Explanations for the success or failure of dieting lpr

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Explanations for the success or failure of dieting lpr

  1. 1. Explanations for theSuccess or Failure of Dieting •Restraint Theory •Relapse Prevention
  2. 2. It has been estimated that atany one time, 40% of thefemale population is tryingto lose weight, usually bydieting and this has led tothe development a multi-million pound “dieting”industry.This industry ispredominantly aimed atfemales. Click camera for video
  3. 3. Why might someone want to lose weight?Ogden (2007) suggests several factors to explain whypredominantly it is women who restrict their diets to lose weight:• Media influence (effects of SLT)• Family influences (mother acts as a role model for the daughter)SLT• Ethnicity (more body dissatisfaction in white women than blackand Asian women)•Social Class – Anorexia Nervosa was found more frequently inhigher-social class groups but this is now becoming more equallyspread across the social groups.Peer groups (SLT) – peers are a key source of models andreinforcement. Dieting may become the norm for the group.
  4. 4. What would as 87% ofdiet What would lead somediet As many lead to a women have dieted at to a being in their lives, yet as a society, we are still point successful? being a failure? getting fatter. This would suggest that dieting isn’t working for us as a species. Several theories have been put forward to explain why deliberate weight loss is so elusive and one of the most Does dieting famous is the Restraint Theory work? No!
  5. 5. Explanations for the Failure of DietingImportant key terms (page 25):Preload/ taste test – an experimental technique used inthe study of the control of eating behaviour.After a preload meal, participants are asked to “taste” foods. Infact, the amount they eat on the taste test is measured. Dieterstend to eat more rather than less on the taste test afterpreload.Restrained eaters – a term used for people attempting to diet.
  6. 6. Dieting Failure - Restraint Theory – Herman & Mack (1975) A01 Dieting is also referred to as ‘restrained eating’The Restraint theory suggests that Dieting can be successful,resulting in under eating and weight loss because we aresuccessful in RESTRAINING (or restricting) our intake of food. HOWEVER, more often than not, it results in over eating andweight gain and leads to diet failure.
  7. 7. AO1 Herman and Mack (1975)According to Herman and Mack, people oftenfail because the dieter has periods of restraintfollowed by periods of disinhibition “Disinhibition” has been defined as; “Eating more as a result of loosening restraints in response to emotional distress, intoxication or “preloading” Click camera for video
  8. 8. Herman and Mack (1975) Preloadx15 Please rate thex15 taste qualities of the milkshakes......x15
  9. 9. Herman and Mack (1975) Then... 10 minutesx15 What wasx15 your level of dietary Please rate the restraint? taste qualities of the ice creams..x15 EAT AS MUCH AS YOU AO3 WANT! criticisms?
  10. 10. Herman and Mack (1975) Results: In other words, the moreAmount of ice restrained eater they were (i.e., cream concerned with dieting), the more they ate!!! Eating restraint score AO3 criticisms?
  11. 11. Herman and Mack (1975)Conclusion:• They concluded that the results support a boundary model of dietaryrestraint.• Restrained eaters have a “cognitive” dieting boundary forfood intake. Once this boundary is overcome (by the milkshake preloads) the“what the hell” effect takes over and eating is disinhibited.•So high-restraint eater (dieters) will therefore eat MORE in the preloadcondition; the opposite pattern to low restraint participants (non-dieters).This is why diets fail!!!Elaboration:This means that... people on diets (restrained eaters), once theyhave reached their boundary for eating – will experience the“what the hell effect” – and will then actually eat more – sotherefore attempts to diet will usually fail.
  12. 12. EvaluationIn addition to the classic study by Herman and Mack, otherstudies have found that dieters overeat compared to non-dieters.In particular, the restrainttheory has identified disinhibition of restraint(‘What the hell’ effect) as a characteristic ofovereating The Restraint Theory isn’t enough Ruderman & Wilson (1979) reported the restrained eaters consume significantly more food than the unrestrained eaters, irrespective of preloadNot everyone overeatsNot all people who restrain their eating overeat– which groups don’t overeat?
  13. 13. Approaches: Debates: Determinism Vs. Free WillCould it be better explained by analternative approach? Ethical Issues: Deception Issues: Gender Bias Also, don’t forget..AO3.. Culture Bias -Independent group design Reductionist -All female sample -Laboratory experiment
  14. 14. Dieting Success A01 - relapse prevention Jeffery (2000) noted that After 6 months weight regain dieting among obese begins and it was concluded people creates an initial that the failure to maintain the rapid weight loss which behaviour change of dieting then slows down. was the main factor of thisThis was due to a lack of knowledge, skills and motivation as wellas unpleasant side effects (e.g. hunger, stress or social pressure to eat) Click camera for video
  15. 15. Dieting Success A01 - relapse prevention •Dieting success then results from teaching ‘weight maintenance skills’ rather than just weight loss.•Teaching people to identify situations where lapses typically occur.•Strategies are created in advance to prevent a lapse or to get back on track.•Not treating ‘breaking the rules’ as a failure – that can lead to negative psychological reactions
  16. 16. Dieting Success A02 - relapse prevention Thomas & Stern (1995) reported that strategies to improve social networks have focussed on teaching spouses orsignificant others to provide social support during the weight loss process and modest success rates have been achieved.Strategies of drawing up contracts in which groups aim for individual or group weight loss targets have also been successful
  17. 17. A02 EvaluationWeightWatchersTheir success is attributable to the support themembers provide each other – highlighting theimportance of social support Miller-Kovach et al (2001) Reported that being on a WeightWatchers programme was more successful that using self-help methods of a period of 2 yearsLowe et al (2004)Weight losses achieved through being a memberof WW were reasonably maintained over a5 year period
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