Thanks Yuki-san for your kind introduction. It is my great honor to conduct my presentation in Stimson Center. I am COL. Nobutaka Minamikawa, Visiting Fellow of Stimson Center from JGSDF. Today, I would like to conduct presentation on “Status and Future Challenge of JGSDF in International Peace Cooperation Activities-Through a lens of Capacity Building.”
I have 5 contents in my presentation. At first, I briefly talk about SDF’s past efforts in International peace cooperation activities. Next I make sure major points and descriptions on international peace cooperation activities in2010 National Defense Program Guideline approved end of last year. After that I would like to express roles of SDF in Capacity Building and challenges for more effective activities, taking 2010 NDPG into consideration. The last is conclusion. And I would like to add that the views expressed in my presentation are my personal views. Nothing spoken here reflects the views of Stimson Center, Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Ministry of Defense of Japan, or the Government of Japan.
So I would like to start from SDF’s past efforts in IPCA.
This slide shows the overview of Japanese legal framework for IPCA. Japanese IPCA is roughly divided into two parts, one is activity based on permanent laws, the other is activity based on time-limited, often known as special measures laws. International Peace Cooperation Activities based on PKO cooperation law, disaster relief (DR) based on International Disaster Relief Law, Anti-piracy Activities based on Anti-Piracy Special Measures Law are activities based on permanent laws. If needs occur, these activities will be judged whether to dispatch units or not, by the government. Cooperation in the reconstruction of Iraq and international terrorism are activities based on time-limited special measure laws. These activities required new laws every time SDF dispatch is required. Consequently activity based on time-limited laws require time for deliberation of the Diet.
This slide shows the past activities conducted by GSDF. Light blue shows UN’s peace keeping activity, green shows disaster relief activity, purple shows humanitarian relief assistance, yellow shows others. After UNTAC dispatched in 1992, GSDF’s experiences and achievements are improving steadily. Red letters are current operations. I would like to talk about those in next slide.
Currently GSDF dispatch over 450 members to five regions in the world. About 50 members in UNDOF are in charge of transportation, 62 members in Djibouti defends Maritime Self-Defense Forces’ P-3Cs that conduct anti-piracy activity, about 350 members in Haiti are engaged in engineer activities. In addition, 2 members in Sudan are on duty as staffs of UNMIS HQ’s, 2 members in East Timor patrol in various parts of East Timor as Military Liaison in UNMIT.
This slide show you the comments on SDF’s past IPCA from the world. From the top of this slide you can see how well received SDF’s activities in Iraq, Golan Heights and Pakistan. Other activities of SDF are also received a lot of words of appreciation from U.N. officials, government and local people of supported countries. Activities in Iraq are the good example of that. SDF’s activities are highly appreciated by international community because of its style of respecting local cultures and customs, and also trying to share the perspectives of local people.
Next I talk about the 2010 National Defense Program Guideline approved at the end of last year. First I explain the significance of the 2010 NDPG. After that I touch on the major points and descriptions on international peace cooperation activities in the 2010 National Defense Program Guideline.
First, I explain the significance of NDPG. Government of Japan set the basic principles of Japan’s security policy and the target levels of defense equipment in the National Defense Program Guidelines for the first time in 1976. Since then, the NDPG has been revised in 1995, 2004 and most recently last year. Government of Japan also sets Mid-term Defense Program for next 5 years based on National Defense program Guidelines, Mid-term Defense program give shape to Maximum sum of cost in 5 years and numbers of main equipment. Government of Japan has conducted defense build-up based on the MTDP. The annual budget are a ppropriate necessary costs with careful consideration of situations and other factors. And annual budget will be approved through the deliberation of the Diet.
This slide show the relationships between NDPG and MTDP after the 1995NDPG. Government of Japan planed to set new MTDP in fiscal year 2009-2010. But a change of government from the Liberal Democratic Party to the Democratic party of Japan affected that plan, creating an one-year vacuum. Democratic party of Japan postponed setting new MTDP because it wants to fully deliberate the new NDPG. So the budget for the FY 2009-2010 is unusual because it is not based on any long-term defense plans. This time, New MTDP was set with new NDPG in December 2010.
