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Introduction to immunology


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Introduction to Immunology

Published in: Education, Technology

Introduction to immunology

  1. 1. Saddam AnsariTbilisi State Medical UniversityImmunology
  2. 2. What is immunology?Immune (Latin- “immunus”)To be freePeople survived calamity of epidemic diseases whenfaced with the same disease againThe study of physiological mechanisms that humans andother animals use to defend their bodies from invadingorganismsBacteria - VirusesFungi - Parasites - Toxins
  3. 3. Immunology BuzzwordAntigenAny molecule that binds to immunoglobulin or Tcell receptorPathogenMicroorganism that can cause diseaseAntibody (Ab)Secreted immunoglobulin
  4. 4. Continued…Immunoglobulin (Ig)Antigen binding molecules of B cellsVaccinationDeliberate induction of protective immunityto a pathogenImmunizationThe ability to resist infection
  5. 5. Types of ImmunityInnate Immunity Host defense mechanisms that act from thestart of an infection but do not adapt to aparticular pathogenAdaptive ImmunityResponse of an antigen specific B and Tlymphocytes to an antigenImmunological memory
  6. 6. Types of ImmunityHumoral immunityImmunity that is mediated by antibodiesCan be transferred by to a non-immunerecipient by serumCell Mediated ImmunityImmune response in which antigen specific Tcells dominate
  7. 7. Immunology cell histologyPolymorphonuclearLobed nucleusMononuclearNon-lobed nucleusGranulocyteMany granules seen in cytoplasm
  8. 8. Continued…NeutralDoes not stain to acidic or basic compoundsAcidic (red-pink)Stains to acidic compounds (Eosin)Basic (blue-purple)Stains to basic compounds
  9. 9. Cells of the Immune systemMany cells of theimmune systemderived from thebone marrowHematopoeticstem celldifferentiation
  10. 10. Components of bloodSerum vs. PlasmaSerum: cell-free liquid, minus the clottingfactorsPlasma: cell-free liquid with clotting factors insolution (must use an anticoagulant)
  11. 11. Components of blood
  12. 12. LymphocytesMany types: Important in bothhumoral and cell-mediatedimmunityB-cells produce antibodiesT- cellsCytotoxic T cellsHelper T cellsMemory cells
  13. 13. LymphocytesPlasma Cell (in tissue)Fully differentiaited Bcells, secretes AbNatural Killer cellsKills cells infected withcertain virusesBoth innate and adaptiveAntigen presentation
  14. 14. Monocytes/MacrophagePhagocytosis and killing ofmicroorganismsActivation of T cells andinitation of immune responseMonocyte is a youngmacrophage in bloodThere are tissue-specificmacrophagesAntigen Presentation
  15. 15. Dendritic CellsActivation of T cells andinitiate adaptive immunityFound mainly in lymphoidtissueFunction as antigen presentingcells (APC)Most potent stimulator of T-cell response
  16. 16. Mast CellsExpulsion of parasites throughrelease of granulesHistamine, leukotrienes,chemokines, cytokinesAlso involved in allergic responses
  17. 17. NeutrophilGranulocyteCytoplasmic granulesPolymorphonuclearPhagocytosisShort life span (hours)Very important at “clearing” bacterial infectionsInnate Immunity
  18. 18. EosinophilsKills Ab-coated parasites throughdegranulationInvolved in allergic inflammationA granulocyteDouble Lobed nucleusOrange granules contain toxiccompounds
  19. 19. BasophilsMight be “blood Mast cells’A cell-killing cellsBlue granules contain toxic andinflammatory compoundsImportant in allergic reactions
  20. 20. Other Blood CellsMegakaryocytePlatelet formationWound repairErythrocyteOxygen transport
  21. 21. Major TissuesPrimary LymphtissuesCells originate ormatureSecondary LymphTissues2º2º1º1º2º2º2º2º2º