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DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
DPE Runway Incursion
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DPE Runway Incursion

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  • 2013/02/14-029 (I) PP PPT Presenter Info: Author: Harlow Vorhees (FAASTeam)with changes by Bill Castlen (SAFE); FAASTeam POC’s: Kevin Clover, Operations Lead, Office Phone 562-888-2020 ; Presentation may be used by FPM or Trained SAFE Representative at any Flight Instructor Open Forum. May also be used separately or in conjunction with other presentations to satisfy appropriate national business plan performance targets.
  • Let’s have a discussion about Runway Incursions - especially GA runway incursions. We'll first define the problem and look at possible causes and then discuss several approaches to fixing the problem.
  • Runway incursions are an on going hazard in our nation’s airspace system (NAS) and are considered a high level risk for potential accidents with catastrophic consequences. All system users have a responsibility to avoid runway incursions. DPEs and CFIs have a special role in continuing education of airmen regarding both knowledge of the hazards and best practices for prevention.
  • We are going to begin with a brief explanation of how the FAA views runway incursions starting with the 4 categories followed by an overview of classification. Pilots, air traffic controllers, vehicle drivers, pedestrians are involved in these incidents. On occasion, system software/hardware might malfunction.   Category A incursions involve near misses where there was close proximity and evasive action. Category B incursions involve a loss of separation with potential for collision but with time available to take alternative action such as go around. Category C is the same as Category B but decreased potential for collision. Category D involves unauthorized entry on a protected area such as crossing the hold lines. No traffic conflicts involved in this category.
  • The FAA Air Traffic Organization (ATO) is responsible for classifying all reported incidents. An OI is a surface event ATCT action or inaction. A PD is an incident where a pilot action was responsible. A V/PD is an incident involving a vehicle or a pedestrian. Our presentation will focus on PDs.
  • These numbers are preliminary for 2012, but the final numbers will not change the basic story. GA is WAY over represented in the numbers. Let’s take a closer look at Category C. They are serious and there are enough of them to be helpful statistically.
  • These are some examples of PD runway incursion incidents investigated by the FAA. Typically, the pilot is operating under an ATC instruction and fails to comply with it. There are no trends that single out any specific pilot category. All age groups, pilot certificate levels, and experience levels are represented. CFIs and DPEs have been involved.
  • Cockpit distractions include conversations with passengers, transmissions on frequencies such as Unicom while taxiing and any activity that could take attention away from aircraft operation. DPEs and CFIs should be careful to limit conversations during taxi and perform briefings and instruction when the aircraft is stationary. Practice sterile cockpit.   Misunderstandings include pilots accepting a clearance or instruction and then operating contrary to that because they believe they heard something else. For example a pilot who was told to line up and wait proceeded to takeoff because he believed he had been cleared for takeoff. A pilot may expect to receive a clearance and subsequently fail to process a different instruction. This is called expectation bias.   Poor communications can result from defective radios, speakers, and headsets.   Inadequate cockpit workload management is usually related to lack of standard operating procedures (SOPs). It is essential that CFIs train and DPEs test new pilots in the use of proper (SOPs). SOPs include both checklist and memory actions that are designed to minimize errors. SOPS must be designed so that the pilot will want to use them. If they are burdensome, they will be ignored. They must be taught, practiced, and tested. All the items we will be discussing in this presentation should be incorporated in SOPs
  • DPEs should review their practical test plan of action for this task and ensure the subject is tested during both ground and flight operations as required. DPEs should discuss this issue with FAA POIs for advice and information on local problem areas. A private pilot candidate requires only 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop at a towered airport per 61.109. While not recommended, this could be met without the student being introduced to all taxi and ground operations. The student could just land and taxi back for takeoff. DPEs are not currently required to have private pilot candidates fly into towered airports to demonstrate knowledge and skill in Task F. This underscores the importance of this task.   CFIs must conduct thorough training in airport operations. They are urged to teach and practice sterile cockpit procedures. When the aircraft is in motion, there should be no conversation except that which is directly related to taxi. Training and de briefing should be conducted when the aircraft is stationary. DPEs and CFIs should consider stopping in a run up area or ramp in coordination with ATC should instruction, briefing, or other conversation be necessary in the aircraft. Ground training and testing for surface operations is best done in a classroom. CFIs and DPEs should avoid briefing or debriefing students/pilots while the aircraft is in motion. This sets a poor example and sets you up for an incident.   Students should always identify themselves to ATC. “XXX Tower, Cessna 12386, Student Pilot at base of tower, taxi takeoff with information C”   DPEs and CFIs should develop and use ground operations scenarios. Desk top or training devices are good resources to train and test student’s knowledge and skills in surface operations.
