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Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
Construction of telecommunication towers
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Construction of telecommunication towers

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Bachelor\'s Thesis

Bachelor\'s Thesis

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  • 1. Construction of Telecom Towers- Quality and Productivity Improvement Final PresentationBTP Guide: Presented By:Prof. K N Satyanarayana N S B SyamDept. of Civil Engineering CE05B038
  • 2. Introduction• In the next three to four years, telecom companies (Telcos) will need another 100,000 towers and the industry estimates that at least 60 per cent of this will be built by independent operators.• The development of the Infrastructure segment in our country is associated with many issues like poor quality, lack of safety concerns, cost overruns and project delays due to inefficient project planning and control. 2
  • 3. • Prominent telecom infrastructure companies - Reliance Communications, Bharti/Airtel, Vodafone, Idea Cellular, Aircel Ltd, MTNL, BSNL, VSNL etc.• Independent telecom infrastructure companies -Tata, ATC (American Tower Corp), Indus Towers, Quippo Telecom and GTL Infra Ltd. 3
  • 4. Objectives• Basic study on contracting procedures, quality, cost, time, and productivity issues in telecom tower construction industry.• Suggesting productivity improvement methods using logistics in terms of supply chain management and process mapping of the whole construction process.• Identifying the underlying issues and suggestions for quality in the construction of communication towers. 4
  • 5. Scope• The study is limited only to address the construction related issues. Design related issues are not in the scope of the study.• The study is limited to construction of telecom towers in and around Chennai.• The study is focused on contracting procedures, quality problems, cost overruns, project delays in the construction of telecom towers and developing a logistics model in terms of supply chain management. 5
  • 6. Methodology• Discussions with experts in telecom towers construction industry.• Interviews of client representatives, contractor representatives and site supervisors.• Study and analysis of data collected from the on-going projects.• Developing a Logistics model to map the construction process in terms of the supply chain management. 6
  • 7. • Study required extensive site visits, to collect data from the concerned personnel and to identify the key issues prevalent in the construction of telecom towers.• Fifteen sites were visited as a part of this project.• Three main types of issues identified: • Quality of the construction process • Schedule of the construction process. • Productivity of the construction process 7
  • 8. Quality IssuesBroadly classified into 7 categories based on sitedata and interviews conducted – Material/Equipment Availability – Formwork/Reinforcement – Geotechnical Issues – Issues related to Concrete – Structural Issues – Labor Issues – Site Management Issues 8
  • 9. Issues Vs. No. of sites RTT GBT Issues (Total:8) (Total:7)Material/Equipment Availability 2 3Formwork/Reinforcement 7 7Geotechnical Issues - 4Concrete related Issues 8 7Structural Issues 4 3Labor Issues 8 7Site Management Issues 5 7 9
  • 10. Material/Equipment Availability• Aggregates, Sand, Cement• Steel for reinforcement• Labor• Pump for water pumping• Vibrator for concrete• Pulleys and bolts for tower erection• Rubber soling to prevent seepage of water from underneath the foundation 10
  • 11. Formwork/Reinforcement• Quality of shuttering material• Irregularity of Foundation bolts• Leveling of formwork• Inadequate development lengths for column extension • Required Ld is 200mm but available length was 75mm.• Congested Reinforcement• Early removal of formwork 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Geotechnical Issues• Soil Investigations • IS 6403- Code of Practice for determining Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation • Sufficient number of undisturbed samples of 40-100mm ø are required for testing • Budget for soil test on a 6mx12m site is Rs.8000• Lack of laboratory in vicinity• Achieving required depth for foundation • IS 1080-1985- Code of Practice foe Design and Construction of Shallow Foundation in Soils • Min. required foundation depth is 3m• Validity of the soil test report when compared to the actual conditions 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. Concrete• Proper mix design – IS 10262: Code of Practice for Concrete Mix Design• Concrete cover for bolts/members – Min. cover in Chennai not less than 45mm• Improper Maintenance/Finishing• Segregation & Honeycombing – Honeycombing noticed in all the sites visited• Lack of proper cube testing for checking concrete strength – IS 4031-1968 – 28 day compressive strength( Appendix C, Clause 3.8) M20 Grade – IS 9013-1978 – Accelerated curing method for determination of compressive strength 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. Structural Inadequacies –Constructability issues • Missing Bracings/Fasteners – IS 204 (Part 1) :1991- Tower Bolts Specifications • Movement of foundation • Ad hock site modifications • Template Setting 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. Labor• Poor skill of labor• Safety rules not followed at sites – SP 70:2001 Handbook on Construction Safety Practices• Lack of coordination among labor 26
  • 27. Site Management Issues• Supervision at sites• Drawings/reports of tests• Poor Handling & Storage of materials• Accessing the site 27
