RAINFALL & SEASONS Dry Season Wet Season Water sensitive urban design emphasises the benefit of stormwater and waterways as a resource and an asset, rather than the Luanda is strongly affected by its clanging seasons. conventional view of stormwater merely as a nuisance. It provides many opportunities to integrate water features in urban design With a variation from months without any rain, the city is not prepared for the amounts of and to enhance the social and environmental amenity of urban water coming in only short time in the wet season.The sudden rain leads to huge problems development. within the city core of Luanda Water Sensitive Urban Design Rainfall in Luanda (323 mm)mm Water is everywhere before it is somewhere. It is rain before it is rivers, it soaks before it flows, it spreads before it gathers, it blurs before it clarifies. Water at120 116 mm these moments in the hydrological cycle is not100 easy to picture in maps or contain within lines. It is however to these waters that people are increasingly turning to find innovative solutions 80 76 mm to the myriad water-related crises that catalyze politics, dynamics, and fears. Is it not time to re- invent our relationship with water — see water 60 as not within, adjoining, serving, or threatening settlement, but the ground of settlement? Could 40 this be the basis of a new vocabulary of place, history and 36 mm ecology? And can the field of design, by virtue of its ability to 28 mm articulate and re-visualize, lead in the constructing this new 25 mm vocabulary? 20 mm 20 13 mm 5 mm 3 mm 0 mm 0 mm 0 mm 0 JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
LUNADA’S CHALLENGES OFINSUFFICIENT DRAINAGE “This happens every year when the rains come and it proves the Concidering Luanda’s extensive need of water, it’s a contradiction that the big amount of water today government is not prepared,” is only seen as a problem. How can the Luisete Araújo Political secretary for the Partidos de Oposição Civil (Civil sudden water be turned from a Opposition Parties) problem to a resource? HEAVY RAIN 18.00-20.00 Still waters are comfort zones for mosquitoes, and hereby promote the spread of malaria. EROSION Erosion causing damage to building mass. The informal settlement close to the edge of the coastal platau are extremely vulnerable to ground erosion. Electrically charged water causes many deaths, especially in the informal areas, where electrical solutions are not always adequately secured. “5 people died yesterday night due to rain. And it only rained for ACCUMULATION about two hours. The most common way of dying when there is heavy rain is from electric shock as the are so many open electric Erosion causing damage to intrastructure conduits that easily come in contact with water when it floods. INFILTRATION Some also get washed into drainage canals eighter due to erosion or they fall into the closed canals as the drainage lids sometimes Water affected og flooded roads causes huge traffic jams after every rainfall. moves due to the pressure from the water underneath.” Drainage problems causes mix of different hygienic JOAO HANDANGA GIL environments, promoting Administration Manager, DOF Subsea Angola Despite regulations, green spaces are disappearing as spread of diseases. the private sectors buy land through corruption. This Open, polluted waters are source increases the problem of drainage. of deseases. Luanda is one of the HERMENEGILDO NUNDA few cities in the world suffering Master of Economy, Connector from urban polio. In 2006, the worst African cholera epidemic in a decade devastated the musseques, killing 1600, spread by contaminated drinking water as well as contact with sewage.
CONSUMPTION US 380 l/ person/ day EUROPE 196 l/ person/ day SUB-SAHARA 4,9 l /person /day A MORE SUSTAINABLE RELATION TO WATER Limited access to clean water results in more efficient usage of the resource. The mucceque dwellers have a high consciousness related to water consumption, and uses it without hardly any spill. The water is a visible element playing an active role in the urban life, where the resource is carried and kept in containers instead of hidden in tubes. Water is valuable and is treated sophisticatedly. These are values easily lost in a tubed society. How to offer access to water, yet maintain the awareness and the sustainable way of using it?
ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER Water destillation plants outside Luanda 1 500 000 liters - 500 tank trucks of water driven to Luanda each day clean water tubes Water plays an active urban role in the musseques The tank water supplying the poorer population is several times more expensive than the tap water from tubes. 25% 75% LUANDA WATER SUPPLY Luanda, one of the fastest growing cities in the world, is desperately short of clean water. Most of the inhabitants of the musseques (the informal areas that constitute the majority of Luanda’s land area) are dependent on contaminated water brought by trucks from rivers hours north and south of the city. The price of water in the musseques can be very high. Shouldn’t clean water be seen not as a public good The formal water supply comes mainly from the Kwanzo and Bengo Rivers. The state of Luanda’s water supply system is -but as a public right? in very poor condition, with the operating company, Empresa Provincial de Agua de Luanda, unable to carry out normal functions such as maintenance, billing and maintaining accounts. Luanda’s two water production and treatment plants distributes water to about 25% of the residents. The majority of the population, and virtually all low-income communities, depend on private truck-distributed water that is frequently untreated and are also very difficult to afford. People in the mussiques uses a lot of time, effort and money in order to access (at best) clean water. Can sufficient water be captured Releasing this time and effort means to release huge resources! within the informal structure itself?
“Poor urban residents identified water supply and bettersanitation facilities as problems for which they requireassistance (...) Housing and constructions, however, werenot identified by the poor urban resident as problems forwhich they needed assistance.”ALLAN CAIN, Head of Deveolopment Workshop, LuandaConsidering this -what is our role as architects in such a context?
AT STAKETRANSPORTATION We find ourselves stuck in the traffic jam. It is moving slowly, when moving at all, and Mauricio takes the opportunity to buy a newpaper out the window. “It’s a good time to read the newspaper.“ INFRASTRUCTURE HAS NOT KEPT PACE WITH THE URBAN GROWTH
ROAD vs RAIL LUANDA CENTRE NA VIA THE RELIABLE TRAIN By train, the stretch from Luanda centre to Viana takes approximately half an hour. When no traffic or rain, the same stretch can be driven on 20 minutes . Yet, this is seldom the case. The same stretch could also take up towards 3 hours. to Ma lan je 10min 20min 30min 40min 50min 1h 1h10min 1h20min 1h30min 1h40min 1h50min 2h 2h10min 2h20min 2h30min 2h40min 2h50min 3h by train TIME SPENT ON TRAVEL by car (incl. rainfall)
THE INFORMAL CHAPA BUS The Chapa is an informal minibus system in Luanda, PAINT. serving mainly the people in the musseques. The system is flexible, cheap and user friendly. SIMPLE WAY TO FORMALIZE AND BENEFIT In Viana the Chapas count roughly one third of the cars on THE EXISTING CHAPA CULTURE the road, each able to hold at least twelwe passengers. BENEFIT THE BEST PUBLIC TRANSPORT ON THE ROAD THE BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) Bus rapid transit (BRT) was first implemented by Jaime Lerner in Brazil, and is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling. The goal of these systems is to approach the service quality of rail transit while still enjoying the cost savings and flexibility of bus transit Can the existing chapa culture, inspired The BRT a high-capacity urban public-transit system with its own right-of-way, multiple-car trains at short headways, and by Lerner’s BRT system, form the longer stop spacing than traditional streetcars and buses. BRT, however, uses buses on a wide variety of rights-of-way, including mixed traffic, dedicated lanes on surface streets, and busways completely separated from traffic. backbone of a rapid transit supporting The RBT provides improved riding quality as well as a specific image with a brand name marking stops and stations as well the rail? as the buses. The system’s brand identity contributes to its attractiveness as an alternative to driving cars.