This slide shows the major points of 2010NDPG. The first point is the “Dynamic Defense Force” concept which focuses on how to better operate the SDF. 2010NDPG mentioned that Japan will change “basic Defense Concept” which places priority on ensuring deterrence through the existence of defense forces per se to “Dynamic Defense Force” which effectively deter and respond to various contingencies. Japan will develop a Dynamic Defense Force that possesses readiness, mobility, flexibility, sustainability, and versatility. These characteristics will be reinforced by advanced technology based on the trends of levels of military technology and intelligence capabilities. The second point is to deepen and develop the Japan-US Security Alliance and to stabilize the Asia-Pacific region. Japan considers the Alliance indispensable in ensuring the peace and security of Japan. And 2010NDPG concretely mentioned various challenges in order to deepen and develop the Alliance. It also repeats the importance of the stabilization of the Asia-Pacific region. The third point is to strengthen SDF’s response capability on offshore island which has been “vacuum area” of defense capability. The fourth point is to promote the bilateral and multilateral cooperation and to develop the Capacity Building as a tool to promote global security cooperation. The last one is Japan’s own challenges, Japan will need to tackle political issues, such as the establishment of national security council, revise Five Principles for participation in UN Peace Keeping Activity and consider Three Principles Arms Exports. On the whole, I felt that the 2010 NDPG allows Japan to have a more effective and operation-oriented force.
I would like to review the descriptions on IPCA in 2010NDPG. Next four slide show the excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG. As you can see, the 2010 NDPG refers to IPCA in many places. In the 2010 NDPG, basic concept of IPCA that “Japan will participate more actively in IPCA” is included in the basic principles of Japan’s security policy. Also, key wards on IPCA in 2010NDPG are “cooperation between military and non-military”, “cooperation in non-traditional security field” and “ Capacity building”.
Next, in the sections of “Cooperation with its Ally” and “Multi-layered Security Cooperation with the International Community”, references to IPCA are made in the context of “Cooperation in Asia-Pacific region” and “Cooperation with international community”. As for Cooperation in Asia-Pacific region, Japan will play an appropriate role in efforts toward establishing regional order, norms and practical cooperative relationships, particularly through initiatives in the non-traditional security field, through such frameworks as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the ASEAN Defense Ministers' Meeting Plus (ADMM Plus). As for Cooperation with international community, Japan will robustly engage in international peace cooperation activities with diplomatic efforts including effective use of Official Development Assistance (ODA).
In “roles of defense forces” under the section of “Future defense forces”, we can see same three key ward. IPCA is also mentioned “Force posture” .
In “Organization, Equipment and Force Disposition”, it is mentioned that SDF will have to do a lot of things in order to participate in IPCA more aggressively. Finally, in the section of “Basic Foundations to Maximize Defense Capability”, potential revision of so called Three Principles of Arms Export is mentioned. As I mentioned, the 2010 NDPG strongly argues that Japan will participate in international peace cooperation activities more aggressively and proactively. Also, it should be noted that the word “Capacity Building” was used for the first time in this document.
So, I will talk about the role of SDF in capacity building. As I mentioned, Japan thinks capacity-building one of important tools to improve security environment. US Forces has engaged in capacity-building from the beginning of 1990s. I think there are large knowledge and capability gap between US and Japan, because Japan is only starting to focus on capacity-building now. Today, I will share my opinions on how Japan should conduct capacity-building and the challenges we have.
What is capacity-building anyway? It is said that the concept of institution building first proposed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in the early 1970s evolved into the concept of capacity building by 1991. The definition of capacity-building is, as you see, the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional development, including community participation, human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems, and capacity building is a long-term, continuing process. Recipients of the capacity building assistance are fragile states, developing countries and so on. Donors are U.N., other international organizations, nations including government organizations and military, NGO, commercial companies and so on. Capacity building needs vast knowledge and experience. That goal of capacity-building is to prevent fragile states from becoming security risks like a hotbed of terrorists.
