The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010)
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The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010)

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The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010) presented by the FAA Office of Runway Safety Great Lakes Region

The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010) presented by the FAA Office of Runway Safety Great Lakes Region

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  • WHAT MAKES A SUCCESSFUL CROSS COUNTRY? <br /> IT TAKES A LOT OF PLANNING, HEADWORK, JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING. <br /> PILOTS WILL ENCOUNTER MANY UNKNOWNS INCLUDING WEATHER, ATC DELAYS REROUTES, MALFUNCTIONS, FATIGUE, EMERGENCIES, ETC. <br /> SOMETIMES IT’S EASY, SOMETIMES IT’S NOT. <br /> THE DEVIL IS IN THE DETAILS……SO PLAN CAREFULLY. <br />
  • PREFLIGHT PLANNING HAS DIFFERENT MEANINGS TO DIFFERENT PILOTS. <br /> HAVE YOU BEEN ADEQUATELY TRAINED FOR THE MISSION? <br /> DO YOU KNOW WHAT TO LOOK FOR AND THE QUESTIONS TO ASK? <br /> DO YOU KNOW WHAT AGENCIES AND PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE TO HELP IN YOUR PLANNING? <br /> DO YOU KNOW WHERE TO GO TO GET THE INFORMATION? <br />
  • STAY OUT OF THE BOX BY BUILDING OF MARGIN OF SAFETY WITH DETAILED PLANNING. <br /> KNOW THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS BE FLYING WITH AT LEAST ONE SIDE OF THE BOX PRESENT. <br /> KNOW YOUR LIMITATIONS. <br /> USE ALL AVAILABLE RESOURCES. <br /> ASK FOR HELP. <br /> LEARN HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE SIGNS AND TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION TO MAINTAIN A MARGIN OF SAFETY. <br /> ALWAYS LEAVE YOURSELF AN OUT. <br />
  • WHEN TASK REQUIREMENTS EXCEED CAPABILITIES AN ACCIDENT OR INCIDENT IS NOT FAR BEHIND. <br /> KNOW THE CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF YOURSELF AND YOUR AIRCRAFT. <br /> UNDERSTAND WHERE YOU ARE ON THIS GRAPH AT ALL TIMES DURING THE FLIGHT <br /> NEVER HESITATE TO ASK FOR HELP <br /> DON’T PUSH EITHER THE AIRCRAFT OR YOURSELF TO THE EDGE OF THE ENVELOPE OF CAPABILITIES….YOU WON’T LIKE THE RESULTS. <br /> IF YOU KNOW SOME PORTIONS OF THE FLIGHT WILL TASK YOU BEYOND YOUR CAPABILITIES, ARE YOU PRESSING ON? <br /> MAINTAIN GOOD JUDGMENT, HEADWORK, DECISION MAKING. <br />
  • YOU HAVE NOW TRANSITIONED INTO CHICAGO CENTER AIRSPACE. <br /> YOU ARE EXITING COLUMBIA AFSS COVERAGE AND ENTERING FORT DODGE AFSS SERVICING AREA. <br />
  • PART TIME TOWERED AIRPORT <br /> EX MILITARY FACILITY <br /> LONG CROSSING RUNWAYS <br /> RELATIVE EASY TAXI NAVIGATION ON AIRPORT <br /> NO COMMERCIAL OPS <br /> FAIRLY BUSY GA <br /> CLASS B AIRSPACE ISSUES AS YOU NAVIGATE SOUTH AND EAST OF KANSAS CITY <br />
  • NON TOWERED AIRPORT <br /> BUILT TO SUPPORT WWII OPERATIONS <br /> NO COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS <br /> POSITION AND INTENTION REPORTS ARE NECESSARY FOR TRAFFIC SEPARATION <br />
  • LARGE COMMERCIAL TOWERED AIRPORT SUPPORTING 24 HOUR OPERATIONS <br /> EXPECT HIGH VOLUME AND MIXED TRAFFIC…JET, TURBOPROP AND GA <br /> STANDARDIZED ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE PROCEDURES <br /> COMPLEX AIRPORT LAYOUT WITH PARALLEL RUNWAYS/TAXIWAYS AND CROSSING TAXIWAYS/RUNWAYS <br /> EXPECT CLASS C AIRSPACE PROCEDURES APPROACHING OMA <br /> EXPECT A HIGH DEGREE OF RADAR CONTROL INTO OMA <br /> IF UNFAMILIAR WITH THIS AIRPORT LAYOUT, TAXIING WILL BE CHALLENGING. <br />
  • WHAT DOES THIS SIGN MEAN? <br /> RUNWAY LOCATION SIGN <br /> SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR DETAILS <br />
  • NOT ALL RUNWAYS WILL HAVE LOCATION SIGNS. <br /> HOWEVER, IF TWO RUNWAY APPROACH ENDS ARE CLOSE TOGETHER OR PARALLEL RUNWAYS HAVE MIMINAL LATERAL SEPARATION, THEN A RUNWAY LOCATION SIGN MAY LIKELY BE PRESENT. <br />
  • NONMOVEMENT AREA – INCLUDES TAXIWAYS AND APRON (RAMP) AREAS NOT UNDER THE CONTROL OF ATC. <br /> AN AREA ON AN AIRPORT, WITH AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER, WHERE ATC AUTHORIZATION IS NOT REQUIRED FOR ENTRY AND MOVEMENT. <br /> TYPICALLY THIS IS THE AREA CALLED THE APRON OR RAMP. <br /> EXPECT LOTS OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND OTHER AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT IN THIS AREA, BUT NOT IN COMMUNICATION WITH ATC. <br />