CFL RAILWAY HISTORY 1975 Independence 2002 Peace declearance PORTUGESE COLONY CIVIL WAR 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 09 75 77 87 02 04 05 09 CFL Railline (Caminho de 60-70s: The railway Train Conductor Carolino Da Sousa Manuel Railway shut down due Ferro) between Luanda and played an important role starts working at CFL to war damages 2005: Rehabilitation of the line started. Reported to cost 350 milll dollars. Malanje inargurated in 1909. in portugese trade and Railline and stations constructed by the China Railway Construction Company 423 km of track transport With credit lines from China, in 2004 a US$4 billion project was launched to rebuild and modernise the three corridors. Reopening of the CFL Railway Thousands of passengers will utilize the trains Luanda- Malanje, and the trains will decrease transport times of locally grown agricultural products and cattle to Luanda; overcoming current problems that still exist regarding the storage and conservation of fresh products. Spending one month in Luanda, it became clear that infrastructure is one of the greatest challenges of the city. Not only the obvious traffic problems, enhanced by heavy rains and the lack of proper drainage systems. In Luanda 80% of the urban population do not have access to basic urban facilities. The stations, all in two floors, have an administrative area, restaurant, medical clinic, offices, residents for offices, area The re-opening of the railway has started a new optimism. Many people of lines control and rooms with a capasity of 200-500 passengers. see the rail development as key to gain more democratic access to urban facilities. THE RAILWAY LINE FROM LUANDA CITY CORE WILL STRENGTHEN THE ATTRACTION OF THE AREAS CONNECTED TO THE RAIL. THE TRAIN IS RELIABLE, AND BY FAR THE CHEAPEST WAY TO TRAVEL IN LUANDA. “The Government has a plan Also on a bigger scale - to tie together the wide land as well as the whole continent, the railway development is of constructing one more track so the trains can operate more considered key. effecticely and they can expand the timetables.” CAROLINO DA SOUSA MANUEL Commercial Inspector CFL (Train Conductor)
Huambo Huambo Huambo Benguela Benguela Benguela Lubango Lubango LubangoTHE JOINING RAILWAY Lubango Lubango LubangoThe inter-African rail-development The railway system of the continent mirrors the colonial mission to bring out the resources within each colony, as exports to western markets. Luanda Luanda Luanda Ndalalando Luanda Ndalalando Luanda Malanje Through extensive survey and research, the UN Habitat argue Luanda Malanje Ndalalando Malanje Ndalalando Malanje that adequate infrastructure and access to public transport MalanjeCONTINENTAL AFRICA Malanje is the second most effective way of reducing poverty, afterRAILWAY DEVELOPMENT access to health services. African Union work on several Lobito Lobito levels with trans-continental initiatives “Towards Greater Unity Lobito Lobito Lobito Huambo Lobito Huambo Benguela Huambo Benguela Huambo Benguela Benguela Huambo and Integration Through Shared Values”. The rehabilitation of Benguela Huambo Benguela “Towards Greater Unity and the continental railways is a part of this program, allowing for Lubango Lubango better connections and cooperation on an iter-continental Lubango Integration Through Shared Values” Lubango Lubango Lubango level. Rain (A.U.) Rain Vegetation < 600 mm Vegetation 400 A 600 mm < 600 mm Desert 600 A 800 mm 400 A 600 mm Brush Desert Today’s railways mm 800 A 1000 600 A 800 mm Proposed railways Savanna Brush Agricultural production Agricultural production Grassland Savanna normal 1000 A 1200 mm 800 A 1000 mm no information normal 1200 A 1400 mm 1000 A 1200 mm Deciduous forest and grass Grassland Undi erentiated woodland and grassland Deciduous forest and grass a ected no information 1400 A 1600 mm 1200 A 1400 mm > 1800 mm 1400 A 1600 mm Broadleaf evergreen forest Undi erentiated woodland and grassland highly a ected a ected > 1800 mm Broadleaf evergreen