literary theories and approaches simplified version


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literary theories and approaches simplified version

  1. 1. Text can be read as an author’s unresolved issues in life, resulting in his/her evident work. Views works through the lens of psychology. Looks either at the psychological motivations of the characters or of the authors themselves. Three parts in an individual’s psyche: the id: the instinctual, pleasure seeking part of the mind the superego: the part of the mind that represses the id's impulses the ego: the part of the mind that controls but does not repress the id's impulses, releasing them in a healthy way
  2. 2. Literature is a reflection of the unending and irreconcilable and ongoing class struggle of ruling class and proletariat in a particular society. Karl Marx perceived human history to have consisted of a series of struggles between classes--between the oppressed and the oppressing. Feudalism exploits workers to the point of revolt. This leads to bourgeois capitalism. In bourgeois capitalism, the privileged bourgeoisie rely on the working proletariat. Workers are exploited to the point of revolt.
  3. 3. Literature may be judged according to how the reader perceives it instead of what the author intends. The text itself has no meaning until it is read by a reader. The reader creates the meaning. Analyzes the reader's role in the production of meaning makes someone's reading a function of personal identity. Recognizes that different people view works differently and that people's interpretations change over time.
  4. 4. Literature may be interpreted as a battle of the sexes or a reaction or result of oppressive patriarchy. Concerned with the impact of gender on writing and reading. Usually begins with a critique of patriarchal culture. Concerned with the place of female writers. Concerned with the roles of female characters within works.
  5. 5. It is a reaction to tradition, works that may be interpreted or judged purely from what is apparent in the texts. Involves a close reading of the text all information are essential to the interpretation of a work must be found within the work itself. Focuses on analyzing irony, paradox, imagery, and metaphor. No need to bring in outside information about the history, politics, or society of the time, or about the author's life Terms Used in New Criticism: intentional fallacy - the false belief that the meaning or value of a work may be determined by the author's intention. affective fallacy - the false belief that the meaning or value of a work may be determined by its affect on the reader. external form - rhyme scheme, meter, stanza form, etc.
  6. 6. It assumes that there is a collection of symbols, images and motifs that is archetypes that evokes basically the same response in all people. Identifies these patterns and discusses how they function in the works. Asserts that these archetypes are the source of much of literature's power. Carl Jung states that mankind possesses a "collective unconscious" that contains these archetypes and that is common to all of humanity
  7. 7. Literature is concerned with the language, culture and society. You can base the texts from the origin of the work. Language, culture and society depict the structure where it was written.
  8. 8. Work may be seen as autobiographical in nature and highly subjective that is lacking of objectivity. The work is seen as a mirror of the author’s life. You can purely judge the work by merely basing the texts from the author’s life. Objectivity of the work may not be seen in the texts.
  9. 9. Literature is judge according to its role or use from practical to profound in daily life of a given culture. Texts serve as basis for practicality of the work. Works are said to be cultural when it applies in day to day way of living of a particular society.
  10. 10. Negative reaction to modernism, it means a text may be reinterpreted with the reader being doubtful of the ways it has been interpreted before. Deeply committed on the re-understanding on the texts of other readers. Can have a multiple meaning according to the interpretation of the readers. Negatively opposes the past meaning of the texts.
  11. 11. It views literature as a reflection of an author’s life and time or of the characters’ life and times. It is necessary to know about the author and the political, economical, and sociological context of his times in order to truly understand his works.
  12. 12. Texts must be read many times to be able to get the real meaning of a text. The texts can have multiple meaning . Readers can have their own interpretation. Real meaning conceals in the texts. Texts can be reinterpreted many times. Decoding of texts can be a difficult task to do.
  13. 13. Literature Literary theories and approaches better tools in teaching literature