  • 28. Scheduling Issues Labor Unavailability of supervisors Timely availability of material/equipment Weather Holidays No written work schedule 28
  • 29. Average Schedule of a 15m RTT-34 days duration 29
  • 30. Slowest Completed Schedule of a 15m RTT-56 days duration 30
  • 31. Fastest Completed Schedule of a 15m RTT-22 days duration 31
  • 32. Analysis of RTT schedules• 30 days difference between slowest and fastest completed towers – Delay of 18-21 days due to material availability – Delay of 3-4 days due to the delay between the installation of the tower equipment after the tower framework is erected – Delay of 2-3 days is caused due to the prolonged installation period of the telecom equipment – Delay of 2-3 days is caused in between the tower installation and the tower being on air 32
  • 33. Average Schedule of a 30m GBT-47 days duration 33
  • 34. Slowest Completed Schedule of a 30m GBT-65 days duration 34
  • 35. Fastest Completed Schedule of a 30m GBT-34 days duration 35
  • 36. Analysis of GBT schedules• Difference of 31 days between the fastest and the slowest completed towers – Delay of 19-21 days caused due to supply of construction material, tower material and the telecom equipment – Delay of 2-3 days between each of the foundation levels – Delay of 5-7 days between the installation of the tower and the completion of the tower foundation 36
  • 37. Process Mapping1. What is Process Mapping?2. Why are we applying Process Mapping?3. How is it useful in this project? 37
  • 38. Process Mapping is a powerful tool that offers an in-depthunderstanding of any given process, finds effective ways for thatprocess to be more successful, and ensures that true value isbeing provided to the client/customer.There are four major steps of Process Mapping – Process identification – attaining a full understanding of all the steps of a process. – Information gathering – identifying objectives, risks and key controls in a process. – Interviewing and mapping – understanding the point of view of individuals in the process and designing actual maps. – Analysis – utilizing tools and approaches to make the process run more effectively and efficiently.Back 38
  • 39. • Process Mapping is used in this project to identify the different processes that constitute the telecom tower construction.• Helps in increasing the productivity of the overall process by focusing on the processes that need rework for their improvement.• Telecom tower construction consists of a lot of processes ranging from Radio Frequency survey to the handing over of the completed tower on air.• It allows all the individuals working on the project to gain a better understanding of that process with a simple, yet powerful approach that anyone can utilize.Back 39
  • 40. Area of business being reviewed: Telecom tower construction Trigger Events Process Name Growth of mobile phone users in the country. Need for better networking and RF Survey hence construction of telecom towers. Survey done to locate the right locations for the tower constructions. Optimal location of tower site for better reach of customers. Site Identification/ Land Acquisition Drawings for the construction of towers. Layout Plans Process Type of foundation needed for GBTs for the construction. The structural stability of the existing structure for RTTs. Soil Investigation/ Structural StabilityIdentification Protection and to prevent trespassing and misuse of the tower, fencing and Fencing, Compound wall, guard room to be constructed. Safety and protection of tower. Guard Room, DG Slab, Worksheet Shelter Foundation Construction materials like, steel, sand, cement, aggregates for the tower Tower Supply & Erection foundation construction, tower fabrication set for tower material and equipment like vibrator, pulleys for tower erection. Diesel Generator set installation which is the key component of the tower DG set installation construction. Shelter for the security guard and to store maintenance parts for emergency Shelter Supply & Erection replacement of parts of the tower. Earthing to prevent damage by lighting and electrical works in order to ensure Electrical- Indoor, Outdoor proper functioning of the antennae. and Earthing Backup power options for the transmission of signals. AC installation, Battery, PIU Need for a base station to receive and transmit signals. Installation of BTS Need for the transmission of signals. Antennae Installation Connections of antennae to the electrical systems for proper functioning of the RF Cable Routing system. 40
  • 41. Comprehensive Business Time Line WorksheetTelecom Tower Construction Site Identification/Land Site Identification/Land Surveying RF Survey Surveying RF Survey Acquisition Acquisition Tender 1- Tender 2- Company D Company C Civil Works Civil Works Soil Investigation/Structural Stability Soil Investigation/Structural Stability Fencing/Compound Wall, DG Slab, Shelter Fencing/Compound Wall, DG Slab, Shelter Tower Layout Plans Layout Plans Analysis Analysis Foundation Foundation Foundation Tender 3 – Company A Electrical & Mechanical Electrical & Mechanical Tower Supply & Tower Supply & Shelter Supply & Shelter Supply & Electrical- Indoor, Outdoor and Electrical- Indoor, Outdoor and Erection Erection Erection Erection Earthing Earthing Works Works Tender 3 – Company A Telecom Works Telecom Works AC Installation, AC Installation, Installation of Installation of Antennae Antennae RF Cable RF Cable Wi-max Wi-max Battery, PIU Battery, PIU BTS BTS Installation Installation Routing Routing Installation Installation Tender 4 – OEMs – Company B 41