forest highly a ected P P P P The three colonial railways of Angola were build only in the PIC purpose of transporting resources from the inlands towards Luanda PIC Luanda Ndalalando Luanda Ndalalando The CFL Rail Luanda the coast in Ndalalando of export. Luanda order Malanje Malanje Malanje Malanje Ndalalando Malanje Today the continental markets are growing, and the rail willNATIONAL ANGOLA regain their importance -this time inwards, and with broaderRAILWAY DEVELOPMENT C Lobito Lobito The Benguela Rail Lobito purposes. Lobito C Lobito Huambo Huambo Huambo Huambo Benguela Benguela Benguela Benguela Huambo Benguela Lubango Lubango Lubango Lubango M The Lubango Rail Lubango M Resources Resources Resources M Marble Co ee I Iron/Steel Processing Diamond Mining M Marble Sisal Co ee Wood Processing I Iron/Steel Processing Iron Mining Diamond Mining Export Timber Sisal Oil Re nery Wood Processing Colonial railways of Angola Textiles P Iron Mining Oil eld C Export Timber Plant Cement Oil Re nery Cotton Textiles Fishing P XOil eld Explosives Plant C Cement Plant Oil Re nery Cotton Electric Power X Fishing Hydroelectric Station Explosives Plant Agricultural Scheme Oil Re nery Livestock Electric Power Hydroelectric Station Agricultural Scheme Livestock Luanda Luanda Luanda Ndalalando Ndalalando Malanje Malanje Malanje Lobito Lobito Lobito Huambo Huambo Huambo Benguela Benguela Benguela Lubango Lubango Lubango RainCITY-SCALE LUANDA < 600 mm VegetationRAILWAY DEVELOPMENT 400 A 600 mm Desert 600 A 800 mm Brush Agricultural production 800 A 1000 mm Savanna Grassland normal 1000 A 1200 mm Deciduous forest and grass no information 1200 A 1400 mm 1400 A 1600 mm Undi erentiated woodland and grassland a ected > 1800 mm Broadleaf evergreen forest highly a ected P P 1909: CFL Railline opens 1987: CFL Railline closed down due to 2009: Ringroad and re-opening of the CFL-line To be continued war damage PIC Luanda Ndalalando Malanje C Lobito Huambo Benguela
LUANDA- MALANJETravveling to what is today the end stationof the BRT Railline; Malanje.There: 25.03.11, First ClassBack: 27.03.11, Third Class VEGETATION Undifferentiated woodland and grassland RAINFALL 400-600 mm 600-800 mm 800-1000 mm 1000-1200 mm km 8 31 45 65 135 190 time 05.10 08.24 destroyed local train CFL railway, reconstructed state of the railTo understand the country, it’s dimensions,landscapes, prides and huge contrasts of living. 07.18 LUANDA TEXTANG LUANDA MUCIQUE VIANA BAIA CATETE BARAKA N’DALAHUI LUINHA “Along the CFL rail line you will find houses made by sand bricks and ZENZA DO ITOMBE thatched straw, instead of cement bricks and corregated steel. Building with bricks was a technique introduced by the Portuguese, and was common in rural areas. Small-scale farmers settled along the rail line are called aldeias. They mainly produced food for survival, but also did some selling of surplus along the rail. These small rural societies are about to disappear, because the young people prefer to move to the cities.” HERMENEGILDO NUNDA Master of Economy
Broadleaf evergreen forest Savanna Deciduous forest and grass 1200-1400 mm 1000-1200 mm 1000-1200 mm 1000-1200 mm 209 241 425 11.03 11.33 12.21 14.02 15.00 CFL railway, reconstructed CFL railway, reconstructed continuation New, improved stretch with less curves? 10.53 “Angola has 100 000 hectares of wood land, but 12.42 14.13 The landscapes are stunningly beautiful and green -oppisite from only 30 000 of these are in use for production. The what one would probably expect. And everybody seem so proud country has more potential when it comes to this of their country in here. These are landscapes people really feel production. But it’s an expensive investment, and attached to. there is not much wood consumption internally in Angola, so almost everything has to be exported.” Most people in the city grew up in these landscapes and JORGE LORENCO CONCEICAO many still consider their home. Motor Claims Assessor LUCALACANHOCA KIZENGA N’DALATANDO LOMBE CAMBUZE CACUSO MALANJE