Mkt4025 10

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Mkt4025 10

  1. 1. Reactance, Avoidance etc MKT4025
  2. 2. Avoidance Low Avoidance High Avoidance High Anxiety Low Anxiety Secure Preoccupied Dismissing Fearful avoidant dealing
  3. 3. Scarcity <ul><li>People attach a higher value/motiviation to something that is scarce = perception of higher value </li></ul><ul><li>More healthy the older people get </li></ul><ul><li>“ 5 years left” </li></ul><ul><li>Teenagers & healthy behaviour </li></ul>
  4. 4. Scarcity but... <ul><li>Scarcity can also become a strong motivational factor if it is about “perceived unfair limitation” </li></ul><ul><li>It then potentially turns into reactance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brehm Experiment Out of stock record better rated Out of stock record worse rated You can choose record You’ll get one record Only one record available Introduction of “freedom” Reactive Reaction Freedom removal
  6. 6. Reactance Perception of unfairness Reactance Reactance Removal unknown reason, unjust or unreason- able restriction emotional, single-minded, often irrational state of mind “ right the wrong”, overvalue of “unfair” restriction
  7. 7. Reactance Removal <ul><li>Direct Removal (doing what is forbidden) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Removal (substitution) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Unspecific Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sour Grapes” reaction </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reactance = glorification <ul><li>“ Romeo and Juliet” effect </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are often a good source of reactance: </li></ul><ul><li>Children taught to overvalue HFSS foods </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced by “reward” power </li></ul><ul><li>Which then is restricted again </li></ul><ul><li>= Reinforced Reactance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reactance <ul><li>Less likely for female children than male children </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting opinions if measurable </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dealing with reactance <ul><li>Often needs “personalised intervention” </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation intervention (Levine & Sandine, 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Evoking “anticipated regret”: Scarcity appeals (Cialdini, 1994) Fear appeals + High-efficacy messages (Witte & Allan, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman Effect (Predict what you would do if someone would ask you to do something socially desirable) (Sherman, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Giving choices/forced choices (Levine & Sandine, 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative persuasion (Chin, Zanna, Fong, 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learned Helplessness <ul><li>Effect of “inescapable” punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal to subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasive to all aspects of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related to fundamental attribution error concept </li></ul><ul><li>(Seligman 1967) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Over-conformity/Ritualism <ul><li>Total rigidity in applying rules </li></ul><ul><li>Low personal commitment </li></ul><ul><li>“ trained incapacity” or scarcity </li></ul>

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