  • MOVEMENT AREA – INCLUDES THE RUNWAYS, TAXIWAYS, AND OTHER AREAS OF AN AIRPORT HELIPORT WHICH ARE UTILIZED FOR TAXIING/HOVER TAXIING, AIR TAXIING, TAKEOFF, AND LANDING OF AIRCRAFT, EXCLUSIVE OF LOADING RAMPS AND PARKING AREAS. AT THOSE AIRPORTS/HELIPORTS WITH A TOWER, SPECIFIC APPROVAL FOR ENTRY ONTO THE MOVEMENT AREA MUST BE OBTAINED FROM ATC. <br /> AN AREA ON THE AIRPORT, WITH AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER, WHERE ATC AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED FOR ENTRY AND MOVEMENT. <br /> AIRCRAFT ARE TYPICALLY TAXIING TO AND FROM THE RUNWAYS IN THIS AREA <br /> AREA IS MARKED BY ONE SOLID YELLOW LINE AND ONE DASHED YELLOW LINE. <br /> THE SOLID LINE IS ALWAYS ON THE NON-MOVEMENT (RAMP) SIDE…MUCH LIKE THE D.O.T. HIGHWAY SYSTEM…FOR EXAMPLE, IT’S ILLEGAL TO PASS ANOTHER CAR IF THE SOLID LINE IS IN YOUR LANE. IN THE SAME MANNER, IT’S ILLEGAL TO TAXI ACROSS THE SOLID LINE INTO THE MOVEMENT AREA WITHOUT ATC AUTHORIZATION. <br />
  • THE RUNWAY SAFETY AREA IS INSIDE THE MOVEMENT AREA WHERE ADDITIONAL ATC AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED TO ENTER. <br /> AIRCRAFT ARE TAKING OFF OR LANDING IN THIS AREA. <br /> AREA IS MARKED BY TWO SOLID LINES AND TWO DASHED LINES. <br /> THINK D.O.T. HIGHWAY SYSTEM. <br />
  • BE ALWAYS AWARE OF YOUR PROXIMITY TO THE RUNWAY. <br />
  • AT TOWERED AIRPORTS (WITH TOWER OPERATING)– THERE ARE THREE DISTINCT AREAS: <br /> NON-MOVEMENT, MOVEMENT AND RUNWAY SAFETY AREA <br /> MOVEMENT/NON-MOVEMENT MARKINGS DEFINE BOUNDARY OF ATC SURFACE CONTROL. <br /> HOLD MARKINGS DEFINE THE BOUNDARY OF THE RUNWAY SAFETY AREA AND ARE NORMALLY 250 FEET FROM CENTERLINE… WHICH BUILDS A MARGIN OF SAFETY FOR TAKEOFF AND LANDING TRAFFIC…WING TIP SEPARATION. <br /> RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS AFFORDS “VERTICAL” DEVELOPMENT TO HELP LOCATE THE HOLD MARKINGS <br /> HOLD SIGNS WILL ALWAYS BE CO-LOCATED WITH HOLD MARKINGS AND ALWAYS BE ON LEFT SIDE OF TAXIWAY. AT SOME AIRPORTS THEY COULD BE ON BOTH SIDES OF THE TAXIWAY. <br /> MANY RUNWAYS ALSO HAVE AN ENTRY POINT FOR VEHICULAR TRAFFIC. <br />
  • COMPLYING WITH THE BOUNDARIES OF THE RUNWAY SAFETY AREA WILL ENSURE PROPER WING TIP SEPARATION WITH AIRCRAFT OPERATING ON THE RUNWAYS. <br />
  • IF YOU ONLY LEARN ONE THING, KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF THIS MARKING. <br /> APPROXIMATELY 1500 PILOT SURFACE DEVIATIONS OCCUR PER YEAR IN THE U.S. <br /> IF WE CAN FIX THIS PROBLEM…RUNWAY INCURSIONS GO AWAY! <br />
  • IT’S IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN TO THE RUNWAY HOLD MARKING. <br /> THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN OFFERS VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND IS THE FIRST VISUAL CLUE OF THE LOCATION OF THE RUNEAY HOLD POSITION MARKING. <br /> THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN WILL NOT ONLY SHOW YOU WHERE TO STOP, BUT IT ALSO PROVIDES YOU AN EXACT LOCATION ON THE AIRFIELD…. BECAUSE THE TAXIWAY LOCATION SIGN (BLACK SQUARE, YOU’RE THERE) WILL ALWAYS BE CO-LOCATED WITH THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN AND THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN WILL ALWAYS BE CO-LOCATED WITH THE RUNWAY HOLD MARKING. <br /> ADDITIONALLY, ON WIDE TAXIWAYS YOU MAY ALSO SEE THE HOLD SIGN ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE TAXIWAY. <br /> THE PILOT IN COMMAND SITS IN LEFT SEAT – THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS ARE LOCATED ON LEFT SIDE OF THE TAXIWAYS…COINCIDENCE…NOT! <br />
  • BE AWARE THAT THIS PHENOMENON EXISTS AND BE READY FOR IT. <br /> GA PILOT SEATING HEIGHT IS ABOUT 6 FT ABOVE PAVEMENT WHICH CREATES A LOW GRAZING ANGLE. <br /> WIDE EXPANSES OF CONCRETE TAXIWAYS CAN MAKE SEEING THIS HOLD MARKING DIFFICULT. <br />
  • USE ALL AVAILABLE SIGNS TO HELP LOCATE THE RUNWAY HOLD MARKING. <br /> REMEMBER, THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS WILL USUALLY BE ON THE LEFT SIDE, BUT OCCASIONALLY LOCATED ALSO ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE TAXIWAY, ESPECIALLY AT THOSE CERTIFICATED AIRPORTS WITH WIDE (200FT) TAXIWAYS. <br />
  • ATC IS EXPECTING YOU TO EXIT THE RUNWAY AND CLEAR THE RUNWAY HOLD MARKING ASAP. <br />
  • IN THIS SCENARIO, BOTH RUNWAYS REMAIN “OPEN”. <br />
  • IN THIS SCENARIO, RUNWAY 14R REMAINS UNAVAILABLE BECAUSE ORANGE AIRCRAFT IS NOT CLEAR OF RUNWAY SAFETY AREA. <br />
  • WHAT TYPE OF SIGN IS THIS? <br /> TAXIWAY LOCATION SIGN. <br /> SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR DETAILS. <br />
  • TAXIWAY LOCATION SIGNS PINPOINTS YOUR LOCATION ON THE AIRFIELD. <br /> TAXIWAY DIRECTION SIGNS INFORMS YOU OF THE TAXIWAY INTERSECTION THAT IS AHEAD. EACH DIRECTION SIGN IS ACCOMPANIED BY AN ARROW INDICATING THE DIRECTION OF THE TURN. <br /> “YELLOW SIGN, YELLOW ARRAY…POINTS THE WAY!” <br />
