IMMUNOLOGY<br />DR. MA. TERESA  S. FAJARDO<br />PEDIATRICS<br />HEMATOLOGY/ ONCOLOGY<br />
LYMPHOID ORGANS<br /><ul><li>BONE MARROW
THYMUS
LYMPH NODES
SPLEEN
PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID TISSUES</li></li></ul><li>BONE MARROW<br /><ul><li>SITE OF HEMATOPOEISIS
MOSTLY ON THE FLAT BONES AFTER  PUBERTY</li></li></ul><li>THYMUS<br /><ul><li>CENTRAL LYMPHOID ORGAN ACTIVE IN </li></ul> ...
FUNCTIONS OF THE THYMUS<br /><ul><li>      MATURATION OF THE PRECURSOR</li></ul>               T- LYMPHOCYTES FROM THE BM<...
SPLEEN<br /><ul><li>VITAL FOR IMMUNE RESPONSE TO</li></ul>         BLOOD BORNE ANTIGENS<br /><ul><li>WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM...
ASPLENIC PATIENTS ARE ALREADY RENDERED</li></ul>         SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION BY <br />         ENCAPSULATED BACTERIA<...
PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS<br /><ul><li>MUCOSAL IMMUNITY IS A FUNCTION</li></ul>         OF AGGREGATES OF LYMPHOCYTES<br /...
MALT( MUCOSA ASS. LYMPHOID TISSUES)</li></li></ul><li>CUTANEOUS IMMUNE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>INTRAEPIDERMAL LYMPHOCYTES</li>...
CELLULAR ELEMENTS OF THEIMMUNE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>LYMPHOCYTES</li></ul>MULTIPOTENTIAL CELLS WHICH CAN<br />           SER...
CLASSES OF LYMPHOCYTES<br /><ul><li>B CELL ( BURSA/ BONE MARROW DERIVED)
T CELL( THYMUS DERIVED)</li></li></ul><li>NATURAL KILLER CELLS<br /><ul><li>“ NULL CELLS” ( NO SURFACE MARKERS)
   LARGE GRANULAR LYMPHOCYTES
   5 %  of THE PERIPHERAL BLD LYMPHOCYTES
   PERFORM ANTIBODY DEPENDENT</li></ul>       CELL CYTOTOXICITY ( ADCC)<br />LYSIS OF TUMOR ( IMMUNOSURVEILLANCE)<br />ANT...
    HERPES VIRUS INFECTION </li></li></ul><li>PHAGOCYTOSIS<br /><ul><li>PERIPHERAL DEFENSE MECHANISM</li></ul>            ...
PHAGOCYTES<br /><ul><li>POLYMORPHONUCLEAR
MONONUCLEAR</li></li></ul><li>FUNCTION OF THE PMN<br /><ul><li>ADHERENCE TO VASCULAR EPITHELIUM</li></ul>       IN RESPONS...
EFFECTOR CELLS OF THEIMMUNE RESPONSE<br /><ul><li>        EOSINOPHILS
         MAST CELLS
          BASOPHILS    </li></li></ul><li>EOSINOPHILS<br /><ul><li>BONE MARROW DERIVED GRANULOCYTES</li></ul>         WITH...
MAST CELLS AND BASOPHILS<br /><ul><li>EFFECTORS  OF  HYPERSENSITIVITY
CARRY FC  RECEPTORS FOR I g E
INCREASED NUMBER OF IgE</li></ul>    MOLECULES IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS<br />
HUMORAL ELEMENTS OFTHE IMMUNE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>IMMUNOGLOBULIN
COMPLEMENT
CYTOKINES
CLUSTER  DIFFERENTIATION  ANTIGEN</li></li></ul><li>IMMUNOGLOBULINS( ANTIBODIES)<br /><ul><li>SERUM PROTEINS PRODUCED BY B...