  • Task F was introduced in November 2011 and became the standard in June 2012 for both Private and Commercial PTS (Airplanes). The bullets on the slide are direct excerpts from the task. As you can see, they are general in nature and a specific lesson plan and testing plan of action would be required to ensure students are adequately trained and tested.   The elements are very comprehensive and supported by specific references including FAA Handbooks, Advisory Circulars, and the AIM. How many of you have adopted these into your Training Curriculums and PTS Plan of Actions? What are your views on how the aviation community can address this knowledge and skill requirement? We’ll get into a few scenarios in later charts. DISCUSSION
  • This is a knowledge element taken directly from Task F. that should be taught and tested in a ground setting. Students should receive training on this prior to solo and DPEs should evaluate applicant’s knowledge during oral portion of test. This element represents the foundational knowledge that will enable a new pilot to obtain correlative understanding of this subject .  
  • This is just good stuff that needs to be a part of our “Best Practices” and normal procedures whether it is in the PTS or not. Just do it!
  • Briefly discuss each bullet emphasizing responsibility for both CFIs to teach and DPEs to test. Get audience involved. Ask for comments ideas.   DPEs and CFIs should teach and test how the airport diagram is used. For example, a pilot should study it while planning surface operations but should not spend excessive time looking at it while in motion. Pilots should coordinate with ATC and stop the aircraft if it is necessary to study the chart after commencing taxi. This may seem obvious to experienced pilots but should not be overlooked in teaching new pilots.  
  • Briefly discuss each bullet emphasizing CFIs to teach and DPEs to test. Get audience involved. Ask for comments ideas.   DPEs and CFIs are encouraged to use real examples of runway incursion hazards during taxiing. For example, all pilots should have correlative knowledge of runway hold short signs and markings and be able to describe or perform crossing these points after exiting a runway or holding short of them prior to entering/crossing a runway. Pilots should be taught the potential of losing awareness of these markings and have defenses to minimize that possibility. Discuss possible techniques pilots can use as memory joggers such as always identifying hold short signs/markings and mentally verifying whether to hold short or cross.
  • Briefly discuss each bullet emphasizing CFIs to teach and DPEs to test. Get audience involved. Ask for comments ideas.
  • Now let’s put our previous discussion into application in specific scenarios. The last three years (2010,2011, and 2012) of Category C Runway Incursion (RI) data gives us some interesting and useful insight. If we look at only airports with 2 or more Cat Cs, we find that they had a total of 282. Interestingly, of those, 46 occurred at just 4 airports. Clearly, these 4 must have challenging ground environments, so let’s look at them and see what we can learn.
  • Alphabetically, ADS is first up. Take a moment to study the AD. How many Hot Spots are listed? Where are the FBOs? Discuss taxiing to Runway 33 and 15 from each of the FBOs. Where would you do your run-up? Discuss taxiing from hangars on the east side and then the west side to Runway 33 and then 15.
  • DVT is next. Take a moment to study the AD. How many Hot Spots are listed? Where is the Terminal? Discuss the overall layout. Lots of hangars on the north side and lots more on the south side. Discuss taxiing to Runways 25L and R and 7R and L from each of the Terminal. Where would you do your run-up? Discuss taxiing from hangars on the north side and then the south side to each runway, in turn. Look at Taxiways A13 and C13 and then B3 and C3. Then look at Taxiways A5, B5, and C5; then A9, B9, C9. Discuss opportunities for mis-hearing taxi instructions.
  • NEW is next. Take a moment to study the AD. How many Hot Spots are listed? Where are the FBOs? The Terminal? Discuss taxiing to each Runway from each of the FBOs. Where would you do your run-up? Discuss taxiing from hangars on the east side to each Runway.
  • PRC is next. Take a moment to study the AD. How many Hot Spots are listed? Where are the FBOs? Discuss taxiing to each Runway from each of the FBOs. Where would you do your run-up? Discuss taxiing from hangars on the east side and then the west side to each Runway.
  • What have we learned with these scenarios? Most of the places we go don’t have the challenges of these airports, but we learned some things. Let’s list some things that we learned that can be applied to places we frequent.
  • These conclusions are inescapable.