This slide shows the image of Capacity Building. The slide shows various functions of a nation-state to parts of puzzle. As you can see, the functions to run a nation-state is like complicated pieces of a puzzle. There is no way to generalize capacity-building. It is very diverse and it is depend on what the needs of the recipient of assistance. It also depends on the background, such as the religion, custom and history of the nation that receives assistance. In short, the needs of capacity-building can be very complex. I think it is very important for each provider of assistance in capacity-building that they will provide assistance in close coordination with other donors.
The objective of the capacity-building is “to enable a nation-state to operate stably.” The way to achieve this goal and the courses of action often needs to adjust. For instance, in order to make “the stabilization of the area” a higher priority, the most basic support has to start from establishing the viable government and a legislative body. This is sometimes a challenge when the area is already in anarchy after a nation suffered from a large-scale natural disaster ? In such a case, the capacity-building effort will start from saving lives, followed by restorations and reconstructions of the nation. In developing countries, the major efforts are in developing human resources and establishing the systems which the country don’t have at the moment. In short, there are a variety of approach to reach the goal of capacity-building.
There are many actors in the field of capacity-building. They include international organizations, governmental organizations, NGOs and so on. What’s the roles of the military in it? The key features of the military include combat power, self-sufficiency and multi-functionality. For example, in case of capacity-building in fragile states, military can deploy from the very beginning in order to secure the safety, construct basic infrastructures and train their security forces and the police. Also the military can support elections to establish the legitimate government in cooperation with other donors. You can see the key roles of military in capacity-building efforts through US Forces’ activities in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Next I would like to talk about the roles of SDF in capacity-building, taking the general roles of military into consideration. But prior to that, I will talk about the features of SDF. I would like to think along the lines mentioned in the previous slide. First, in regards to combat power, SDF are very restricted in its use of weapons by law. SDF is allowed to use weapons only in self-defense and emergency evacuation. Self-sufficiency and multi-functionality are as same as others. Also, the experiences and know-how through the past efforts are effective in capacity building. Furthermore, I would like to mention that SDF is among one of the most advanced armed forces in the Asia-Pacific region. The reason why GSDF takes the three points in the slides into consideration is because of these features. Moreover, we often heard the words such as “a meaning of dispatch” or “a great reason to dispatch” in Japan. It is also important to gain general consensus among the public in Japan.
From such a point of view, Southeast Asia is a region where we can be helpful. The importance of Southeast Asia is mentioned in the 2010 NDPG. Japan has also strengthened the relationship in frame of ASEAN and ARF in the last several years. Furthermore, the security situation in Southeast Asia is more or less stable, and t here are a lot of requests on HA/DR, anti-piracy, disposal of landmines and unexpected shells, and so on from the countries in Southeast Asia. I think capacity-building activities in Southeast Asia is the good first step for Japan. The expenditure for capacity-building in this region in the MOD budget is currently under deliberation in the Japanese Diet.
Next I talk about challenges Japan faces in conducting capacity building more effectively. I have 4 points.
First, I talk about the restriction on integration with the use of force. As you know, Japan has Article 9 of the Constitution. When Japan dispatched SDF abroad, the concept of “integration with the use of force” has often been debated in Japan. This slides explains the description of the restriction on “the integration with use of force”. In case of capacity-building, however, this issue needs to be considered on case=by-case bases because a certain types of training such as rifle training and combat training may be interpreted as “the integration with use of force”.
