Cross cultural variations in attachment type


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Cross cultural variations in attachment type

  1. 1. Glossary •Strange Situation •Secure •Insecure-Avoidant •Insecure-Resistant •Situation 6 •Main & Solomon •Stranger anxiety •Separation anxiety •Reunion behaviour •Willingness to explore •Sensitivity hypothesis •Temperament hypothesis
  2. 2. Cross-Cultural Variations in attachment type
  3. 3. Objectives • Recap findings and evaluation of Ainsworth’s research (1970) • Use Ainsworth’s research to describe the procedure for cross-cultural differences in attachment • To be able to explain cross-cultural differences in attachment • To be able to identify reasons for cross-cultural differences in attachment • To work collaboratively to establish evaluation of the research into cross-cultural differences
  4. 4. Definition The ways members of a society/culture vary in terms of their social practices As we already know – these variations can effect infant behaviour/development and attachment type
  5. 5. Some examples... Japan – It’s rare to leave an infant alone and their mothers rarely leave them in the care of others. What attachment type do you think is most common in Japan? Insecure-Resistant
  6. 6. Some examples... Germany – Parents value independence. Parenting focuses on making the child as independent as possible (behaviours exhibited by securely attached children would be considered ‘clingy’) What attachment type do you think is most common in Germany? Insecure-Avoidant
  7. 7. Some examples... Israeli Kibbutz– Kibbutz life is very ‘family centred’ and so children are raised at home by their parents What attachment type do you think is most common in Israeli Kibbutz? Insecure-Resistant
  8. 8. Key research: Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg Aim: To investigate cross-cultural differences in attachment type through meta-analysis of research, comparing findings of the Strange Situation research conducted in other cultures Procedure: They used Ainsworth’s Strange situation
  9. 9. Strange Situation What 4 behaviours did the strange situation observations focus on? 1. 2. 3. 4. Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety Reunion behaviour Willingness to explore
  10. 10. Procedure continued… Compared the findings of 32 studies across 8 different countries that used the strange situation to measure attachment type. Specifically comparing Western and nonwestern cultures Western Non-western Britain Germany America Japan China Isreal
  11. 11. Find the findings… Around the room are cards with national flags on them, below the flags are the results for that country. Work out which is which and complete your sheet (start with the flags you recognise easily) You have 4 minutes
  12. 12. Findings: Country Secure InsecureAvoidant InsecureResistant Germany 57 35 8 Britain 75 22 3 Israel 64 7 29 Japan 68 5 27 China 50 25 25 USA 65 21 14 1.5 times greater variation within cultures than between
  13. 13. Conclusions There are cross-cultural differences in attachment types. This could be due to cultural practices, cultural expectations of parents returning to work, cultural expectations of child independence. However, there are greater differences within cultures than between cultures.
  14. 14. A02 - Evaluation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Strange Situation is easy to replicate Imposed etic Low ecological Validity Not all children fit into one attachment type Only assesses the relationship with mother High demand characteristics Easy to replicate High control over EVs
  15. 15. Positive – A02 E.g. potential EVs can be minimised such as the amount of time in each scenario and the behaviour of the stranger
  16. 16. Positive – A02 E.g. the situation can be repeated in exactly the same way, the play room can be set up again and the scenarios replicated
  17. 17. Negative – A02 P – The research can be criticised for an imposed etic E – For example their research assumes that the Strange Situation is suitable to be used across different cultures (made by an American, used on American children)
  18. 18. Negative – A02 E.g. The research situation could result in the mother altering her behaviour to look favourable to the researchers (such as interacting more with child)