Three PerspectivesTHE AUTHOR THE TEXT THE READER
What is Literary Criticism?---- Literary criticism is the evaluation,analysis, description, or interpretation ofliterary works.---- It is usually in the form of a criticalessay, but in-depth book reviews cansometimes be considered literary criticism.---- Criticism may examine a particularliterary work, or may look at an authorswritings as a whole.---- Finding literary criticism can bechallenging.
Archetypal Criticism It is a type of criticaltheory that interprets a text byfocusing on recurring myths andarchetypes in the narrative,symbols, images, and charactertypes in a literary work.
According to Carl Jung, thesepatterns are embedded deep in the"collective unconscious" and involve"racial memories" of situations,events, relationships from timeimmemorial,
The “collective unconscious” is a setof primal memories common to the humanrace, existing below each personsconscious mind. Archetypal criticismassumes that there is a collection ofsymbols, images, characters, and motifsthat suggest basically the same responsein all people.
Archetype An archetype is a generic idealizedmodel of a person, object, or conceptfrom which similar instances arederived, copied, patterned, oremulated. In psychology, an archetype is amodel of a person, personality, orbehavior. This article is aboutpersonality archetypes, as describedin literature analysis and the study of
Archetypal criticism is an attempt tobring psychological analysis andreflection to bear upon the imaginativeexperience communicated by literature,and to examine those forms or patternsin which the universal forces of humannature find objectification.
Archetypal images and story patternscan encourage readers to participate inbasic beliefs, fears, and anxieties oftheir age. These archetypes constitutethe clearness of the text but also tapinto a level of desires and anxieties ofpeople.Archetypal criticism helps in thedeepening of events into experiences.It provides a universalistic approach toliterature. It works well with worksthat are highly symbolic
Proponents Jung addresses the relevance of archetypalCarl Jung theory in literature and the arts most clearly in The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature (1966) which contains two significant essays on literature and poetry (first published 1922 and 1930).
In Jung’s archetypal theory, theunconscious mind plays a profoundrole, and it has a purpose, which is toassist individuals in maintaining abalanced psychological state.
Northrop Frye (1912-1991) Canadian literary critic, best known as a major proponent of archetypal criticism. In this branch of literary criticism, literature and other art forms are seen as manifestations of universal myths and archetypes. Frye’s most important work, Anatomy of Criticism (1957), introduced archetypal criticism, identifying and discussing basic archetypal patterns as found in myths, literary genres, and the reader’s imagination.