  • DO YOU KNOW THE ANSWER AND CAN YOU EXPLAIN WHY? <br /> THESE RUNWAY HOLD MARKINGS WILL BE LOCATED WHERE THERE ARE PARALLEL RUNWAYS OR RUNWAY APPROACH ENDS CLOSE TOGETHER. <br />
  • REMEMBER “BLACK SQUARE YOU’RE THERE” …AND <br /> “RED…..RUNWAY AHEAD!” <br /> RED RUNWAY HOLD SIGN OFFERS VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT TO HELP LOCATE THE RUNWAY HOLD MARKING. <br /> THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN WILL ALWAYS BE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE TAXIWAY. <br /> AFSS SECTION BEGINS NEXT SLIDE <br />
  • THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF BRIEFINGS – STANDARD, ABBREVIATED, AND OUTLOOK. <br /> ALLOW ENOUGH TIME FOR A “STANDARD” BRIEFING ON THE DAY OF THE FLIGHT. <br /> ELEMENTS OF A STANDARD BRIEFING <br /> AIRMETS <br /> CURRENT WX <br /> HAZARDOUS WX <br />
  • MUST REQUEST “PUBLISHED” NOTAMS FROM AFSS; NOT AUTOMATICALLY PART OF THE STANDARD NOTAM BRIEF. <br /> PUBLISHED INFO INCLUDES <br /> NTAP, AFD, TPP, TPP CHANGE NOTICE <br /> IF INTERNET CAPABLE: WWW.FAA.GOV; LINK TO REGULATIONS AND POLICIES; LINK TO NOTICES TO AIRMAN <br /> LOTS OF TFRS IN EFFECT, ESPECIALLY DURING PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN. <br /> AFSS ASSUMES YOU ARE AWARE OF THE PUBLISHED NOTAMS. <br />
  • BE AWARE THAT THREE ARE LOTS OF “SHORT NOTICE” TFRS IN EFFECT, ESPECIALLY DURING PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNYEARS. <br /> ONE NEVER KNOWS UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE WHERE THE PRESIDENT IS TRAVELING. <br /> LET AFSS BE YOUR “STAFF”. <br />
  • NUMBER ONE, IT’S THE LAW. <br /> ALL THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO YOU IS FREE SO USE IT. <br /> THERE ARE LOTS OF AGENCIES AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT YOU FLIGHT PLANNING INCLUDING: FBO, AFSS, APPROACH/DEPARTURE CONTROL, CENTER <br />
  • CONSIDER BECOMING VERY FAMILIAR WITH THESE PUBLICATIONS IF NOT ALREADY. <br /> AFSS IS THE BEST SOURCE, IF YOU NEED HELP FINDING INFORMATION. <br />
  • MAKE SURE YOU FLY WITH UP TO DATE CHARTS. <br /> FOR EXAMPLE IN GARDEN CITY, KANSAS THE AIRPORT TOWER WAS INSTALLED IN 2001. IN THE FOLLOWING 20 MONTHS, THERE WERE TEN SURFACE INCIDENTS WHERE THE PILOTS WERE UNAWARE A TOWER EXISTED. ONE PILOT WAS USING A 1958 SECTIONAL. <br />
  • DON’T FORGET TO CALL AFSS FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. <br /> THERE IS A LARGE EFFORT BY FAA TO GET THE INFORMATION TO THE FBOS AND EVENTUALLY INTO THE PILOT’S HANDS. <br /> IF THE FBO DOES NOT HAVE THIS INFO LET THE FSDO SPM KNOW SO THE PUBLICATION INVENTORY CAN BE REPLENISHED. <br />
  • DON’T FLY WITH OUTDATED PUBLICATIONS. <br /> AFD IS UPDATED EVERY 56 DAYS. <br /> IT IS INEXPENSIVE. $19.95 FOR 7 ISSUES PER YEAR OR $4.20 FOR ONE ISSUE. <br /> ORDER FORMS ARE AVAILABLE – HANDOUT. <br /> INFO IS ALWAYS FREE AT THE SUPPORTING AFSS…THEY ALWAYS HAVE CURRENT PUBLICATIONS AND WILL PROVIDE YOU WITH INFO IS ASKED… <br /> USE THE AFSS. <br />
  • AFTER REVIEWING THE WEBSITES AND OTHER REFERENCE MATERIAL, OPEN THE AFD TO GET SPECIFIC AIRPORT INFORMATION. <br /> LOT OF DETAIL IN THE AIRPORT REMARKS. <br /> READ CAREFULLY. <br />
  • ATTENDED MEANS THAT THE FBO WILL NORMALLY BE OPEN. <br /> WHICH NORMALLY MEANS YOU CAN PURCHASE FUEL. <br /> HOWEVER, IT DOESN’T MEAN THAT THE TOWER IS OPEN. <br />
  • ONE MUST LOOK IN BACK OF THE AFD AT THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM TO FIND A DETAIL TAXIWAY DIAGRAM OR USE THE DIAGRAM YOU PULLED OFF THE INTERNET. <br /> WHY DO WE CARE IF TWR CAN SEE US ON TAXIWAY F? <br /> IF THE TOWER CAN’T SEE YOU THEN THEY CAN’T HELP YOU WITH NAVIGATION IF YOU ARE UNFAMILIAR. <br />
  • MOST NON TOWERED AIRPORTS DO NOT HAVE AN AIRPORT DIAGRAM. <br /> LOOK IN THE STATE AVIATION AIRPORT DIRECTORIES FOR THE AIRPORT SKETCH . <br /> OR LOOK IN TERMINAL PROCEDURES PUBLICATIONS FOR AN AIRPORT SKETCH. <br />
  • WHAT DOES THE BLACK CIRCLE MEAN? – PILOT CONTROLLED LIGHTING <br /> MALSR - MEDIUM INTENSITY APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM <br /> 3 MIKE CLICKS = LOW INTENSITY <br /> 5 MIKE CLICKS = MEDIUM INTENSITY <br /> 7 MIKE CLICKS = HIGH INTENSITY <br /> VASI - VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR <br /> USUALLY DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME SETTINGS ARE CONTROLLED BY A PHOTO CELL. PILOTS CAN TURN SYSTEM ON BY THE MIKE BUTTON. <br />
  • APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEMS CAN BE FOUND IN THE LEGEND SECTION IN THE FRONT OF THE AFD. <br /> VASI - VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR <br />
  • MALSR - MEDIUM INTENSITY APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM <br />
