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International Public Relations


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Published in: Business, News & Politics

International Public Relations

  1. 1. International PR
  2. 2. <ul><li>Practical implications </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of culture </li></ul>
  3. 3. Practical Implications <ul><li>Communication - lack of media - great distances cities/rural - illiteracy - numerous ethnic groups - languages & dialects - tribal & religious taboos </li></ul>
  4. 4. Publics <ul><li>Élite: 10-20% in developing countries </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mass communication <ul><li>Newspaper differences </li></ul><ul><li>“Listening to newspapers” </li></ul><ul><li>Limited media reach </li></ul><ul><li>Interest for news, spoken word </li></ul>
  6. 6. Media… <ul><li>Mass media may be very different TV & newspapers more élitist Radio may be widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Media may be heavily regulated - and people may be cynical </li></ul><ul><li>Messages: Framework for interpretation may be very different </li></ul>
  7. 7. Newspapers <ul><li>Circulation problems (distances, language etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria: 100million people newspaper circulation: 500.000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Radio <ul><li>Listening groups </li></ul><ul><li>Different language broadcasts </li></ul>
  9. 9. Television <ul><li>Reach often limited </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing groups </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cinema <ul><li>Static cinemas </li></ul><ul><li>Travelling cinemas </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile video shows </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exhibitions <ul><li>Fun events </li></ul><ul><li>Can be combined with mobile video/cinema shows </li></ul>
  12. 12. Advertising standards <ul><li>Often confusing: - product usage - messages - characters </li></ul>
  13. 13. Educating the market <ul><li>Importance of education esp. in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling problems </li></ul><ul><li>Food - clarity of instructions - culturally adequate usage also cooking appliances etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adult Literacy Case <ul><li>3/4 illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>contributing agricultural background and manual operations </li></ul><ul><li>Females marry young </li></ul><ul><li>Good communication skills compensate for illiteracy </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adult Literacy Case <ul><li>Objective: To encourage illiterates to embrace adult education during period of campaign when classes are being set up and organisers are being sought </li></ul>
  16. 16. Adult Literacy Case <ul><li>Publics: - illiterates in villages and townships - religious leaders - teachers - employers - schoolchildren </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adult Literacy Case <ul><li>Media: - short videos demonstrating advantages of literacy: > read instructions > read road signs > read letters > read newspapers > “Enjoy fuller life” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Adult Literacy Case <ul><li>Media (cont.) - videos to be shown in community halls, mobile cinema, tv - Debates and discussion on radio in various languages - Posters to announce video shows - Direct talks with chiefs, politicians, religious leaders and teachers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Adult Literacy Case <ul><li>Evaluation: - No of classes opened - No of people enrolled - Fall-out rate - No of completions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Culture
  21. 21. Culture 2
  22. 22. Non-verbal communication <ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Oculesics </li></ul><ul><li>Haptics, tacesics </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism and Passive Non-verbal Communication </li></ul>
  23. 23. Collectivism/Individualism <ul><li>Group benefit more important than individual benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Individual benefit paramount </li></ul>
  24. 24. Power Distance <ul><li>High: Respect for authority </li></ul><ul><li>Low: Little respect for authority </li></ul>
  25. 25. Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>Comfortable with risk and ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of risk and ambiguity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Femininity/Masculinity <ul><li>Social inclusion and compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Social exclusion and ‘hard touch’ </li></ul>
  27. 27. Low / High-context <ul><li>Explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning in code </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker responsible for message comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning in context </li></ul><ul><li>Audience responsible for understanding message </li></ul>
  28. 28. Direct vs Indirect <ul><li>Clear (low context) </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity valued </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of sentiments </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>Embellishment valued </li></ul><ul><li>Sentiments used </li></ul>
  29. 29. Doing vs Being <ul><li>Importance of achievements and measurable action </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on relationships in their social context </li></ul>
  30. 30. Linear / Non-Linear <ul><li>Object oriented </li></ul><ul><li>One theme </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning & end stressed </li></ul><ul><li>People and event oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple themes </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation not stressed </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>International PR has - technical/practical constraints - cultural constraints </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Media environment may be very different </li></ul><ul><li>Publics may use media very differently </li></ul><ul><li>Messages must be adapted to local publics </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Culture influences communication heavily </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences influence different levels of the communication process </li></ul><ul><li>Messages must be culturally adequate </li></ul>