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Immunology

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  • 1. IMMUNOLOGY
    DR. MA. TERESA S. FAJARDO
    PEDIATRICS
    HEMATOLOGY/ ONCOLOGY
  • 2. LYMPHOID ORGANS
  • BONE MARROW
    • SITE OF HEMATOPOEISIS
    • 7. MOSTLY ON THE FLAT BONES AFTER PUBERTY
  • THYMUS
    • CENTRAL LYMPHOID ORGAN ACTIVE IN
    THE EARLY STAGES OF LIFE
    • DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF
    PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID TISSUES
    ( SPLEEN , LN , MALT)
  • 8. FUNCTIONS OF THE THYMUS
    • MATURATION OF THE PRECURSOR
    T- LYMPHOCYTES FROM THE BM
    • INDUCTION OF IMMUNOCOMPETENCE
  • LYMPH NODES
    • ANATOMICAL GROUPINGS: NECK, AXILLA
    FEMORAL AND POPLITEAL AREA
    • ANTIGENS ARE DELIVERED VIA LYMPHATICS
    TO LN WHERE SPECIFIC IMMUNE
    RESPONSE ARE GENERATED
  • 9. SPLEEN
    • VITAL FOR IMMUNE RESPONSE TO
    BLOOD BORNE ANTIGENS
    • WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM ( MACROPHAGES)
    • 10. ASPLENIC PATIENTS ARE ALREADY RENDERED
    SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION BY
    ENCAPSULATED BACTERIA
  • 11. PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS
    • MUCOSAL IMMUNITY IS A FUNCTION
    OF AGGREGATES OF LYMPHOCYTES
    MACROPHAGES AND ACCESSORY
    CELLS BENEATH THE MUCOSAL
    EPITHELIUM
    • PAYER’S PATCHES IN THE SMALL INTESTINES
    • 12. MALT( MUCOSA ASS. LYMPHOID TISSUES)
  • CUTANEOUS IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • INTRAEPIDERMAL LYMPHOCYTES
    LYMPHOCYTE AND ACCESSORY CELLS
    IN THE DERMIS
    • LANGERHAN’S CELL, AN ANTIGEN
    PRESENTING CELL IN THE SKIN
  • 13. CELLULAR ELEMENTS OF THEIMMUNE SYSTEM
    • LYMPHOCYTES
    MULTIPOTENTIAL CELLS WHICH CAN
    SERVE AS MEMORY AND EFFECTOR
    CELLS
    KILLER CELLS, IMMUNOREGULATORY
    CELLS AND IG- PRODUCING CELLS
    SYNTHESIZE AND SECRETE CYTOKINES
  • 14. CLASSES OF LYMPHOCYTES
    • B CELL ( BURSA/ BONE MARROW DERIVED)
    • 15. T CELL( THYMUS DERIVED)
  • NATURAL KILLER CELLS
    • “ NULL CELLS” ( NO SURFACE MARKERS)
    • 16. LARGE GRANULAR LYMPHOCYTES
    • 17. 5 % of THE PERIPHERAL BLD LYMPHOCYTES
    • 18. PERFORM ANTIBODY DEPENDENT
    CELL CYTOTOXICITY ( ADCC)
    LYSIS OF TUMOR ( IMMUNOSURVEILLANCE)
    ANTI –CANCER RESPONSE
    • 1ST LINE OF DEFENS IN NEONATAL
    • 19. HERPES VIRUS INFECTION
  • PHAGOCYTOSIS
    • PERIPHERAL DEFENSE MECHANISM
    AGAINST MICROORGANISMS
  • 20. PHAGOCYTES
    • POLYMORPHONUCLEAR
    • 21. MONONUCLEAR
  • FUNCTION OF THE PMN
    • ADHERENCE TO VASCULAR EPITHELIUM
    IN RESPONSE TO INFLAMMATORY
    MEDIATORS
    • CHEMOTAXIS AS MIGRATION TOWARD
    SITE OF ANTIGEN OR MICROBIAL INVASION
    • KILLING OF INGESTED MICROORGANISM
  • FUNCTION OF THE MONONUCLEARLYMPHOCYTES
    • INGESTION OF MICROORGANISMS AND
    OTHER FOREIGN MATERIALS
  • 22. EFFECTOR CELLS OF THEIMMUNE RESPONSE
  • EOSINOPHILS
    • BONE MARROW DERIVED GRANULOCYTES
    WITH GRANULES CONTAINING PROTEINS
    THAT BINDS DYES AS EOSIN
    • PRINCIPAL EFFECTOR CELLS AGAINST
    HELMINTHIC PARASITES
  • 25. MAST CELLS AND BASOPHILS
