Factors affecting attitudes to food and eating


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Factors affecting attitudes to food and eating

  1. 1. Factors affecting attitudes to food and eating Mood Health Concerns (Stress) Culture
  2. 2. Mood and Food A01 A great deal of research has concentrated on the relationship between our mood and our subsequent food choices. It is generallyaccepted that food can be comforting when we are down and that wehave associated certain foods with pleasurable feelings. Research has shown repeatedly that people who are stressed or depressed increase their carbohydrate intake, especially sugar. A02 - Garg et al (2007) found that happy people view products such as buttered popcorn and chocolate as mood-threatening and so avoid them, whereas sad This shows people view them as mood-enhancing and over that… consume them. This shows that food preferences are not just determined by biological need or for evolutionary advantage buy instead can be determined by our A02 mood
  3. 3. A01 2 biological mechanisms have been proposed Serotonin Hypothesis Opiate Hypothesis Carbohydrates (e.g. chocolate) Opiate neurotransmitters (e.g. contain Typtophan. (increases enkephalin & beta-endorphin) levels of serotonin). are chemicals similar to heroin.Low levels of serotonin are linked with depression. Heroin produces pleasurable People experiencing low mood feelings and euphoria and is take in more carbohydrate in therefore likely to be part of the order to raise serotonin levels, brain’s reward system. thus improving mood Gibson Eating and drinking are believed (2006) to activate this system
  4. 4. The increase in serotonin only occurs There appears to be an when we take in pure carbohydrate interaction between the (which is rare). opiate reward system and A presence of small amounts of food and drink-protein prevents tryptophan enteringthe brain – meaning serotonin levels Gibson (2006) opiate drugs don’t change. increase food intake andThe hypothesis appears to be invalid! increase perceived tastiness of food, while Explains why we feel better after blocking the endorphin eating sweet foods as these foods system with the drug activate out natural reward pathways. Naloxone reduces food Association of certain foods and intake (specifically of sweet mood change e.g. the sweet taste foods) of carbohydrates have an expectation of a positive mood change. A02
  5. 5. A01 Health Concerns (stress) In some cases stress can reduce food intake, some cases foundReduction in food intake the opposite Increase in food intake Lab studies on humans 73% of p’s stated that stress increased their snacking andfound participants ate less reduced their ‘meal type’ when stressed consumption. Willenbring et al (1986) Oliver & Wardle (1999) Marines eat less during Naturalistic study concluded periods of high workload were combat situations. linked with greater intakes of Students eat less during energy (sat fats & Sugar) times of stress Wardle et al (2000) This contradictory relationship has been called the “Stress Eating Paradox” Stone & Brownell (1994)
  6. 6. Health Concerns (stress) A02 A01+ Cools et al (1992) - stress only triggered an increasein eating in people who were already dieting.+ Wardle et al (2000) – Naturalistic study of workplace stress – stress only seemed to trigger eating insucesptible individuals-Conner et al (1999) – examined the link betweendaily hassles and snacking in students using fooddiaries. Direct association found between increaseddaily hassles and increase snacking – not due toindividual differences Individual Differences Model Green & Wing (1994) Stress only causes changes in eating behaviour in vulnerable groups of individuals
  7. 7. Culture and Food A01Rozin (1982) states that “there is no doubt that the best predictor of the food preferences, habits and attitudes of any particular human would be information about his ethnic group….rather than any biological measure one might imagine” For example – many Inuit communities live largely on seal meat because this is what is available and in some parts of the world food is scarce and so there are high levels of malnutrition and starvation Globalisation of the food market has increased food choice, even in remote cultures, but eating preferences still exist
  8. 8. Culture and Food A02 Leshem (2009) Compared Bedouin Arab women living in thedesert with Bedouin women who had lived at least 1 generation in an urban setting, both compared with urban living Jewishwomen – Bedouin didn’t differ despite environments but had a diet higher in carbohydrate, protein and salt than the Jewish women Which aspect of culture is more important? Communities of people show differences in eating attitudes mainly due to environmental reasons – differences betweenother groups may be based on religious beliefs. E.g. Muslim and Christians living close to each other differed hugely in their eating behaviour
  9. 9. Approaches: Issues: Also, don’t forget..AO3.. How Issues: science works: -