Next, I talk about a challenge on three principles of arms export. As to Three Principles of Arms Export, it often becomes the topic in the context of the limitation for Japan’s participation in multinational joint weapon development and production projects and the limitations of the development and maintenance of defense industrial capability and technological bases. However, I would like to suggest the follows from the perspectives of capacity-building. For instance, SDF builds road, bridge and so on with equipments that SDF brings. During the operation, SDF trains and educates the local population how to operate and maintain the equipments. After mission completed, SDF will go back to Japan. At that time, if SDF can leave the equipments in recipient state, there people use that equipments effectively. So the main body of activity will transfer from SDF to the people smoothly. Furthermore, if there is no problem about the security situation, Japanese enterprise can start activity in order to maintain the equipments as a part of its business activities. As a lot of enterprises will conduct engage in business activity in the state, the economic base of the country will be improved. I think this is also an important part of capacity-building. But under the present conditions, SDF must send back all equipments to Japan because of Three Principles of Arms Export. This is inefficient, taking variety activity in future into consideration.
Next I talk about collaboration in IPCA that includes capacity-building among relevant organizations. Currently, the Cabinet Offices, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense share the main responsibility for IPCA in Japanese Government. These three government offices consider whether it is appropriate for a certain dispatch to take place, or ensure a certain activities are not against the existing laws. This system of tripartite cooperation, but these is no “lead agency”. In the area of capacity-building, the Ministry of Defense and the SDF usually starts the activities. But when thinking ahead, it is very difficult to conduct effective activity without a close cooperation among a lot of relevant organization which are not only the Cabinet Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs but also NGO and enterprises. I think it is necessary to clarify which agency will play a leading role in the area of capacity-building, so that Japanese government can not only improve interagency coordination, but also to strategically plan these activities and thereby making them more effective and efficient. To that end, the capacity of the Prime Minister’s Official Residence ( Kantei ) is very important.
Finally, I talk about future Japan-US cooperation. Both countries have made efforts to defense Japan effectively as allies. Guidelines for Japan –US Defense Cooperation in 1997 also focused on defense of Japan. Japan and US have cooperated in UNPKO and HA/DR as needs arises. The Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement ap ply for defense of Japan, in response to situations in the area surrounding Japan, IPCA and bilateral training in peace time. But ACSA doesn’t apply for HA/DR because of there is not description about HA/DR in it. As for IPCA, Japan and US partly cooperated in Iraq humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activity, HA/DR in Pakistan and Haiti. And also as for bilateral training in peace time, Japan and US have just started to cooperate in Cobra Gold Exercise and Pacific Partnership. On the whole, Japan-US cooperation in the field of IPCA has just started, it is hoped that the activity will develop.
Lastly, I would like to a few words in conclusion.
I believe that Japan should make more aggressive effort in participating in IPCA. Capacity-building is also one of new types of activities for Japan. Japan should start its efforts in the areas of non-traditional security as a part of defense exchanges that can utilize the knowledge and experience GSDF has built up in the past IPCA. However, capacity-building is in a word “support for nation-building” and therefore takes a great deal of support. I think it is important that SDF’s efforts in capacity-building serves as the first step that can be followed next by other types of “upgraded” support provided by Japan. Finally, I believe that it is important to enhance Japan-US cooperation in this area. Thank you.
Status and future_challenge_of_jgsdf_in_ipca
ー Through a lens of Capacity-Building － 4 March 2011 Col Nobutaka MINAMIKAWA, JGSDFVisiting Fellow, The Henry L. Stimson Center
Contents １ Japan Ground Self-Defense Force’s Past Efforts in International Peace Cooperation Activities (IPCA) ２ New Defense Program Guidelines and its implication for SDF’s IPCA ３ Roles of SDF in Capacity Building ４ Challenges for More Effective Activities ５ ConclusionThe views expressed here are those of Nobutaka MINAMIKAWA.Nothing spoken here reflects the views of the Henry L. Stimson Center,the Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Ministry of Defense, orGovernment of Japan.