  • PATTERN ALTITUDES ARE SHOWN BOTH IN MSL AND AGL ALTITUDES. <br /> IF NOT SPECIFIED TRAFFIC PATTERN IS LEFT TRAFFIC. <br />
  • HOLD SHORT DISCUSSION IS LOCATED IN THE OPERATIONS SECTION IN THE BACK OF THE AFD. <br /> PILOTS MUST BE TRAINED IN LAHSO TO PARTICIPATE IN LAHSO OPERATIONS. USUALLY LAHSO WILL NOT MIXED AIRCRAFT OPS (AIR CARRIER AND GENERAL AVIATION), AND WILL NOT BE CONDUCTED AT NIGHT. <br /> IF REQUESTED TO CONDUCT LAHSO BY ATC, YOU NEED NOT COMPLY, BUT YOU MUST STATE TO THEM THAT YOU ARE “UNABLE”. <br /> IT’S YOUR CALL WHETHER YOU WANT TO PARTICIPATE IN LAHSO! <br />
  • DISTANCES SHOWN ARE FROM RUNWAY THRESHOLD. <br /> ATC NEXT SLIDE. <br />
  • DISTANCES ARE FROM RUNWAY THRESHOLD <br /> IF YOU ARE LANDING ON A LAHSO RUNWAY AND HAVE NOT BEEN INSTRUCTED TO HOLD SHORT, YOU CAN “ROLL OVER” THE HOLD LINES. <br />
  • RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS WILL BE LOCATED ON BOTH SIDES OF THE RUNWAY AT THE LAHSO POINT. <br /> IF YOU STOP PRIOR TO THE HOLD SHORT SIGNS AND SURFACE PAINTED HOLD MARKING, YOU ARE ASSURED OF ADEQUATE WING TIP SEPARATION FROM AIRCRAFT PASSING IN FRONT OF YOU. <br />
  • THE HOURS OF OPERATION FOR THE TOWER, IF NOT LISTED, IS 24/7. <br /> WILL YOU USE GROUND CONTROL FREQ TO MAKE TAXI CALLS IF TOWER IS CLOSED? <br /> WHY IS CTAF THE SAME FREQ AS TOWER?..ELIMINATES CONFUSION WHEN THE TOWER IS CLOSED. <br />
  • THINK OF THE MOVEMENT AREA AS A BUFFER ZONE PRIOR TO THE RUNWAY SAFETY AREA. <br /> REMEMBER RSA IS AFFORDING YOU PLUS OR MINUS 250 FEET OF LATERAL SEPARATION FROM RUNWAY CENTERLINE FOR MARGIN OF SAFETY. <br />
  • UNDERSTAND THAT YOU COULD HAVE HOLD LINES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE TAXIWAY. EXAMPLE TAXIWAY B AND TAXIWAY A <br /> CLOSED RWY IS ANNOTATED WITH “X” ON RUNWAY LEGEND <br />
  • IS THIS A SIGN OR A MARKING? WHAT DOES IT MEAN? <br /> RUNWAY BOUNDARY SIGN <br /> SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR DETAILS <br />
  • IF YOU ARE ASKED BY TOWER TO REPORT OFF RUNWAY, USE THIS BOUNDARY SIGN TO ENSURE ALL PARTS OF AIRCRAFT ARE PAST THE SIGN. <br />
  • NOTE THE RUNWAY HOLD SHORT SURFACE PAINTED MARKING IS ABEAM THE RUNWAY BOUNDARY SIGN. <br />
  • STICK TO YOUR PLAN. <br />
  • THE ASSIGNED RUNWAY IS THE KEY. <br /> YOU CAN’T USE A RUNWAY AS A TAXIWAY UNLESS AUTHORIZED BY ATC WHEN THE TOWER IS OPEN. <br /> LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE TAXI INSTRUCTIOS TO DETERMINE WHAT DIRECTION TO TURN OUT OF THE RAMP. <br /> IF ATC DOES NOT GIVE YOU EXPLICIT TAXI “DIRECTIONS” WHAT ARE THEY EXPECTING YOU TO DO…MOST DIRECT NAVIGATION TO YOUR DESTINATION. <br /> THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OPERATING ON A RUNWAY VERSES CROSSING A RUNWAY. <br />
  • WHEN THE TOWER IS OPERATING <br /> GREEN AREA IS NON MOVEMENT AREA WHICH MEANS NO ATC AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED <br /> AN ATC CLEARANCE IS REQUIRED TO OPERATE IN THE MOVEMENT AREA (YELLOW). <br /> AN ADDITIONAL ATC CLEARANCE IS NEEDED TO OPERATE ON THE RUNWAYS (RED). <br />
  • BY CROSS CHECKING THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM WITH THE AIRFIELD SIGNS AND MARKINGS, YOU CAN PINPOINT YOUR EXACT LOCATION ON THE AIRFIELD. <br />
  • YOU DO NOT HAVE TO STOP. HOWEVER DURING NON TOWER OPERATIONS, IT WOULD BE WISE TO STOP AND LOOK BOTH DIRECTIONS AND ARTICULATE YOUR POSITION AND INTENTIONS. <br />
  • HERE IS ANOTHER GOOD EXAMPLE OF A RUNWAY HOLD MARKING NOT BEING VERY VISIBLE. <br />
  • AIRFIELD DIAGRAMS ARE USUALLY ACCURATE FOR SURFACE NAVIGATION. <br /> REPORT DISCREPANCIES IN THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM TO AIRPORT AUTHORITY. <br />
  • REMEMBER THE TAXI RULE – ATC AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED FOR TAKEOFF WHEN THE TOWER IS OPEN. <br /> USE THE RUNWAY HOLD SIGN TO HELP LOCATE THE RUNWAY HOLD MARKING. <br />
  • UNDERSTAND THE REASON FOR READ BACK REQUIREMENTS. <br /> THIS IS A CRITICAL AREA AND THE STERILE COCKPIT RULE MUST BE ENFORCED. <br />
  • ONCE YOU’RE ON THE RUNWAY, REMEMBER TOWER CLEARANCE IS STILL REQUIRED FOR DEPARTURE. <br />
  • NOTICE THAT TOWER AND CTAF FREQUENCY ARE THE SAME. <br /> MAKE THE “INTENTION CALL” BEFORE ENTERING THE RUNWAY. <br />
  • FLY WITH UPDATED CHARTS <br />
  • THE MAGENTA LINE DEFINES THE AREA WHERE MODE C OPERATION IS REQUIRED. <br /> THE BLUE LINE INDICATES CLASS B AIRSPACE REQUIRING: <br /> TWO-WAY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS <br /> ATC CLEARANCE <br /> TRANSPONDER WITH ALTITUDE REPORTING <br /> BOXED NUMBER AT JOHNSON COUNTY IS THE TOP OF CLASS D AIRSPACE OF 3600 MSL. <br />
  • For busier Class Bravo airspace these are published on the back of the VFR Terminal Sectional <br />

