Are we transferring what we’ve learned about face-to-face teaching and learning to the online environment? Stephanie Rosenblatt California State University, Fullerton Presented as part of “Casting a Wide Net: Using Screencasts to Reach and Teach Library Users,” July 11, 2009, ALA Annual, Chicago, Illinois
Summer 2008 A friend in the College of Education asked me to create some tutorials for his online-only class. I also decided that these tutorials could help cohorts in the masters program that met off campus.
How do librarians teach? scaffolding student-centered lessons clickers authentic activities collaboration with faculty contextualized instruction meeting ACRL standards active learning paying attention to how students feel as researchers modeling questioning trying to connect concepts to what students already know
Typical Lesson Plan for a One-shot BI Warm-up/Motivation Connect learning goals with students’ needs/existing schema Mini-lesson Model concept or use of tool Guided Practice Students work to complete a defined task; librarian circulates to informally assess understanding/correct misconceptions Reflection/Share Repeat mini-lesson/guided practice/reflection, as needed Independent Practice Students work on individual research problems, applying new tool/concept; librarian performs formal or informal assessment Conclusion
Why do we teach the way we do? It’s how we’ve seen our colleagues teach. It’s how we learn. It works with our students. We’ve read the literature. It’s considered “best practices.” We don’t know any other way.
Behaviorism Humans are animals. Our thought processes are based in biology and are behaviors that can be studied. Learning has occurred when a person can choose the behavior that yields the desired results in a particular context. The use of this behavior can then be extended to new, but similar situations. Prominent researchers: Skinner, Pavlov, Thorndike Ideas: individual differences, behavior modification, programmed instruction, learners are active, learning is incremental, learners need feedback, stimulus-response
Cognitivism/Constructivism The brain is imagined as a processor with different modules responsible for various purposes. Emphasis is placed on how the mind works during the processes of attention, perception, learning, and memory. Learners construct their own understanding of the world based on personal experience. Learning takes place as people actively make sense of the world. What a person learns is influenced by the situation and needs of the learner. Learning is a social process.
Cognition/Constructivism II Prominent researchers: Dewey, Bloom, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gardner, Montessori, Gagné Ideas: zone of proximal development, scaffolding, schema theory, cognitive apprenticeships, situated cognition, learning styles, information processing, learning hierarchies or taxonomies, criterion-referenced instruction (standards), ADDIE, backwards planning, chunking
Questions What do I want my students to learn? Who are the users who will be viewing the screencast? What do they already know? What do they need to know? How will I be able to determine if they have attained my instructional goals? Do I need to know? Can I embed the screencast within another structure that can provide additional support materials, if necessary? If I know my screencasts work, can I determine why?