  • Allow audience to read the closing message and reflect on the key points related to this presentation.   Suggest that CFIs review their Training Curriculums and Lesson Plans to make sure new pilots are being prepared for Task F in the PTS. Mention that this is a good subject to be covered on Flight Reviews and Wings Flights.   Suggest that DPEs review their PTS Plans of Action to emphasize this Task and ensure it is being tested to a high standard. Remind them that this is one of the Emphasis Items in both Private and Commercial PTS.   Thank the audience for their participation and commitment to improving aviation safety.
  • At the conclusion of our presentation, you will have recent statistics of runway incursions in the US and in your geographic area. You will know the percentage of general aviation pilots involved and hear about common examples. We will discuss Area of Operation ll, Preflight Procedures in the Private and Commercial Pilot PTS with emphasis on recently developed Task F. Runway Incursion Avoidance This presentation is focused on operations at towered airports and is scheduled for 30 minutes. Our discussion of the PTS is intended to be interactive, so please ask questions and offer input. Our objective is to provide you with information and ideas you can use to ensure our nation’s pilots are being properly trained and tested on this critical safety issue.
  • Briefly discuss each bullet emphasizing responsibility for both CFIs to teach and DPEs to test. Get audience involved. Ask for comments ideas.   DPEs and CFIs should teach and test how the airport diagram is used. For example, a pilot should study it while planning surface operations but should not spend excessive time looking at it while in motion. Pilots should coordinate with ATC and stop the aircraft if it is necessary to study the chart after commencing taxi. This may seem obvious to experienced pilots but should not be overlooked in teaching new pilots.  
  • Briefly discuss each bullet emphasizing CFIs to teach and DPEs to test. Get audience involved. Ask for comments ideas.   DPEs and CFIs are encouraged to use real examples of runway incursion hazards during taxiing. For example, all pilots should have correlative knowledge of runway hold short signs and markings and be able to describe or perform crossing these points after exiting a runway or holding short of them prior to entering/crossing a runway. Pilots should be taught the potential of losing awareness of these markings and have defenses to minimize that possibility. Discuss possible techniques pilots can use as memory joggers such as always identifying hold short signs/markings and mentally verifying whether to hold short or cross.
  • Briefly discuss each bullet emphasizing CFIs to teach and DPEs to test. Get audience involved. Ask for comments ideas .
  • SA is mentioned in the PTS and applicants are expected to know what it is and how to apply it to surface operations. The above definition is from the Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. Let’s discuss how these may apply to surface operations. Pilot fatigue or illness might affect performance during taxi at a busy airport. Problems with the airplane as simple as fogged windows might cause us to miss a hold short sign. Poor weather, night conditions affect ground operations. There have been runway incursions where external pressures such as being in a hurry or being distracted by a passenger were factors. We must teach pilots to recognize these and take the necessary actions to overcome them before an error is made. Discussion?
  • Discuss each of these and encourage audience participation .  
  • Discuss each of these and encourage audience participation .  
  • Runway Incursion Avoidance is not limited to identifying airport signs and markings although those are important. CFIs must conduct thorough training and ensure their clients have adequate knowledge and demonstrate skill in all aspects of surface operations at all airports but with emphasis on towered airports. DPEs must test the same. Good communications between DPEs and CFIs will help this become an integrated process where both are on the same page.   As we have discussed in this program, human factors including situational awareness are critical elements of surface operations and are the root cause of many incidents.   CFIs and DPEs as general aviation role models must set an example. Instructional and testing flights must be conducted in a manner to enhance runway safety.   Our ultimate goal is to establish a professional approach for all pilots combining a positive attitude, effective communications, and a high level of vigilance as our goal for general aviation pilots. This can be achieved by CFIs and DPEs working together to help keep the highest standards for our new pilots.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1Federal AviationAdministrationPresented to:By:Date:Federal AviationAdministrationRunway IncursionAvoidanceDPEs and Flight Instructors>FAASTeamFebruary, 2013