The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010) The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010) Presentation Transcript

  • The Successful Cross-Country Part 1 Federal Aviation Administration
  • The Successful Cross-Country Part 1 The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 2
  • Some helpful tips for using this presentation… Most slides of this presentation contain an associated “NOTES” Page. These “notes” are designed as “Instructor’s Talking Points.” They are global in nature and intended to remind the instructor of areas to emphasize and lessons-to-belearned. To ensure all notes are displayed, utilize the scroll down feature. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 3
  • Some helpful tips for using this presentation… To access the NOTES page from the full screen presentation, press Esc on the keyboard and right mouse click the notes page ICON. To return to the full screen presentation with animation, select the full screen ICON. ICON to access the NOTES page ICON to run the full screen presentation with animation and no displayed notes. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 4
  • Some helpful tips for using this presentation… Those slides with a black X on a yellow background in the lower left corner contain no “notes”. Indicates slide has no associated notes section. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 5
  • Part 1 – Lessons 1. Operating from a part-time towered airport 2. Understanding the airport diagram 3. Review of signs markings and lighting 4. Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) roles and useful publications 5. Understanding the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) xThe Successful Cross Country 6. The “Taxi Rule” Federal Aviation Administration 6
  • This document has been prepared for training purposes only and sets forth general principles and guidance concerning good operating procedures for avoiding surface incidents and runway incursions. It is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature. The Successful Cross Country x Federal Aviation Administration 7
  • What’s the number one causal factor for general aviation accidents?… Inadequate preflight planning The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 8
  • Build a margin of safety by planning ahead A/C Malfunction Confusion Unexpected Weather Complacency Unfamiliarity Fatigue The Successful Cross Country Don’t get “boxed in” Federal Aviation Administration 9
  • Know your limitations xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 10
  • Task Requirements Verses Capabilities Pilot/Aircraft Capabilities Margin of Safety Pilot/Aircraft Capabilities Task Requirements Exposure to accident/incident Approach & Landing Takeoff Taxi Takeoff Cruise Taxi Enroute Stop Taxi Cruise Approach & Landing Taxi Time Line The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 11
  • Leave yourself an “out” xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 12
  • Destination: Ottumwa Airport (OTM) FOD AFSS Chicago Center OTM IXD COU AFSS Kansas City Center The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 13
  • The Airports… Departure Federal Aviation New Century Air Center, Olathe, Kansas (IXD) Administration The Successful Cross Country 14
  • Ottumwa Industrial Airport, Ottumwa, Iowa (OTM) Stopover The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 15
  • Destination Eppley Airfield, Omaha, Nebraska (OMA) Aviation Federal The Successful Cross Country Administration 16
  • Before we get started with our planning, let’s quickly review a few rules and some critical areas and markings. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 17
  • Bonus question time! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 18
  • “Black square You’re there” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 19
  • Non-movement area The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 20
  • Movement area Taxiways Ramp The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 21
  • Runway safety area Runways Taxiways The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 22
  • So, what’s the real difference between these three areas? Speed of operations and exposure to loss of life! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 23
  • ntry poin t Controlled areas Veh ic ular e E 9 250’ Runways – Runway Safety Area 1,000 9 27 27 1,000 Runway Hold Markings & Hold Position Signs 250’ A 9 B 9-27 C 9-27 D 27 Taxiways - movement area The Successful Cross Country Ramp – non movement area Federal Aviation Administration 24