JGSDF’s past efforts in IPCA１ Situations surrounding JGSDF IPCA２ Ongoing Activities of JGSDF IPCA３ Evaluation of JGSDF IPCA
International Peace Cooperation Activities Conducted by the SDF International Peace Cooperation Mission International Peace Cooperation Activities Activities based on the “Law Concerning Japan’s Cooperation in the U.N. Peacekeeping Activity and other Activities” (so-called “PKO Cooperation Law”) International Disaster Relief Activities Activities based on the “Law Concerning the Dispatch of International Disaster Relief Teams” (so-called “International Disaster Relief Law”) Cooperation in Efforts toward the Reconstruction of Iraq Activities based on the “Law Concerning Special Measures on Humanitarian and Reconstruction Assistance and Support Activities for Ensuring Security of Iraq” (known as the Iraq Reconstruction Special Measures Law) (Ended in Feb. 2009) Activities to Respond International Terrorism Activities based on the “Replenishment Support Special Measures Law” (Ended in Jan. 2010) Anti-Piracy Activities Activities based on the “Law on Penalization of Acts of Piracy and Measures against Acts of Piracy” (known as “Anti-Piracy Special Measures Law”) Legend ： shows activities based on permanent laws shows activities based on time- limited laws
Current Activities【 UNDOF 】 【 Anti-Piracy activities 】 【 MINUSTAH 】Mission: HQ Staff and Mission: Base management Mission: HQ staff & Logistic support (50) & force protection (62) Reconstruction (approx.350) Golan Heights Khartoum Haiti Djibouti East Timor 【 UNMIT 】 【 UNMIS 】 Mission: Mission: HQ Staff (2) Military liaison officer (2) About 450 personnel currently on duty abroad
Evaluations of JGSDF IPCA Iraq 【 Humanitarian and Reconstruction Assistance in Iraq 】 Iraqi people will never forget Japan’s contribution to the reconstructionability of Iraq, including the dispatch of the SDF, during this time of ties which Iraq has faced. President Talabani （ Jan., 2 Golan Heights 【 UNDOF 】 The SDF’s activities in the past decade were superb, as they showed professionalism in every part of the operation. UNDOF Force Commander LTG Sharma(Jan., 2006) Pakistan 【 DR in Major Earthquakes in Pakistan 】 Japan’s SDF has shown outstanding performance in helping the affected people in Pakistan. President Musharraf(Nov., 2005) International society has highly appreciated the SDF’s IPCA, which are based on the Japanese style of trying to share the perspectives of local people.
New Defense Program Guidelines and its implication for SDF’s IPCA１ Significance of NDPG２ Major Points of the 2010 NDPG３ Implications for IPCA
Status and significance○ GOJ set the basic principles of Japan’s security policy and the target levels of defense equipment for the first time in the 1976 National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) and formulated Mid-term Defense Program (MTDP) for next 5 years under “the frame of 1% of GNP.” GOJ has conducted defense build- up based on the MTDP ever since. .○ Both NDPG and MTDP are documents that are approved by the cabinet council.Relations among NDPG, MTDP and Annual Budget National Defense Vision for future direction of defense policy, and the Program Guidelines target levels of defense capabilities to implement the new policy. Mid-term Maximum sum of cost in 5 years and numbers of main Defense Program equipment Annual Budget Appropriate necessary costs annually
Major Points of 2010 NDPG1. “Dynamic Defense Force” Concept Focus on how to better operate the SDF Focused on Readiness, Mobility, Flexibility, Sustainability, Multi-functionality2. Enhance and Develop Japan-U.S. Alliance, Stabilize Asia-Pacific Region Articulate Japan-U.S. cooperation measure more concretely Emphasize “Stabilizing Asia-Pacific region security” as core defense role3. Enhance response capabilities for contingencies in offshore island area Prevent a power vacuum by deploying SDF unit Strengthen and maintain the capability for the defense of sea/air space surrounding Japan Deploy new SDF unit strategically and enhance its ability for rapid deployment and response.4 Promote global security cooperation Promote bilateral/multilateral cooperation Develop the capability for capacity-building5 Identify Political Issues Tackle political issues, such as the establishment of a national security council, revise the 5 Principles for participation in UN Peace Keeping from a new point of view
Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG①Ⅰ NDPG’s ObjectivesⅡ Basic Principles of Japan’s Security Policy Japan will participate more actively in activities in which the international community cooperates (here in/after referred to as “international peace cooperation activities”), to improve the international security environment, including United Nations peace-keeping activities and activities to deal with non-traditional security issues, such as humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and counter-piracy initiatives.Ⅲ Security Environment Surrounding Japan The role of military forces in the international community is becomingincreasingly diverse. In addition to deterring or responding to armed conflicts and building confidence and promoting friendship among countries, military forces, in cooperation with the non-military sector, are playing an important role in a growing number of cases, in conflict prevention, peace building such as reconstruction assistance, and in the non- traditional security field.Ⅳ Basic Policies to Ensure Japan’s Security １ Japan’s Own Efforts Japan will participate in international peace cooperation activities in a more efficient and effective manner. Taking into consideration the actual situations of UN
Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG②２ Cooperation with its Ally Japan will strengthen various regular cooperation, such as joint training and joint/shared usage of facilities, and promote regional and global cooperation through international peace cooperation activities, maintenance and enhancement of international public goods such as outer space, cyberspace and sea lanes, as well as in the field of climate change.３ Multi-layered Security Cooperation with the International Community ○ Concerning multilateral security cooperation, through such frameworks as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting Plus (ADMM Plus), Japan will play an appropriate role in efforts toward establishing regional order, norms and practical cooperative relationships, particularly through initiatives in the non-traditional security field. ○ Japan will actively engage in diplomatic efforts, including the strategic and effective use of Official Development Assistance (ODA), in order to resolve root causes of conflicts and terrorism. Along with these diplomatic efforts, Japan will robustly engage in international peace cooperation activities. In doing so, Japan will strive to provide assistance which makes use of its knowledge and experience and will conduct such activities strategically, while comprehensively taking into account the various conditions surrounding it.
Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG③Ⅴ Future Defense Forces １ Roles of Defense Forces （１） Effective deterrence and response （２） Efforts to further stabilize the security environment of Asia-Pacific region. In non-traditional security fields, Japan will promote practical cooperation by utilizing SDF capabilities, including disposal of landmines and unexploded shells. Japan will also strive to establish and strengthen regional cooperation practice and support the capacity building of countries in the region. （３） Efforts to improve the global security environment. Japan will continue to actively participate in international peace cooperation activities. Japan will also actively engage in various activities conducted by the United Nations and other organizations such as support for capacity building. ２ Self-Defense Forces : Force Posture The SDF will strive to enhance capabilities and posture applicable to diverse missions, rapid deployment and long- term operations so it can actively participate in international peace cooperation activities.
Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG④３ Self-Defense Force : Organization, Equipment and Force Disposition. ○ The SDF will enhance its capabilities for international peace cooperation activities by upgrading equipment, strengthening maritime and air transport capability, enhancing its logistical support posture, enhancing its engineering and medical functions, and reinforcing its education and training systems. ○ The SDF will improve the system for providing appropriate intelligence supportfor activities conducted in remote areas through such measures as strengthening capabilities to collect geospatial information, so as to enable SDF units dispatched abroad to perform missions smoothly and safely. ○ The GSDF will maintain mobile operating units sustaining specialized functionsso that it can effectively perform international peace cooperation activities. ○ The ASDF will maintain air transport units and aerial refueling/transport units which enable effective international peace cooperation Activities.Ⅵ Basic Foundations to Maximize Defense Capability In contributing to peace and promoting cooperation in international community, there are increasing opportunities to conduct effective cooperation activities through measures such as the utilization of heavy machinery and other defense equipment carried to the site by the SDF and providing equipment to disaster-stricken countries.Ⅶ Additional Elements for Consideration
The role of SDF in Capacity Building１ What is “Capacity Building”?２ The role of the military in Capacity Building３ The role of SDF in Capacity Building
What’s Capacity Building ？Capacity Building is the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks,institutional development, including community participation, human resourcesdevelopment and strengthening of managerial systems, and capacity building is along-term, continuing process.Recipients of the capacity building assistance are fragile states (collapsed states, states in/after civil war), developing countries,countries and regions that have suffered from large-scale natural disasters, countriesthat will enable world and regional stability and security to take effect (including localauthorities).Donors are U.N., other international organizations, nations (government organizations, militaries)NGO, Commercial companies and so on.Capacity Building is hoped to prevent fragile states from being security risks like a hotbed of terrorism, and tostrengthen cooperative relationships between donees and donors.