    • 2. 2Federal AviationAdministrationOur Discussion Plan• Problem Definition– And Specifically, GA Statistics• Possible Causes• Approach to Fixing– Refer to PTSs– Use Scenarios• Conclusions
    • 3. 3Federal AviationAdministrationRunway Incursion• Any occurrence at an aerodrome involvingthe incorrect presence of an aircraft vehicleor person on the protected area of a surfacedesignated for the landing and take off ofaircraft”. (ICAO Doc 4444 - PANS-ATM)
    • 4. 4Federal AviationAdministrationRunway Incursion Categories• A - Serious Incident – Actual Collision orCollision Narrowly Avoided• B – Separation Decreases- Potential forCollision• C – Ample Time and/or Distance to AvoidCollision• D – Runway Incursion but No ImmediateSafety Consequence
    • 5. 5Federal AviationAdministrationRunway Incursion Classifications• Operational Incident (OI)• Pilot Deviation (PD)• Vehicle Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD)
    • 6. 6Federal AviationAdministrationPreliminary Runway IncursionsFY 2012 Statistics•Nationwide Totals:• Pilot Deviation Totals: 723 RIs• Pilot Deviations General Aviation: 588 (81.33%)• Pilot Deviations (GA) by Category:National A B C D TOTALPD 3 4 187 394 588
    • 7. 7Federal AviationAdministrationEXAMPLES OF PILOT DEVIATIONS• Aircraft Crosses Runway Hold Short Lines WithoutClearance• Aircraft Enters Runway During a Taxi Operation• Aircraft Makes a Takeoff or Landing on the WrongRunway• Aircraft Makes a Takeoff or landing WithoutClearance
    • 8. 8Federal AviationAdministrationWHAT ARE THE CAUSES?• Cockpit Distractions• Misunderstandings• Poor Communications• Inadequate Cockpit Workload Management(SOPs)
    • 9. 9Federal AviationAdministrationHOW CAN DPEs and CFIs HELP?• DPEs conscientiously test the material in Area ofOperation ll Task F. Runway Incursion Avoidance.You are the Gatekeeper• CFIs must provide comprehensive training on RunwayIncursion Avoidance emphasizing the Human Factorsthat contribute to errors• Special Attention for pilots who are trained and flyat non towered airports• Consider the use of “Scenarios” as Training andTesting Tools
    • 10. 10Federal AviationAdministrationPRIVATE & COMMERCIAL PILOT PTS• Area of Operation ll: Preflight Procedures• Task F: Runway Incursion Avoidance• “To determine that the applicant exhibitsknowledge of the elements of RunwayIncursion Avoidance by…”• 17 Elements that call for: “Exhibiting”,“Utilizing”, “Knowing”, “Conducting”How Do We Teach this? How Do We Test?Scenarios?
    • 11. 11Federal AviationAdministrationDistinct Challenges andRequirements During Taxi Ops• Element 1 in Task F.– Includes:• Vigilance• Communications• Compliance with ATC Instructions• Knowledge of Airport Layout• Taxi Route
    • 12. 12Federal AviationAdministrationProcedures for AppropriateCockpit Activities During Taxi• Element 2 in Task F.– Includes:• Taxi Route Planning• Briefing Location of Hot Spots• Communicating and Coordinating With ATC• Heads Up During Taxi• Observing and Interpreting Airport Signs and Markings
    • 13. 13Federal AviationAdministrationPlanning Taxi Operations• Study and Check– Airport Diagram for Departure and Arrival Airportsof the Planned Flight– NOTAMs, Ground and Air Frequencies– Anticipate Taxi Route but Do Not Assume You willReceive It• Perform Cockpit Tasks Prior to Taxi• Students should advise ATC “Student Pilot”and/or Request Progressive Taxi Instructions• Write Down Taxi Instructions
    • 14. 14Federal AviationAdministrationTAXI PROCEDURES• Maintain Awareness of your Position andLimit of Taxi Instruction– Stay FOCUSED!– Know the Signs, Markings, and Airport Lighting• Do not use Excessive Taxi Speed• Heads Up and Listen• Maintain Sterile Cockpit - Advise Passengersand Co Pilots
    • 15. 15Federal AviationAdministrationCommunications• Do Not Fly With Defective Radios• Teach and Test proper Phraseology• Read Back Instructions Using Call Sign –Hold Short Instructions and RunwayAssignments• Stay “In the Game”– Use Caution for Similar Call Signs– Beware of Answering for Another Aircraft– Monitor ATC Communications With Other Aircraft• If Unsure of a Communication, ObtainClarification
    • 16. 16Federal AviationAdministrationDiscuss Scenarios• 3 Years of Category C RIs Data– For Airports with 2 or More RIs– Total of 282 Cat C RIs– 46 at 4 CONUS Airports– Over 300 Towered CONUS Airports– 1% of Airports Had 12% of Cat C RIs• 4 Challenging Environments for Discussion– ADS, DVT, NEW, PRC
    • 17. 17Federal AviationAdministrationADS: 7 Cat Cs in 3 YearsHS 1 thru 8: Twy A, J, H, G, F,E, D, C and Rwy 15-33.Holding Position Markingshavebeen moved back to the edgeof Twy A.HS 9 Twy A and Rwy End 33.Holding Position Markingshavebeen moved back to the edgeof Twy A prior to turn offparallel twy.