  • Understand the boundaries of the Runway Safety Area. Maintain situational awareness The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 25
  • 75% of all pilot deviations result from a violation of this marking! ea! the boundaries of the runway safety ar It defines The runway hold marking is the most critical marking on any airport ……towered or non-towered! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 26
  • Runway hold signs will always be co-located with runway hold markings and will usually be located on the left side of the taxiway To offer “vertical development” and help pinpoint the location of the runway hold markings…. Runway Hold Signs are MANDATORY instruction signs The Successful Cross Country “RED – RUNWAY AHEAD!” Federal Aviation Administration 27
  • Runway hold markings are not always readily visible… WHY? Reflection of a spinning prop Focusing on tasks IN the cockpit instead of OUT Pilot “seating” height Lack of “vertical development” Sun glare and other environmental conditions The Successful Cross Country Actual Cockpit View Federal Aviation Administration 28
  • So remember, use the runway hold sign to help locate the runway hold marking. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 29
  • Exiting the Runway • • • No Clearance Is Required to Exit the Runway. Cross the Hold Marking With Dashed Lines Facing You. Do Not Exit the Landing Runway Onto an Intersecting Runway Unless Authorized by ATC. Remember “dash across the dash lines, stop at the solid lines.” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 30
  • 32R Runway safety area 14L/32R The green aircraft is expected to “clear” the landing runway (14R) and runway safety area and hold short of Runway 14L. Runway safety area 14R/32L The Successful Cross Country 32L 14R Following landing, the green aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L Federal Aviation Administration 31
  • 32R Runway Safety Area 14L/32R The orange aircraft is expected to HOLD AT THIS POSITION even if it HAS NOT cleared the landing runway and remains inside the runway safety area for Runway 14R/32L 14R 14R Following landing, the orange aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 32L Runway Safety Area 14R/32L 32
  • Bonus question time! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 33
  • “Black square You’re there” xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 34
  • Taxiway location sign Taxiway direction sign The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 35
  • Question: You see these markings outside your windscreen and are advised by ATC to “hold short.” Which hold line applies? B A The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 36
  • Bonus question time! You are located on Taxiway A at the approach end of Runway 35. Describe the TYPE and COLOR of the sign(s) that will be located on the left side of this taxiway. “Black square The Successful Cross Country You’re there” “RED….. Federal Aviation 37 RUNWAY AHEAD!” Administration
  • Let’s get started on our planning! On the day of departure you receive a “standard weather brief” from COU AFSS which included airmets, sigmets, adverse weather conditions, synopsis of highs and lows, current conditions along the route, terminal forecasts, area forecasts, winds aloft and NOTAMS. In summary, for this flight you can expect clear skies The Successful Cross Country and southerly winds less than 10 knots. Federal Aviation below 12,000 38 Administration
  • Avoid the airspace in the vicinity of power plants. No circling or loitering authorized. Weather briefing complete. NOTAMS include…. All air operations are prohibited at or below 3000 feet within 3 nautical mile radius of a stadium with a seating capacity of 30,000 or more from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the scheduled event. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 39
  • Why get a briefing from AFSS? Get on record as receiving a briefing! And…. Federal Aviation AFSS is the only “official” source for TFRs. Administration The Successful Cross Country 40
  • Far 91.103 preflight action. Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. What does this mean? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 41
  • “…..become familiar with all available information concerning that flight.” Resource gathering and utilization The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 42
  • Kansas City, Chicago and Omaha sectionals are needed for this flight The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 43
