NS12: Motivation Health Behaviour and Society Course Junior Cycle 2006/07 Semester 1: Basic Psychological Concepts Dr. Ant...
MOTIVATION <ul><li>Definition:  A need or desire that serves to energise behaviour and to direct it towards a goal </li></...
Human Motivation <ul><li>Distinction between Biological Motives, e.g., hunger, sex; & Social Motives, e.g., affiliation, n...
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating <ul><li>What causes us to feel hungry? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Cannon & Washburn (1912): ...
Hunger Motivation: 1. The role of the brain <ul><li>The function of the HYPOTHALAMAUS: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Lateral Hypoth...
Hunger - the Hypothalamus <ul><li>LH:  stimulation    Well-fed animal begins to eat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>destruction   ...
Hunger - the Hypothalamus <ul><li>BUT  now clear that LH & VMH are part of a bigger  NEURAL CIRCUIT  with  PARAVENTRICULAR...
<ul><li>Glucostatic hypothesis:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger occurs when level of blood glucose becomes low  </li></ul></...
Hunger Motivation: 3. The role of hormones <ul><li>Main hormones identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Insulin :secreted by...
Hunger - A Physiological Drive <ul><li>Messages re. stomach, liver, circulating hormones & body chemistry integrated in HY...
Psychology of Hunger <ul><li>Learned preferences & habits :  </li></ul><ul><li>what to eat is learned </li></ul><ul><li>e....
Psychology of Hunger <ul><li>2.  Food-related cues : ‘externals’ - eating triggered by presence of food </li></ul><ul><li>...
Hunger, Eating, Weight and Health
Hunger, Eating & Weight: Obesity <ul><li>Body Mass Index: </li></ul><ul><li>Obese = BMI of 30+ </li></ul><ul><li>   Morta...
Obesity and Bahrain <ul><li>32% of women and 25% of men were obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2) </li></ul><ul><li>Although 28% of par...
Obesity: Causes <ul><li>1.  Physiological : </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics:  body weight (BMI) of adopted children correlates ...
Obesity: Causes: Set Point <ul><li>iii) Set point maintained by Leptin, which monitors fat stores - under-secretion in obe...
Obesity: Causes <ul><li>2.  Psychological : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i) Learned behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii) ? La...
Hunger, Eating & Weight:  Body Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Body shape associated with attractiveness, control & success </li><...
Body Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Conceptualised as either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between perception of body size a...
Hunger, Eating & Weight: Eating Disorders <ul><li>Psychological influence on eating behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>   homeos...
Eating Disorders: Influences <ul><li>Models: 1950’s - ‘60’s - weighed 8% less than average women; 1990’s - weigh 23% less ...
Eating Disorders: Influences <ul><li>Woman with “Barbie” figure would have a BMI of 16.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Department stor...
Eating Disorders: Influences <ul><li>While women aspire to ideal of thinness, males aim for denser, athletic, “muscled” lo...
Eating Disorders in Men <ul><li>Irish Times Health Supplement, Tuesday 12th October 2004. </li></ul>
Causes of body dissatisfaction <ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Social class? </li></ul><ul><li>Family? </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Human Motivation: the Achievement Motive <ul><li>Definition:  The need to master difficult challenges, to out-perform othe...
Motivation and Emotion <ul><li>Emotion can cause Motivation - e.g., joy felt after winning tennis tournament may motivate ...
Reading <ul><li>Weiten Chapter 10, pages 293-298; 306-308; 451-453. PsychtrekUnit 8 Modules a) & b). </li></ul><ul><li>Bar...
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Ns12 Motivation

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Lecture 12 of 63 in the Neuroscience Module

"Motivation" [Psychology]

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  • Exam- EXTERNAL Learn about mot. – INTERNAL Interesting – INTERNAL Pay - EXTERNAL
  • Ns12 Motivation

