The Beyond Boundaries Initiative:Promoting Development and Capacity Building in Kenya with International Security Assistance December, 2010 Nairobi, Kenya
Donor Government Priorities • Terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 alters many governments’ security priorities • Dual focus for international security assistance focuses on: – Nonproliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons: $20 billion G8 Global Partnership established to provide international assistance – Counterterrorism: Even larger sums of money dedicated to counterterrorism capacity building assistance worldwide
UN Security Council Resolution 1373 • Passed unanimously on September 28, 2001 • Response to September 11 terrorist attacks • Legally binding call to – Deny safe haven to those who finance, plan, support or commit acts of terrorism. – Develop measures to criminalize terrorist financing, implement effective border controls to prevent the movement of terrorists, and ensure that any person who participates in or supports an act of terrorism is brought to justice. • Notes concern with the close connection between terrorism, transnational organized crime, illicit drugs, money-laundering, illegal arms trafficking, and illegal transport of nuclear, biological and chemical materials, and in turn, emphasizes the need for enhanced coordination at the national, subregional, regional, and international levels.
UN Security Council Resolution 1540 • Passed unanimously in April 2004; • Response to AQ Khan nuclear “black market;” • Legally binding call to: – Enact legal prohibitions preventing non-state actors from manufacturing, acquiring WMD; – Develop measures to prevent WMD trafficking, enhance physical protection measures, effective border controls, law enforcement efforts etc. • Includes provision encouraging states with the capacity to provide international assistance to do so; and, in turn, encourages states in need to request any assistance that will enable them to meet the requirements of 1540
African Development/Security Priorities • Several outbreaks of plague and rift valley disease have killed hundreds in recent years across East Africa, significantly impacting regional economies; • Small arms flow unimpeded across Somali borders prompting small arms violence in neighboring countries; • Al-Shabaab has launched repeated cross border attacks into Kenya; • East Africa has become a new source and transit point for illicit drugs with related violence and addiction rates rising; • Somali refugees continue to flee across international borders in astonishing numbers due to civil violence; • In 2009, Ethiopia ranked 7th among the 22 high-burden tuberculosis countries with rates growing on an annual basis.
Dual-Use Security Assistance • Legal development Development Security • Rule of law Challenges Imperatives • Institutional capacity building • Provision of equipment • Develop legislative • Training framework • Tertiary education • Border controls • Personnel development• Export/transshipment • Border controls controls • Customs enforcement/revenue collection • Financial controls • Global competitiveness/development • Logistics • Physical security of • Infrastructure development materials/equipment • Disease surveillance and response • Law enforcement • Reform public finance • Legal training • Prevent natural resource trafficking • CBRN expertise • Improve reliability of transport system training/equipment • Provide mobile health centers for rural /notification areas • Training, logistics for public health providers
Dual Use Security Assistance• Assistance provided to enhance border and export controls to inhibit terrorism and proliferation can also aid the prevention of small arms or drug trafficking and promote efficiencies at transit hubs that in turn facilitate trade expansion, business development and national competitiveness within the global supply chain;• Detecting and responding to biological weapons requires a functional disease surveillance network and a public health infrastructure, and assistance requisite for implementation of the Biological Weapons Convention similarly supports national public health capacity and adherence to international health regulations (IHR);• Preventing human trafficking relies upon many of the same resources and capacities necessary to detect and prevent movement of terrorists or nuclear components and materials to states and terrorist organizations; and• Governments’ pursuit of energy diversification through nuclear power can be aided with technical and capacity building assistance from nonproliferation accounts. Global solutions to global problems using UNSCR 1373/1540 as mechanisms
Dual Use Benefits in Meeting Kenyan Priorities Nonproliferation & Counterterrorism Counterterrorism WMD Nonproliferation (UNSCR 1373/1540) Security Sector Reform Border Security Rule of Law Tertiary Education Disease Surveillance Organized Crime Countertrafficking Trafficking of Small Arms, Economic Development Drug Trafficking Energy Diversification Money Laundering Tertiary Education Security Contraband Smuggling Disease Surveillance Development Rule of Law
Goals1. To better understand the domestic priorities of the Kenyan government and its people;2. To characterize the national capacities, and where necessary, the international assistance required to meet these objectives;3. To identify non-traditional streams of international assistance that provides such assistance.