  • What’s available at the FBO? Local procedures, noise abatement, mowing ops inAviation progress, Federal Administration airport sign guides, phone number(s) for ASOS/AWOS The Successful Cross Country 44
  • The AFD is published every 56 days. It contains data on airports that cannot be readily depicted on aeronautical charts such as: • Runway Information • Airport Remarks • Fuel • NAVAIDs • Frequencies • Updates to Visual Charts • Airport Diagrams • Runway Safety Information • Services Available • Important Phone Numbers • Procedures Unique to that Airport Is it current? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 45
  • Airport diagrams are also available at the FAA’s airport diagram website: www.faa.gov/go/runwaysafety Airport Diagram xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 46
  • Airport diagrams are also available at the FAA’s airport diagram website: www.faa.gov/go/runwaysafety For additional information about central region airports (MO, IA, KS, NE) click “Regions” here xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 47
  • Let’s first look at the airport remarks for IXD, our departure point. LAHSO PAGE 310? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 48
  • The first thing we notice is that IXD is attended at certain hours. LAHSO PAGE 310? What does “attended” mean? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 49
  • Another item we notice is that Taxiway F is obscured from the tower’s view. Where is “TWY F” on this airport sketch? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 50
  • Look at the airport diagram for greater detail Hangars! Why would the tower’s view of Taxiway F be obscured? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 51
  • MALSR & VASI are activated by “mike clicks” when tower is closed. LAHSO PAGE 310? What do the black circles mean?. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 52
  • The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 53
  • The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 54
  • Traffic pattern altitudes and direction of turns LAHSO PAGE 310? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 55
  • The airport remarks also has a note about land and hold short operations section. Where Is This Section Located? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 56
  • Go to the back of the AFD, operations section Scan of page 310 listing IXD hold short of 17/35 when landing 22 The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 57
  • 17 Landing RWY Hold short point Measured distance 35 2,700 FEET 3,300 FEET 3,650 FEET The Successful Cross Country 35 Federal Aviation Administration 58
  • Runway 4-22, 35-17 intersection Runway hold sign The LAHSO surface hold marking extends the entire width of the runway. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 59
  • We also notice that IXD is a part time tower. LAHSO PAGE Depending on my 310? departure time, the tower may or may not be open? If the tower is not open when you depart, will that effect your taxi and radio procedures? What frequency will you be broadcasting on? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 60
  • Determine the boundaries of the movement/nonmovement and runway safety areas The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 61
  • Study the airport diagram to determine taxiway/runway crossing points. The Successful Cross Country What is status of this runway? Federal Aviation Administration 62
  • Bonus question time! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 63
  • The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 64
  • Runway boundary sign: Taxi past this sign to ensure you are clear of the runway safety area when EXITING! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 65
  • Once you’ve planned the flight… it’s time to fly the plan The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 66
  • BONUS QUESTION What is POFZ? xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 67
  • Precision Obstacle Free Zone xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 68
  • The POFZ is defined as a volume of airspace above an area beginning at the runway threshold, at the threshold elevation, and centered on the extended runway centerline, 200 feet long by 800 feet wide. Maintaining the POFZ clear during low ceiling/low visibility conditions protects both the landing aircraft and holding aircraft or vehicle. The POFZ is in effect for vertically guided approaches when the ceiling is below Federal 4000 250 feet and/orCross Country less than ¾ statute mile (or RVR below Aviationfeet), and an 69 xThe Successful visibility Administration aircraft is on final approach within two miles of the runway threshold.