PENTAMER
LARGEST Ig
EARLIEST ANTIBODY IN RESPONSE TO Ag</li></li></ul><li>IgG<br /><ul><li>MOST ABUNDANT
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Immunology

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Immunology

  1. 1. IMMUNOLOGY<br />DR. MA. TERESA S. FAJARDO<br />PEDIATRICS<br />HEMATOLOGY/ ONCOLOGY<br />
  2. 2. LYMPHOID ORGANS<br /><ul><li>BONE MARROW
  3. 3. THYMUS
  4. 4. LYMPH NODES
  5. 5. SPLEEN
  6. 6. PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID TISSUES</li></li></ul><li>BONE MARROW<br /><ul><li>SITE OF HEMATOPOEISIS
  7. 7. MOSTLY ON THE FLAT BONES AFTER PUBERTY</li></li></ul><li>THYMUS<br /><ul><li>CENTRAL LYMPHOID ORGAN ACTIVE IN </li></ul> THE EARLY STAGES OF LIFE<br /><ul><li> DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF</li></ul> PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID TISSUES<br /> ( SPLEEN , LN , MALT) <br />
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF THE THYMUS<br /><ul><li> MATURATION OF THE PRECURSOR</li></ul> T- LYMPHOCYTES FROM THE BM<br /><ul><li> INDUCTION OF IMMUNOCOMPETENCE </li></li></ul><li>LYMPH NODES<br /><ul><li>ANATOMICAL GROUPINGS: NECK, AXILLA</li></ul> FEMORAL AND POPLITEAL AREA<br /><ul><li>ANTIGENS ARE DELIVERED VIA LYMPHATICS</li></ul> TO LN WHERE SPECIFIC IMMUNE<br /> RESPONSE ARE GENERATED<br />
  9. 9. SPLEEN<br /><ul><li>VITAL FOR IMMUNE RESPONSE TO</li></ul> BLOOD BORNE ANTIGENS<br /><ul><li>WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM ( MACROPHAGES)
  10. 10. ASPLENIC PATIENTS ARE ALREADY RENDERED</li></ul> SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION BY <br /> ENCAPSULATED BACTERIA<br />
  11. 11. PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS<br /><ul><li>MUCOSAL IMMUNITY IS A FUNCTION</li></ul> OF AGGREGATES OF LYMPHOCYTES<br /> MACROPHAGES AND ACCESSORY<br /> CELLS BENEATH THE MUCOSAL<br /> EPITHELIUM<br /><ul><li>PAYER’S PATCHES IN THE SMALL INTESTINES
  12. 12. MALT( MUCOSA ASS. LYMPHOID TISSUES)</li></li></ul><li>CUTANEOUS IMMUNE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>INTRAEPIDERMAL LYMPHOCYTES</li></ul> LYMPHOCYTE AND ACCESSORY CELLS<br /> IN THE DERMIS<br /><ul><li>LANGERHAN’S CELL, AN ANTIGEN</li></ul> PRESENTING CELL IN THE SKIN<br />
  13. 13. CELLULAR ELEMENTS OF THEIMMUNE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>LYMPHOCYTES</li></ul>MULTIPOTENTIAL CELLS WHICH CAN<br /> SERVE AS MEMORY AND EFFECTOR<br /> CELLS<br /> KILLER CELLS, IMMUNOREGULATORY <br /> CELLS AND IG- PRODUCING CELLS<br /> SYNTHESIZE AND SECRETE CYTOKINES<br />
  14. 14. CLASSES OF LYMPHOCYTES<br /><ul><li>B CELL ( BURSA/ BONE MARROW DERIVED)
  15. 15. T CELL( THYMUS DERIVED)</li></li></ul><li>NATURAL KILLER CELLS<br /><ul><li>“ NULL CELLS” ( NO SURFACE MARKERS)
  16. 16. LARGE GRANULAR LYMPHOCYTES
  17. 17. 5 % of THE PERIPHERAL BLD LYMPHOCYTES
  18. 18. PERFORM ANTIBODY DEPENDENT</li></ul> CELL CYTOTOXICITY ( ADCC)<br />LYSIS OF TUMOR ( IMMUNOSURVEILLANCE)<br />ANTI –CANCER RESPONSE<br /><ul><li> 1ST LINE OF DEFENS IN NEONATAL
  19. 19. HERPES VIRUS INFECTION </li></li></ul><li>PHAGOCYTOSIS<br /><ul><li>PERIPHERAL DEFENSE MECHANISM</li></ul> AGAINST MICROORGANISMS <br />
  20. 20. PHAGOCYTES<br /><ul><li>POLYMORPHONUCLEAR
  21. 21. MONONUCLEAR</li></li></ul><li>FUNCTION OF THE PMN<br /><ul><li>ADHERENCE TO VASCULAR EPITHELIUM</li></ul> IN RESPONSE TO INFLAMMATORY<br /> MEDIATORS<br /><ul><li>CHEMOTAXIS AS MIGRATION TOWARD</li></ul> SITE OF ANTIGEN OR MICROBIAL INVASION<br /><ul><li>KILLING OF INGESTED MICROORGANISM </li></li></ul><li>FUNCTION OF THE MONONUCLEARLYMPHOCYTES<br /><ul><li> INGESTION OF MICROORGANISMS AND</li></ul> OTHER FOREIGN MATERIALS<br />
  22. 22. EFFECTOR CELLS OF THEIMMUNE RESPONSE<br /><ul><li> EOSINOPHILS
  23. 23. MAST CELLS