    1. 1. NS12: Motivation Health Behaviour and Society Course Junior Cycle 2006/07 Semester 1: Basic Psychological Concepts Dr. Anthony Montgomery Dr. Anthony Montgomery Dr. Anne Hickey
    2. 2. MOTIVATION <ul><li>Definition: A need or desire that serves to energise behaviour and to direct it towards a goal </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is inferred from observable behaviour (similar to intelligence, personality) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves an interplay between NATURE (the physiological ‘push’) and NURTURE (the cognitive & cultural ‘pulls’) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Human Motivation <ul><li>Distinction between Biological Motives, e.g., hunger, sex; & Social Motives, e.g., affiliation, need for achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow (1970): Combines physiological & psychological drives into HIERARCHY OF NEEDS </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Motivation of Hunger and Eating <ul><li>What causes us to feel hungry? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Cannon & Washburn (1912): “Spit and Rumble” Theory : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger = walls of empty stomach contracting & rubbing against each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirst = decreased salivary flow due to loss of body fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><li>Both animals & humans with gastrectomy continue to experience hunger; </li></ul><ul><li>Higher intake of low calorie food than high-calorie food </li></ul><ul><li>Theories now focus on: i) The role of the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>ii) The role of Blood Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>iii) The role of Hormones </li></ul>
    5. 5. Hunger Motivation: 1. The role of the brain <ul><li>The function of the HYPOTHALAMAUS: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Lateral Hypothalamus (LH): “start centre” - i.e., creates hunger, stimulates eating </li></ul><ul><li>b) Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH): “stop centre” - i.e., depresses hunger, stops eating </li></ul>
    6. 6. Hunger - the Hypothalamus <ul><li>LH: stimulation  Well-fed animal begins to eat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>destruction  starving animal not interested in food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VMH: stimulation  animal stops eating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>destruction  animal eats more often & becomes grossly overweight </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Hunger - the Hypothalamus <ul><li>BUT now clear that LH & VMH are part of a bigger NEURAL CIRCUIT with PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS (PVN) of hypothalamus playing important modulating role </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary theories focus NOT on anatomical centres but on neural circuits that regulate eating by monitoring input from range of physiological processes </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Glucostatic hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger occurs when level of blood glucose becomes low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> detected by glucose-sensitive neurons (glucostats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in turn, activate neural circuits in brain (liver glucostats  hypothalamus via vagus nerve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Vagus nerve also indicates stretching of stomach walls; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other neurons indicate calorific value of stomach contents) </li></ul></ul>Hunger Motivation: 2. The role of blood sugar (body chemistry)
    9. 9. Hunger Motivation: 3. The role of hormones <ul><li>Main hormones identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Insulin :secreted by pancreas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>: extracts glucose from blood (depleted/absent in diabetes); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>: Stimulates hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Leptin (discovered 1995): produced by fat cells, released into bloodstream; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>: higher levels of fat  higher levels of leptin; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>:  leptin levels  hunger </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Hunger - A Physiological Drive <ul><li>Messages re. stomach, liver, circulating hormones & body chemistry integrated in HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul>
    11. 11. Psychology of Hunger <ul><li>Learned preferences & habits : </li></ul><ul><li>what to eat is learned </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. culturally - Eskimo delicacy - fresh clotted seal blood; habits acquired in early life. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Psychology of Hunger <ul><li>2. Food-related cues : ‘externals’ - eating triggered by presence of food </li></ul><ul><li>‘ internals’ - eating triggered by internal physiological state. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stress: increased arousal stimulates eating? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Social : e.g. 3 meals/day  hunger  at time for meal, BUT do not eat  hunger subsides and  again just before scheduled time for next meal. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hunger, Eating, Weight and Health
    14. 14. Hunger, Eating & Weight: Obesity <ul><li>Body Mass Index: </li></ul><ul><li>Obese = BMI of 30+ </li></ul><ul><li> Mortality risk & risk of diabetes, heart disease, gall stones </li></ul><ul><li> 25-30% people in US; approx. 20% Irish males; </li></ul><ul><li>less than 20% Irish females </li></ul><ul><li>  Self-esteem,  stereotyping, discrimination </li></ul>