    • 18. 18Federal AviationAdministrationDVT: 18 Cat Cs in 3 YearsPHOENIX, AZPHOENIX DEERVALLEY (DVT)HS 1 Inadvertent Rwy07R-25L crossingsfrom Twy B5.HS 2 Inadvertent Rwy07R-25L crossingsfrom Twy B9.
    • 19. 19Federal AviationAdministrationNEW: 10 Cat Cs in 3 YearsHS 1 Twy F south of Rwy09-27.HS 2 Twy F at Apch endRwy 27.HS 3 Twy B at Rwy 36L.
    • 20. 20Federal AviationAdministrationPRC: 11 Cat Cs in 3 YearsHS 1 Not visible from the twr.HS 2 Complex int.HS 3 Complex int.HS 4 Not visible from the twr.HS 5 Frequent rwy crossings.
    • 21. 21Federal AviationAdministrationWhat Have We Learned Together?• These 4 Airports Have DemonstrableChallenges– Most Places We Go, Don’t• What We Have Learned Here Can andShould Be Applied– Where Ever We Go– When We Teach– When We Evaluate• Comments?
    • 22. 22Federal AviationAdministrationIn Conclusion• Runway Incursion and Surface IncidentsRepresent a Significant Threat to AviationSafety• General Aviation Pilot Deviations Account forthe Greatest Percentage of Reported Events• Human Factors are Frequently Cited inInvestigative Reports
    • 23. 23Federal AviationAdministrationIn Conclusion• Many of the Errors Discovered RevealDeficiencies in Primary Flight Training and/orMaintaining GA Pilot Currency and Proficiency• The FAA is Asking for a Commitment From ourCFIs and DPEs to Improve the Training andTesting Standards which will Reduce thePotential for Accidents and Incidents
    • 24. 24Federal AviationAdministrationResources• Private and Commercial Pilot Practical TestStandards• The Pilots Handbook of AeronauticalKnowledge• The Airplane Flying Handbook
    • 25. 25Federal AviationAdministrationResources continued• AC 91-73B Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot FlightSchools Procedures During Taxi Operations• AC150-5340-18 Standards For Airport SignsSystems• Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)
    • 26. 26Federal AviationAdministrationResources continued• For Pilot, Controller, and Vehicle Operatorairport surface operational resources to includebut not limited to best practices and animatedsurface events go to >– www.faa.gov/go/runwaysafety• www.faasafety.gov
    • 27. 27Federal AviationAdministrationBACK UPS
    • 28. 28Federal AviationAdministrationObjective• Using the Private and Commercial PilotPractical Test Standards as reference, theobjective of this presentation is tofamiliarize DPEs and CFIs with runwayincursion data and to present and discussinstructional and testing techniquesintended to improve general aviation pilotperformance and reduce future aviationaccidents and incidents.
    • 29. 29Federal AviationAdministrationPlanning Taxi Operations continued• Perform Cockpit Tasks Prior to Taxi• Students should advise ATC “Student Pilot”and/or Request Progressive Taxi Instructions• Write Down Taxi Instructions
    • 30. 30Federal AviationAdministrationTAXI PROCEDURES continued• Be Aware of Signs, Markings, and AirportLighting• Maintain Awareness of your Position and Limitof Taxi Instruction• Maintain Sterile Cockpit - Advise Passengersand Co Pilots
    • 31. 31Federal AviationAdministrationCommunications• Monitor ATC Communications With OtherAircraft• If Unsure of a Communication, ObtainClarification• Do Not Fly With Defective Radios
    • 32. 32Federal AviationAdministrationSituational Awareness (SA)• The accurate perception and understanding ofall the factors and conditions within the fourfundamental risk elements that affect safetybefore, during, and after the flight (FAA-H-8083-25)• Four Risk Elements:– Pilot– Airplane– enVironment– External pressures
    • 33. 33Federal AviationAdministrationSituational Awareness (SA)During Surface Operations• Factors that Enhance SA– Preflight Planning and Preparedness– Proper Use of a Surface Chart– Listening to Ground Frequency– Anticipation Projection
    • 34. 34Federal AviationAdministrationSituational Awareness (SA)During Surface Operations• Factors that Degrade SA– Being in a Rush– Multi Tasking– Obstructions to Vision and Hearing– Losing Awareness of Position
    • 35. 35Federal AviationAdministrationDPEs and CFIs Can Help ReduceRunway Incursions• Provide Adequate Training on SurfaceOperations• Emphasize Human Factors• Set a Good Example: Fly Like You Teach• Maintain High Standards For General Aviation

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