  • Typical POFZ 200 Feet 400 Feet When the POFZ is in effect, the wing of an aircraft holding on a taxiway waiting for runway clearance may penetrate the POFZ; however, neither Federal Aviation the The Successfulnor the tail may infringe on the POFZ. In addition, no ground 70 xfuselage Cross Country Administration vehicles may be in the POFZ when it is in effect.
  • POFZ Holding Positions ILS Airports with a taxiway located prior to the runway threshold may result Federal POFZ in The Successful Cross Country 71 xan aircraft being located in the POFZ when it is active.Aviation holding Administration positions may be needed at these locations.
  • If a hold position is used to protect the POFZ, an ILS hold is used. A1 30L Runway holding position ILS critical area or POFZ boundary A second sign on the right side is required in some situations. ILS xThe Successful Cross Country ILS critical area or POFZ Federal Aviation Administration holding position 72
  • Far 91.129 (i) “The takeoff, landing and taxi clearance rule” Part 1: No person may, at any airport with an “operating” control tower, operate an aircraft ON a runway or taxiway, or The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation take off, or land, without an ATC clearance. 73 Administration
  • X Executing the taxi instructions xThe Successful Cross Country YOU ARE HERE X YOU’REFederal Aviation GOING HERE Administration 74
  • With the tower operating, what surfaces require an ATC clearance to taxi, takeoff or land? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 75
  • How can you confirm your location? “Black square, You’re there!” RED…Runway Ahead! By the Taxiway B location sign. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 76
  • As you continue your taxi on Taxiway A you approach the runway hold marking for Runway 22-4. Do you have to stop? 2 4- 35-17 ? 2 17-35 A Hold Line Parallel to the Holding Runway You have been issued the following taxi clearance, “N252KT taxi to The Successful Cross Country 35.” Runway Federal Aviation Administration 77
  • You do not have to hold at the intersection of Taxiway A and Runway 22-4 because Taxiway A does not cross the The Successful Cross Country Federal assigned Runway 35 at this location. Aviation Administration 78
  • Also, notice the “jog” in the Taxiway A? A to the aligned parallel 4-22 is terline line for Runw ay the taxiw ay cen tice the hold No dicular to y not be perpen runway and ma The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 79
  • View from the cockpit As you continue your taxi southbound on Taxiway A you finally reach the approach end of Runway 35. Is ATC authorization required for departure? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 80
  • If the tower is open, ATC approval is required. A “New century tower, N252KT is ready to go Runway 35, VFR northeast.” “N252KT, hold short Runway 35.” A 35 “N252KT, New Century Tower, hold short landing traffic.” 35 “N252KT, Runway 35, position and hold.” “N252KT, Runway 35, position and hold.” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 81
  • “N252KT, Runway 35, cleared for takeoff.” A A 35 35 35 “N252KT, cleared for takeoff.” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 82
  • If the tower is closed and it’s VFR, what frequency will you announce your position and intention prior to departure? A The Successful Cross Country A 35 “New Century traffic, N252KT departing Runway 35 northeast, New Century”. 35 Federal Aviation Administration 83
  • If tower is closed, monitor CTAF during departure for arriving and departing aircraft at IXD A A 35 xThe Successful Cross Country x 35 Federal Aviation Administration 84
  • “Kansas City Approach, N252KT” “N252KT frequency change approved” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 85
  • “Kansas City Approach, N252KT 5 north New Century, climbing VFR to 5,500 for flight following to Ottumwa.” “N252kt Kansas City Approach, go ahead” TFR – Arrowhead Stadium… Ummm! xThe Successful Cross Country x Federal Aviation Administration 86
  • What about this blue line? Bonus question time! What does this magenta line represent? The Successful Cross Country What about the number 36 in dashed Federal Aviation box? 87 Administration
  • VFR Flyways under Class Bravo Airspace The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 88
  • Unfamiliarity om C cy n ce a pl Lack of Communications Fatigue I ie er xp ne ce n Lack of Planning xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration END PART89 1
  • Part 1 – Lessons 1. Operating from a part-time towered airport 2. Understanding the airport diagram 3. Review of signs markings and lighting 4. Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) roles and useful publications 5. Understanding the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) xThe Successful Cross Country 6. The “Taxi Rule” Federal Aviation Administration 90
  • Part 2 – Lessons 1. 2. 3. 4. Operating at a Non-Towered Airport Using the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD ) Utilizing AFSS, ARTCC, ASOS and ATIS Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) xThe Successful Cross Country x Federal Aviation Administration 91
  • Part 3 – Lessons 1. Operating at a busy 24 hour towered commercial airport 2. Using the AFD 3. Understanding the airport diagram 4. Utilizing AFSS, ARTCC, ASOS and ATIS The Successful Cross Country x 5. Communicating with the tower Federal Aviation Administration 92
  • Part 4 – Lessons 1. The Anatomy of a Close Call X Successful Cross Country The 2. Conclusion Federal Aviation Administration 93