    15. 15. Obesity and Bahrain <ul><li>32% of women and 25% of men were obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2) </li></ul><ul><li>Although 28% of participants (564) had body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, only 42% (267) of these obese individuals rated themselves as overweight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Ann Saudi Med 2001;21(3-4):183-187. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Obesity: Causes <ul><li>1. Physiological : </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics: body weight (BMI) of adopted children correlates with biological parents; genetic heritability = 61% in men, 73% in women </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cells: size & number - ?divide </li></ul><ul><li> - low metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Set Point: “weight thermostat”: predisposes us to keep our body within particular weight range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body weight  -  hunger,  energy expenditure,  metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body weight  -  hunger,  energy expenditure,  metabolic rate </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Obesity: Causes: Set Point <ul><li>iii) Set point maintained by Leptin, which monitors fat stores - under-secretion in obesity? </li></ul><ul><li>Set points and metabolism  ‘set point’ higher than average?; </li></ul><ul><li>weight loss   hunger,  metabolism </li></ul>
    18. 18. Obesity: Causes <ul><li>2. Psychological : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i) Learned behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii) ? Lack of impulse control? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iii) ? Inability to delay gratification? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iv) Unhappiness, depression? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii) - iv) largely unsupported empirically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Useful website: http://www.healthpromotion.ie/topics/obesity/ ] </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Hunger, Eating & Weight: Body Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Body shape associated with attractiveness, control & success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of weight concern in women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most girls and women would like to be thinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most men would like to be same or larger </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Body Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Conceptualised as either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between perception of body size and real body size; OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between real body size and ideal body size; OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappy with aspects of body shape </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Hunger, Eating & Weight: Eating Disorders <ul><li>Psychological influence on eating behaviour </li></ul><ul><li> homeostatic pressures overwhelmed by motive for thinness </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa: significant weight loss (15%+ below normal) BUT feels fat, fears obesity; 90%-95% females; late adolescence +; 0.5 - 1.5% prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa: private, ‘binge-purge’ episodes; predominantly women; late teens - early 20’s; 2.0 - 3.0% prevalence </li></ul>
    22. 22. Eating Disorders: Influences <ul><li>Models: 1950’s - ‘60’s - weighed 8% less than average women; 1990’s - weigh 23% less  thinner than 95% of women </li></ul>
    23. 23. Eating Disorders: Influences <ul><li>Woman with “Barbie” figure would have a BMI of 16.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Department store mannequins - women with similar body fat would not menstruate </li></ul>
    24. 24. Eating Disorders: Influences <ul><li>While women aspire to ideal of thinness, males aim for denser, athletic, “muscled” look; </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, relative to women, the prevalence of eating disorders in men is 20:1 </li></ul>
    25. 25. Eating Disorders in Men <ul><li>Irish Times Health Supplement, Tuesday 12th October 2004. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Causes of body dissatisfaction <ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Social class? </li></ul><ul><li>Family? </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity? </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs - e.g., about beauty; role of women; material success; achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL assume high level of control (I can never fulfil all of these demands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only controllable factor may be way we look </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Body dissatisfaction = expression of lack of control? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[Useful website: http://www.bodywhys.ie/ ] </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Human Motivation: the Achievement Motive <ul><li>Definition: The need to master difficult challenges, to out-perform others and to meet high standards of excellence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlates positively with career success and upward social mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people with high need for achievement tend to select tasks of intermediate difficulty, where there is a moderate degree of challenge and reasonable probability of success, and where there is a reasonable pay-off (incentive value) for success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Willingness to engage in achievement behaviour influenced by motivation to avoid failure </li></ul><ul><li>Motive to avoid failure can stimulate achievement BUT can also result in person avoiding trying </li></ul>
    28. 28. Motivation and Emotion <ul><li>Emotion can cause Motivation - e.g., joy felt after winning tennis tournament may motivate you to practice tennis more; </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation can cause Emotion - e.g., motivation to win a tennis game may cause great anxiety during the match (may impede performance) & great joy if the match is won, or gloom if it is not. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, Motivation & Emotion not the same thing </li></ul>
    29. 29. Reading <ul><li>Weiten Chapter 10, pages 293-298; 306-308; 451-453. PsychtrekUnit 8 Modules a) & b). </li></ul><ul><li>Barkeling Brittaet al. Vision and eating behaviour in obese subjects. Obesity Research 2003; 11: 130-134 </li></ul>

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