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Kenya workshop 1540 dual-benefit assistance - bergenas.final

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  • 1. Johan Bergenäs Research Analyst The Stimson Center 1111 19th St., NW 12th Floor Washington, DC 20036 (202) 478-3443 [email_address] PROMOTING REGIONAL SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT WITH INTERNATIONAL SECURITY ASSISTANCE: A LEGAL-REGULATORY WORKSHOP Day I “ Opportunities through UN Security Council Resolution 1540” September 20-22 Nairobi, Kenya
  • 2. Donor Government Priorities
    • Counterterrorism
    • 10 years after 9/11 global counterterrorism capacity-building remains top priority among donor countries; resources committed to this priority are vast
    • WMD nonproliferation
    • 2002 G8 Global partnership established to provide $20 billion toward the nonproliferation of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons (focus on FSU states)
    • Extended for 10 years with global reach, including implementation of Resolution 1540, offer opportunity for Kenya and East Africa region
  • 3. UN Security Council Resolution 1540
    • Adopted unanimously in 2004 in response to A.Q. Khan nuclear “black market.”
    • Legally binding call to:
    • Enact legal and enforcement mechanisms to prevent non-state actors from manufacturing, acquiring, transshipping WMD
    • Develop, update and enhance physical protection measures of WMD and related materials, effective border and strategic trade controls, judicial, financial, law enforcement systems etc.
    • Encourages states with the capacity to provide assistance and in turn encourages states in need of implementation assistance to request any resources (financial, technical, human assistance) that will enable them to meet the requirements of 1540
  • 4. Development/Security Priorities of Kenya/East Africa
    • Near unimpeded flow of small arms and light weapons into and within the East Africa region fuels conflict, furthers and elevates impact of violence and significantly hinders prospects for economic development, education, other social programs
    • Public health challenges including tuberculosis and outbreaks of plague and rift valley disease have killed thousands in recent years, significantly impacting regional economies
    • Al-Shabaab has launched repeated cross border attacks into Kenya and neighboring countries including Uganda, killing and wounding hundreds
    • Somali refugees continue to flee across borders in astonishing numbers due to civil violence threatening regional stability and greatly impacting humanitarian efforts
    • East Africa has become a new source and transit point for illicit drugs with related violence and addiction rates rising
  • 5. What Type of Capacity is Needed?
    • Develop legislative framework
    • Border controls
    • Export/transshipment controls
    • Financial controls
    • Physical security of materials/equipment
    • Law enforcement
    • Legal training
    • CBRN expertise training/equipment /notification
    • Legal development
    • Rule of law
    • Institutional capacity building
    • Provision of equipment
    • Training
    • Tertiary education
    • Personnel development
    • Border controls
    • Customs enforcement/revenue collection
    • Global competitiveness/development
    • Logistics
    • Infrastructure development
    • Disease surveillance and response
    • Reform public finance
    • Prevent natural resource trafficking
    • Improve reliability of transport system
    • Provide mobile health centers for rural areas
    • Training, logistics for public health providers
    Resolution 1540/broader security imperatives Kenya/regional development/security challenges
  • 6. 1540 “Dual-Benefit” Security Assistance
    • Assistance provided to enhance border and export controls to prevent WMD proliferation to non-state actors also inhibit regional terrorist activities
    • Many of the resources required to limit dual-use nuclear products from being trafficked throughout Kenya/East Africa are the same capacity-building necessary to combat SALW and drug smuggling
    • Assistance with strategic trade controls promote efficiencies at transit hubs that in turn facilitate trade expansion, business development and national competitiveness within the global supply chain
    • Detecting and responding to biological weapons requires a functional disease surveillance network and a public health infrastructure , and assistance requisite for implementation of the Biological Weapons Convention similarly supports national public health capacity and adherence to I nternational Health Regulations (IHR)
    • Preventing human trafficking relies upon many of the same resources and capacities necessary to detect and prevent movement of terrorists or nuclear components and materials to states and terrorist organizations; and
  • 7. 1540 Dual-Benefit Security Assistance to Meet Kenyan Priorities Economic and Rural Development, Public Health, Disease Surveillance, Education, Good Governance, Rule of Law Development Small Arms Proliferation, Illicit Trafficking, Terrorism, Human security Security Nonproliferation of Biological, Chemical and Nuclear Weapons Resolution 1540 Border, Export and Customs Controls, Rule of Law, Tertiary Education, Disease Surveillance, Countertrafficking, Public Health Infrastructure, Law Enforcement, Security Sector Reform
  • 8. Recent 1540 Dual-Benefit Security assistance success stories
    • Caribbean region and Central America have successfully requested 1540 dual-benefit assistance to cover broader security and development capacity-building needs throughout the regions
    • 1540 regional coordinators
    Economic Development and Diversification Development Counterdrug Efforts, Preventing Small Arms Trafficking, Addressing Youth Gangs and Crime Security WMD Nonproliferation Resolution 1540 Securing Borders, Customs Enforcement, Military/Law Enforcement Personnel Training, Tertiary Education