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  1. 1. Privation Failure to form attachments
  2. 2. Privation Definition: Occurs when a child has never formed an attachment bond. Usually as a result of complete lack of emotional care of the child – during the first few years Can cause permanent damage to emotional and social development
  3. 3. Hodges & Tizard (1989) Aim – Investigate whether a lack of emotional care had permanent and irreversible effects to emotional and social development
  4. 4. Hodges & Tizard (1989) – procedure Interviews in an institution 65 children who were institutionalised before 4 months The institution had a high turnover of staff (why would they do this?) Interviewed children, parents and teachers regarding attitudes and behaviour Interviews were compared with a control group (who might their control group be?)
  5. 5. Hodges & Tizard (1989) Findings – By the age of 2 • Children exhibited unusual attachment behaviours – demanding of adult attention At the age of 4 • Children did not have any deep relationships, were much more attentionseeking At 16 • Less likely to have a special friend or be part of a social group • More likely to be quarrelsome and bullies
  6. 6. Hodges & Tizard (1989) What conclusions can be drawn from Hodges & Tizard’s research? There is evidence that early institutionalisation can cause permanent damage
  7. 7. Evaluation – A02 1. Genie 2. Attrition 3. Contradictory Evidence
  8. 8. Positive Evaluation - Genie Genie was locked in her room by her father until she was 13 ½ because he thought she was retarded. When she was found she was severely physically underdeveloped and couldn’t stand or talk. Genie never fully recovered socially or learned to speak This is positive at it demonstrates Hodges and Tizard’s findings that privation has irreversible effects However...
  9. 9. Negative Evaluation - Attrition Hodges and Tizard’s study was longitudinal meaning that people are very likely to drop out – resulting in a reduction in the sample This is a weakness because it would result in sample bias, specifically as it is usually the most troubled participants who drop out.
  10. 10. Negative Evaluation – Czech twins The Czech twins were locked up for 7 years by their stepmother and couldn’t talk when first discovered. They were subsequently looked after by 2 loving sisters and by 14 they had near normal intellectual and social functioning. By 20 they were above average intelligence and had excellent relationships with members of their foster family This is a weakness because it demonstrates that the effects of privation are reversible However...