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  • Average daily human excretion of nutrients. A normal stool is 75% water and 25% solid. Color is brown because of stercobilin and urobilin that comes from bilirubin. The odor is aromatic upon defecation due to indole and skatole products of fermentation and putrefaction in the large intestine. Urine: color – amber/straw, odor – aromatic upon voiding, pH is acidic
  • Eutrophication: “The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of  nutrients , especially phosphates and nitrates. These typically promote excessive growth of algae. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish. Eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process.”
  • Footnote: out of 15 million households, 5 million households don’t have a sanitary toilet here in the Philippines
  • Hookworm’s MOT is skin penetration, .25cc of blood per hookworm causes IDA. Other intestinal parasites ascaris and trichiuris
  • Can used hand or garden trowel, 6-8 inches deep and 4-6 inches in diameter, then cover it with soil after defecation. Can be source of spread of diseases use only during camping or during emergency situations if there is no available toilet facility. Ideally at least 200 ft. away from water source or camping site.
  • Much improved version of cat-hole latrine and 1 straddle trench could accommodate 50 people in 1-3 days. More sanitary and less odorous, must be 200 ft away from water source, camp site and trail
  • LEVEL I. Dry material is used for cleaning, such as papers, corn husk, or corn cubs. If the pit is already full, it is closed and wait for 2 years, the contents will undergo anaerobic decomposition, also you have to consider the lifespan of the ascaris ova which is 1-1 ½ years in the meantime you will make another pit and just transfer the superstructure. After 2 years excavate all the contents, sundried it and could be used now as fertilizers or soil conditioner. One disadvantage, there is danger of you falling inside the pit, the squatting plate must be made of sturdy material
  • LEVEL I. Same principal with pit privy, dry materials is used for cleaning, wait for 2 years then excavate, sundried and used as fertilizer or soil conditioner. It is improved because you don’t need to squat and there is no danger of you falling inside the pit.
  • LEVEL I. The hole is 10-18 inches in diameter, 15-35 feet deep.
  • LEVEL I. Same principle with pit privy, closed if the pit is full, make another pit, wait for 2 years then excavate, sundried the content and used as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Dry materials must not be used because of danger of obstruction. During winter water-sealed latrine must not be used because water will freeze.
  • 6-9 months of operation
  • Level II
  • In cases of obstruction the outlet is the one that is clogged effluent can not get out. Scum is a filmy layer of impure matter that forms or rises to the surface of a body of water.
  • Percolation- allow liquid to pass thru, Leaching – to empty drain, to remove soluble substances from percolating liquid
  • Nitrogen gas  is slightly lighter than air and slightly soluble in water. 
  • Primary Treatment - the simplest, and least effective, method of treatment is to allow the undissolved solids in raw sewage to settle out of suspension forming sludge. Bar screen or metal screen allows removal of gross debris such as papers, rags, wood, used condoms, sanitary napkins. Ideally the gross debris must be disposed by incineration or dumped in sanitary landfill. Grit chamber- gravel, sand and heavy materials settle out at the bottom. The solid portion will settle down and forms the sludge. In some the effluent pass from primary treatment to secondary treatment. Here the effluent is brought in contact with oxygen and  aerobic microorganisms. They break down much of the organic matter to harmless substances such as carbon dioxide. After  chlorination  to remove its content of bacteria, the effluent from secondary treatment is returned to the local surface water.
  • People – no. 1 producer of waste
  • Garbage is waste matter arising from the preparation, cooking and consumption of food. It consists of waste food, vegetable peelings and other organic matter. Most solid waste is in the form of papers.
  • Recycle 1 ton of paper we are saving 17 trees. If half of the world’s paper are recycled 20 million acres of forest is conserved.
  • Accumulation of solid waste causes obstruction in the drainage system, we don’t want another ondoy. Increase incidence of typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and diarrheal diseases.
  • Trash bin containers could be made of plastic or galvanized iron but most ideal is made of hard plastic with label and cover
  • Any household waste that cannot be dispose to the trash bin can be disposed to the following manners…
  • Humus - organic substance that provides nutrients for plants and increases the ability of soil to retain water.
  • Dioxins – linked to cancer, developmental and reproductive disorder
  • Dumping is the most unsanitary method that creates public health hazards, a nuisance, and severe pollution of the environment. Dumping should be outlawed and replaced by sound procedures.
  • Problems of air pollution may arise even if you use state of the art incinerator
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