Image of Capacity Building①Similar to solving a complex puzzle. There are a lot of parts based on the situation of recipients. Donors solve the puzzle with partsin order to improve the situation. Those parts are look like they are similar, but they are infinitelyvarious and complex, because of race, religion, custom, history and so on. state Training and education Establish systems for military (medical, finance, education, economy) Bring up human resources Establish Security sector government and Construct reform the Diet infrastructures Capacity building is activities that build up the capability of the state tooperate. It is very important that Donors work in cooperation in fields with which eachnation is proficient.
Image of Capacity Building② peace bad Establish Secure Fragile Security government Construct and and states Infra. safety the legislature countries Lifesaving suffering and Construct Build up Stable Operation from Disaster Infra. Capability of state LSND restoration Of DR Developing Bring up Establish Legends countries HR systems Infra. : infrastructure HR : human resource DR : disaster Relief operations good LSND: large-scale natural disaster The goal of capacity building is to enable a nation-state to operate stably. There are various approaches to reach this objective.
Roles of the Military in Capacity Building Features of Military○ Combat power (military can secure security and safety with its own capability. ）○ Self-sufficient (military can conduct long-term activities by themselves. ）○ Multi-functionality （ military can conduct various medical, transport (land/sea/air ） ,engineering, training and education activities. ） Roles of Military in Capacity Building ○ Securing safety in order to enable the activities for themselves and others. ○ Medical support, building up infrastructure, transportation support, education and so on in the early stages of commitment. ○ Training the country’s military forces and security police.
Features of SDF in Capacity Building Features of SDF○ Combat power (although there are strict restriction against the use of weapons.)○ Self-sufficiency and Multi-functionality SDF has a lot of experience in IPCA, especially in providing medical services,transportation, engineering, disposal of unexploded shells and so on. SDF has the know-how to conduct disaster relief operations, as a country where natural disasters occur frequently.○ SDF is one of the most advanced forces in the Asia-Pacific Region.Considerations of GSDF’s activities○ Area of activities are limited to non-combat areas.○ Activities utilize GSDF’s experience and know-how.○ Activities in Asia-Pacific, especially in South-East Asia, region are advisable.
Requests from nations in Southeast Asia There are a lot of requests on HA/DR, anti-piracy, disposal of landmines and unexploded shells, and so on from Concrete examples developing countries, especially in Brunei JAPAN South-East Asia, to Japan through High- Education for HA/DR level exchange. Cambodia Support for disposal of landmines and unexploded shells, DR Support operation and IPCA Requests Indonesia Support to improve anti-piracy capability Thai Vietnam Thai Support for training in Cambodia military techniques and school, DR operations. Brunei East Timor Support for DR operations Indonesia East Timor Vietnam Support for Counter- Terrorism, HA/DR, IPCA, military, medical
Challenges for More Effective Activities１ Restriction on “the integration with use of force”２ Restriction on the Three Principles on Arms Exports３ Strengthening relationships among the relevant organizations４ Through a lens of the Japan-US Cooperation
Restriction on “the integration with use of force”The Right of Collective Self-Defense Since Japan is a sovereign state, it naturally has the right of collectiveself-defense under international law. Nevertheless, the Japanese Governmentbelieves that the exercise of the right of collective self-defense exceeds theminimum necessary level of self-defense authorized under Article 9 ofthe Constitution and is not permissible.The integration with the use of force Under the Constitution, SDF is not permitted to conduct an activity thatmay be considered as integrated with the use of force when it is not underdirect attack. There are similar restrictions when SDF cooperates with other countriesin IPCA. In capacity building, however, individual activities (for instancetraining of the armed forces, rifle training, combat training, etc) needs tobe considered on a case-by-case basis.
