Bowlby's theory

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Bowlby's theory

  1. 1. Attachment Definition: •An emotional bond between 2 people •2 way process that endures over time •Serves the function of protecting the child
  2. 2. Objectives Define the term attachment Identify key words associated with Bowlby’s Theory of attachment Provide basic evaluation for Bowlby’s theory of attachment Write an exam style answer for the Learning Theory of attachment
  3. 3. Explanations of Attachment You need to know 2 explanations of attachment Learning Theory Bowlby’s Theory Attachment is learned Attachment is innate
  4. 4. A01 Bowlby’s Theory Infants form attachments because it’s Adaptive adaptive = good for survival Babies have an ‘attachment gene’ - Ensuring the infant stays close to caregiver for food and protection An infant displays social releasers (such as crying, smiling) which increase their chances of receiving care
  5. 5. A01 Bowlby’s Theory ContD… Parents also have an ‘attachment gene’ Parents are driven to provide care for the infant while they’re young and defenceless – the critical period Which drives the parents to provide care -this is also adaptive (increases chances of genes continuing to the next generation) Bowlby suggested that infants make one main attachment – called monotropy
  6. 6. Bowlby’s Theory – beyond infancy A01 The first relationship provides the infant with an attachment template Internal working model The attachment behaviours in the internal working model continue to follow the same template in the future Continuity hypothesis
  7. 7. A01 Bowlby’s Theory – key terms Adaptive There’re loads – make sure they’re in your Glossary and that you KNOW them! Attachment gene Social releasers Critical period Monotropy Internal working model Continuity hypothesis
  8. 8. A02 Bowlby’s Theory – A02 Can you remember anything from Learning Theory A02 that you can apply to Bowlby’s theory?
  9. 9. Lorenz found that newly hatched geese (after seeing Lorenz shortly after hatching) following him everywhere and he became their ‘imprinted parent’ Hazen & Shaver Conducted the ‘love quiz’ which assessed adult romantic relationships and childhood relationships and found a strong positive correlation between the 2 attachment types Howes et al Found that parentchild relationships were not necessarily the same as childpeer relationships Schaffer and Emerson (1964) noted that specific attachments starts around 8 months but by 18 months only 13% of his sample had only one attachment, some had five or more.
  10. 10. A02 Bowlby’sTheory – Evaluation Positive Lorenz (1952) Why is that Positive criticism?! Lorenz found that newly hatched goose (after seeing Lorenz shortly after hatching) following him everywhere and he became their ‘imprinted parent’
  11. 11. A02 Bowlby’sTheory – Evaluation Positive Hazen & Shaver Why is that Positive criticism?! Conducted the ‘love quiz’ which assessed adult romantic relationships and childhood relationships and found a strong correlation between the 2 attachment types
  12. 12. A02 Bowlby’s Theory – Evaluation Negative Howes et al (1994) Why is that negative criticism?! Found that parent-child relationships were not necessarily the same as child-peer relationships
  13. 13. A02 Bowlby’s Theory – Evaluation Negative Against monotropy Why is that Negative criticism?! Schaffer and Emerson (1964) noted that specific attachments starts around 8 months but by 18 months only 13% of his sample had only one attachment, some had five or more.
  14. 14. Key words In pairs write at least 15 key words that link to the Evolutionary Theory of Attachment Glossary • • • • • • • • • • Evolutionary Theory – Attachment is innate Social Releasers Attachment Gene Critical Period Internal Working Model Continuity Hypothesis Monotropy Hazen & Shaver Howes et al Post-hoc
  15. 15. Exam style questions Have a go at the following questions 1. What is meant by the term attachment? (2 marks) 2. Explain how the behavioural explanation of attachment differs from the evolutionary explanation of attachment. (4 marks) 3. Explain two limitations of the evolutionary perspective explanation of attachment. (2 marks + 2 marks)

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