carbs/fat/fiber etc...”• “Oh, come on, its a birthday party, you can have ONE piece of cake...”• “Oh, youre fine the way you are, your husband loves you anyway, why put yourself through this?”Fromhttp://www.sparkpeople.com/resource/article_comments.asp?id=87&type=1
Summary• Benefits of tracking together – Behavior change – (Support) – (Decision-making)• Design Challenges – Sharing the right stuff with the right people – Matching social elements to individual needs
Conclusion• Advice – Collaborate with complementary experts – Go deep in fields you cross into – Learn math and programming in grad school – Understand Change