    • EFFECTORS OF HYPERSENSITIVITY
    • 26. CARRY FC RECEPTORS FOR I g E
    • 27. INCREASED NUMBER OF IgE
    MOLECULES IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS
  • 28. HUMORAL ELEMENTS OFTHE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • IMMUNOGLOBULIN
    • 29. COMPLEMENT
    • 30. CYTOKINES
    • 31. CLUSTER DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGEN
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS( ANTIBODIES)
    • SERUM PROTEINS PRODUCED BY B CELLS
    ( SURFACE Ig) , PLASMA CELLS
    ( SECRETORY Ig) , COLOSTRUM , SALIVA ,
    GIT AND UT
    • 20 % OF THE TOTAL PLASMA PROTEINS
  • IgM
    • IO % OF THE NORMAL SERUM Ig
    • 32. PENTAMER
    • 33. LARGEST Ig
    • 34. EARLIEST ANTIBODY IN RESPONSE TO Ag
  • IgG
    • MOST ABUNDANT
    • 35. CAN TRAVERSE THE PLACENTAL BARRIER
    • 36. VITAL ROLE IN THE DEFENSE OF NEWBORN
    AGAINST INFECTION
  • 37. IgA
    • SYNTHESIZED IN THE PLASMA CELLS
    • 38. LOCATED IN THE SUBMUCOSA OF THE
    RESPIRATORY TRACT, INTESTINES,
    AND EXCRETORY GLANDS
    • ANTIBODY IN PREVENTING INFECTION OF
    THE ABOVE ORGANS
  • 39. IgD
    • MONOMER
    • 40. PRESENT IN THE SERUM IN SMALL
    AMOUNTS
    • PLAY A ROLE IN THE DIFFERENTIATION OF
    B CELLS
  • 41. IgE
    • PLAYS A ROLE IN PARASITIC INFECTION
    AND ALLERGIC REACTION
    • MEDIATES ACTIVATION OF THE EOSINOPHILS
    FOR THE IMMUNITY OF PARASITES
    AND IN THE LATE PHASE OF ALLERGIC
    REACTION
  • 42. CLUSTER DIFFERENTIATIONANTIGEN
    • CELL SURFACE PROTEINS THAT IDENTIFY
    A CELL LINEAGE / DIFFERENTIATION STAGE
    ( PHENOTYPIC MARKERS )
    • PROMOTE LYMPHOCYTIC ACTIVATION
  • IMMUNITY
    • MECHANISM INVOLVED IN THE RESISTANCE
    TO INFECTIOUS AND NON- INFECTIOUS
    FOREIGN SUBSTANCES
    • COLLECTIVE AND COORDINATED CELLULAR AND
    HUMORAL RESPONSE TO FOREIGN
    SUBSTANCES
  • 43. TYPE 1IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY
    • PROTOTYPE : BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
    • 44. URTICARIA
    • 45. ALLERGIC RHINITIS
    • 46. ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS
    • 47. ALLERGIC ASTHMA
    • 48. SYSTEMIC ANAPHYLAXIS
  • TYPE 2ANTIBODY DEPENDENT CELLULARCYTOTOXICITY
    • PROTOTYPE: HEMOLYTIC DISEASE
    • 49. ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS
    • 50. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    • 51. THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    • 52. GOODPASTURE ‘ S SYNDROME
    • 53. GRAFT REJECTION
    • 54. NEUTROPENIA AND CHRONIC KERATITIS
    • 55. PEMPHIGUS
  • IMMUNE COMPLEXMEDIATED INJURY
    • SERUM SICKNESS
    • 56. POLYARTERITIS NODOSA
    • 57. POST- STREPTOCCOCAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
    • 58. ARTHUS REACTION
    • 59. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    • 60. SLE
    • 61. STEVEN- JONSON SYNDROME
  • TYPE 4T – CELL MEDIATED/ DELAYED TYPEHYPERSENSITIVITY
    • PROTOTYPE : TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST
    • 62. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
    • 63. CONTACT ALLERGIC DERMATITIS
    • 64. SYPHILIS
    • 65. LEPROSY
    • 66. PARASITIC INFECTION