Restriction on Three Principles on Arms ExportsOn Apr. 21, 1967, then Prime Minister Eisaku Sato declared at the House of Representatives’Audit Committee meeting.○ Communist Bloc countries○ Countries to which arms export is prohibited under the U.N. resolutions○ Countries which are actually involved or likely to become involved in international conflicts.On Feb. 27, 1976, then Prime Minister Takeo Miki announced the Government’s view atHouse of Representatives’ Budget Committee meeting.○ The export of “arms” to the areas subject to the Three Principles shall not be permitted.○ The export of “arms” to areas other than the areas subject to the Three Principles shall be restricted in line with the spirit of the Constitution and the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law.○ Equipment related to arms production shall be treated in the same category as “arms”.○ Moreover arms referred to in the Three Principles on Arms Exports are ◆ those that are used by the military forces and directly employed in combat. ◆ Such equipment as destroyers, fighters and tanks that move, intrinsically carrying firearms, for purposes of directly killing and injuring peoples or destroying things as a means of armed struggle, are considered “arms”. ： Equipment of SDF are interpreted as “arms” under the Three principles on Arms Export. Therefore SDF must carry back all equipment sent abroad each time.
Strengthen relationship among the relevant organizations ＮＧＯ Enterprise The government ＮＧＯ offices concerned Cabinet Office MOFA MOD The government offices concerned ＮＧＯ ○ Strengthen function of Prime Minister’s Official Residence (Kantei) and relationship among other relevant organizations ○ Plan strategically and implement the activities
Improve Japan-US Cooperation in IPCACurrent situation of Japan-US Cooperation ○ Guidelines for Japan–US Defense Cooperation in 1997 ◇ Main focus on the defense of Japan and stability in Northeast Asia. ◇ There are statements about cooperation in peace time ・ ” The close cooperation for mutual support as necessary to improve the International security environment” as a principle ・ Cooperation in UNPKO and HA/DR is conducted as the need arises. ○ Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement （ＡＣＳＡ） ◆ Applied for Defense of Japan, Response to Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan, IPCA and Bilateral Training ◆ Not applied for HA/DR ○ Cooperation in IPCA Iraq humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activity, HA/DR in Pakistan and Haiti and Anti-Piracy Activity in Djibouti. ○ Bilateral Training in peace time Main efforts on defense of Japan, there are Cobra Gold Exercise and Pacific Partnership as others. Challenges of Japan-US Cooperation○ Cooperation in IPCA is not enough compare with the defense of Japan○ For the future, it is necessary to promote Japan-US cooperation in: 【 concrete tools 】 ・ the application of ASCA ・ strengthening Bilateral Training To utilize existing bilateral and multilateral frameworks in order to increase training opportunities, especially effective utilization of ASEAN and ARF
Conclusion Matters under consideration in Japan ○ “ General law” that governs IPCA ○ 5 Principles for participation in U.N. peacekeeping forces ○ 3 Principles on Arms Exports ○ Application of Japan-US ACSA in International Disaster Relief Activities ○ Efforts in new IPCA International Peace Capacity Defense Cooperation Building Exchange Activities○From “first step” of MOD/SDF to “upgrade” as activities conducted by Japan○To enhance Japan-US cooperation in IPCA including capacity-building
Enhancing response capabilities for IPCA Direction of build-up【 New posture of CRF 】 Attaching Capacity building function to IPCA Training Unit, etc. CRF Enhancing coordination with branch schools CRF HQ CRR IPCATU Other units H& HS Co Infantry Co Engr Co Enhancing Rear Area Enhancing Engineering functions (Medical & functions Logistics)