  24. 24. BASOPHILS </li></li></ul><li>EOSINOPHILS<br /><ul><li>BONE MARROW DERIVED GRANULOCYTES</li></ul> WITH GRANULES CONTAINING PROTEINS<br /> THAT BINDS DYES AS EOSIN<br /><ul><li>PRINCIPAL EFFECTOR CELLS AGAINST</li></ul> HELMINTHIC PARASITES<br />
  25. 25. MAST CELLS AND BASOPHILS<br /><ul><li>EFFECTORS OF HYPERSENSITIVITY
  26. 26. CARRY FC RECEPTORS FOR I g E
  27. 27. INCREASED NUMBER OF IgE</li></ul> MOLECULES IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS<br />
  28. 28. HUMORAL ELEMENTS OFTHE IMMUNE SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>IMMUNOGLOBULIN
  29. 29. COMPLEMENT
  30. 30. CYTOKINES
  31. 31. CLUSTER DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGEN</li></li></ul><li>IMMUNOGLOBULINS( ANTIBODIES)<br /><ul><li>SERUM PROTEINS PRODUCED BY B CELLS</li></ul>( SURFACE Ig) , PLASMA CELLS <br /> ( SECRETORY Ig) , COLOSTRUM , SALIVA , <br /> GIT AND UT<br /><ul><li>20 % OF THE TOTAL PLASMA PROTEINS</li></li></ul><li>IgM<br /><ul><li>IO % OF THE NORMAL SERUM Ig
  32. 32. PENTAMER
  33. 33. LARGEST Ig
  34. 34. EARLIEST ANTIBODY IN RESPONSE TO Ag</li></li></ul><li>IgG<br /><ul><li>MOST ABUNDANT
  35. 35. CAN TRAVERSE THE PLACENTAL BARRIER
  36. 36. VITAL ROLE IN THE DEFENSE OF NEWBORN</li></ul> AGAINST INFECTION<br />
  37. 37. IgA<br /><ul><li> SYNTHESIZED IN THE PLASMA CELLS
  38. 38. LOCATED IN THE SUBMUCOSA OF THE</li></ul> RESPIRATORY TRACT, INTESTINES,<br /> AND EXCRETORY GLANDS<br /><ul><li> ANTIBODY IN PREVENTING INFECTION OF </li></ul> THE ABOVE ORGANS<br />
  39. 39. IgD<br /><ul><li> MONOMER
  40. 40. PRESENT IN THE SERUM IN SMALL</li></ul> AMOUNTS<br /><ul><li> PLAY A ROLE IN THE DIFFERENTIATION OF </li></ul> B CELLS<br />
  41. 41. IgE<br /><ul><li> PLAYS A ROLE IN PARASITIC INFECTION</li></ul> AND ALLERGIC REACTION<br /><ul><li> MEDIATES ACTIVATION OF THE EOSINOPHILS</li></ul> FOR THE IMMUNITY OF PARASITES<br /> AND IN THE LATE PHASE OF ALLERGIC<br /> REACTION <br />
  42. 42. CLUSTER DIFFERENTIATIONANTIGEN<br /><ul><li>CELL SURFACE PROTEINS THAT IDENTIFY</li></ul> A CELL LINEAGE / DIFFERENTIATION STAGE<br />( PHENOTYPIC MARKERS )<br /><ul><li>PROMOTE LYMPHOCYTIC ACTIVATION</li></li></ul><li>IMMUNITY<br /><ul><li>MECHANISM INVOLVED IN THE RESISTANCE</li></ul> TO INFECTIOUS AND NON- INFECTIOUS<br /> FOREIGN SUBSTANCES<br /><ul><li>COLLECTIVE AND COORDINATED CELLULAR AND</li></ul> HUMORAL RESPONSE TO FOREIGN<br /> SUBSTANCES <br />
  43. 43. TYPE 1IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY<br /><ul><li>PROTOTYPE : BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
  44. 44. URTICARIA
  45. 45. ALLERGIC RHINITIS
  46. 46. ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS
  47. 47. ALLERGIC ASTHMA
  48. 48. SYSTEMIC ANAPHYLAXIS</li></li></ul><li>TYPE 2ANTIBODY DEPENDENT CELLULARCYTOTOXICITY<br /><ul><li>PROTOTYPE: HEMOLYTIC DISEASE
  49. 49. ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS
  50. 50. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
  51. 51. THROMBOCYTOPENIA
  52. 52. GOODPASTURE ‘ S SYNDROME
  53. 53. GRAFT REJECTION
  54. 54. NEUTROPENIA AND CHRONIC KERATITIS
  55. 55. PEMPHIGUS</li></li></ul><li>IMMUNE COMPLEXMEDIATED INJURY<br /><ul><li>SERUM SICKNESS
  56. 56. POLYARTERITIS NODOSA
  57. 57. POST- STREPTOCCOCAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
  58. 58. ARTHUS REACTION
  59. 59. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
  60. 60. SLE
  61. 61. STEVEN- JONSON SYNDROME</li></li></ul><li>TYPE 4T – CELL MEDIATED/ DELAYED TYPEHYPERSENSITIVITY<br /><ul><li>PROTOTYPE : TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST
  62. 62. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
  63. 63. CONTACT ALLERGIC DERMATITIS
  64. 64. SYPHILIS
  65. 65. LEPROSY
  66. 66. PARASITIC INFECTION</li></li></ul><li>
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