  • 42. Process Name and Number Process Owner RF survey : 1 Principal Companies/Telecom Companies Description : The ultimate goal of a RF site survey is to supply enough information to determine the number and placement of access points that provides adequate coverage throughout the facility. In most implementations, "adequate coverage" means support of a minimum data rate. A RF site survey also detects the presence of interference coming from other sources that could degrade the performance of the wireless LAN. TriggersProcess Profile Event Beginning: Call for tenders for RF surveying. Event Ending Process: Document findings of the sites best suitable for telecom tower construction. Worksheet Additional Events: Call for tenders for more than 1 company to save time. For 100 sites to be RF surveyed, 10 companies could finish the survey in 10 times less time than the survey being done by a single company. Inputs – Items and Sources Surveying equipment like Theodolite, GPS, Satellites Outputs – Items and Sources Optimal location of sites for the construction of telecom towers Process Units Process Unit Owners Obtain a site facility diagram Telecommunication Companies Visually inspect the site facility Identify cellular phone user areas Determine preliminary site access point locations Verify site access point Business Objectives Business Risks Location of sites which offer better transmission Time consuming and tiring process. A slight change of signals and networking in the site location may not yield transmission signals. Accuracy is very important. Key Controls Measure of Success Skilled usage of GPS systems and accuracy of Best fit site which can ideally transmit and receive the instruments. signals with maximum efficiency. 42
  • 43. Tower Construction Initiation Site Identification/ Structural Stability Type of Tower RTT Land Acquisition Analysis GBT RF survey Negotiations with Soil Investigation No the owner Obtain an area facility diagram Successful Tower and Shelter Visually Negotiation Material Supply Common Civil inspect works the facility Yes area Land acquired for tower construction Identify Formwork and cellular Guard Reinforcement phone Room user foundation areas Layout Plans Concreting Determine Fencingpreliminary access point locations Tower and DG set Shelter Verify Superstructure Erection access of the guard points room A 43
  • 44. Telecom Installations A Antennae Electrical Installation GSM Microwave Indoor Outdoor Installation Routing of PIU,Installation of power of RBS cables backup Site on air Fixing of cable Clamping ladderInstallation of rectifier Ground/and battery Earthing bank 44
  • 45. Suggestions• Prior stacking of materials at the job site• Adequate supervision• More labor compared to peak labor requirement• Use of process charts and work schedules• Safety equipment• Use of vibrator and other equipment to prevent segregation and honeycombing• Use of system formwork• Grouting of bolts• Leveling of beams, columns and template settings• Centralized warehouse catering the needs of each construction site 45
  • 46. References• Dileep R. S, 2001, Logistics of Facility Location and Allocation, United States of America, Marcel Dekker, Inc.• Jacka, M J., 2002, Business Process Mapping, United States of America, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.• LakshmiNag P (2006), Productivity Issues in Construction of Steel Communication Towers, Bachelor of Technology Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai• Kumar S, 2006-Types and Design of Steel Towers, Structural Steel Design, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT-MADRAS/Design_Steel_Structures_II, (accessed May 2006)• IS 204 Part 2 :1992 – Tower Bolts Specifications• IS 456 (2000) – Plain and Reinforced Concrete-Code of Practice• IS 800 (2007) - General Construction in Steel–Code of Practice• IS 802 (Part 1/Sec 2): 1992 – Use of Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission Line Towers- Code of Practice• IS 806: 1988 - Code of Practice for use of Steel Tubes in General Building Construction• IS 10262 – Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design• IS 875 Part 3: 1987 – Code of Practice for Design Loads for Buildings and Structures• IS 4091-1979 – Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Transmission Lines and Poles• Chetan, 2007, Civil Construction Issues, Proceedings of workshop conducted for M/s GTL Infra Ltd., Indian Institute of Techology Madras, Chennai, Nov 3rd 2007• Gandhi S R, 2007, Geotechnical Issues related to Telecommunication Tower Construction, Proceedings of workshop conducted for M/s GTL Infra Ltd., Indian Institute of Techology Madras, Chennai, Nov 3rd 2007 46
  • 47. • Gettu R, 2007, Concrete Properties, Proceedings of workshop conducted for M/s GTL Infra Ltd., Indian Institute of Techology Madras, Chennai, Nov 2nd 2007• Kalyanraman, 2007, A Review of Steel Tower Skeleton System, Proceedings of workshop conducted for M/s GTL Infra Ltd., Indian Institute of Techology Madras, Chennai, Nov 3rd 2007• Menon, 2007, Fixing of Ground Based and Roof Top Towers-Structural Issues, Proceedings of workshop conducted for M/s GTL Infra Ltd., Indian Institute of Techology Madras, Chennai, Nov 2nd 2007• Advantages and disadvantages of tubular and angular towers, http://www.monsterfm.com/tech/tower/towerspecs.htm#top (accessed April 2009)• Estimate of Cell sites construction 2007, http://www.airtel.in/wps/wcm/connect/ (accessed January 2009)• Indian Telecom Sector Analysis (2006-2007), http://www.rncos.com/Report/IM073.htm (accessed November 2008)• ITU World Telecommunication base indicator 2007, www.itu.int (accessed October,2008)• Site Installation, http://www.topcomco.com/civil_work.htm (accessed March 2009)• Site Survey, http://www.topcomco.com/site_survey.htm (accessed January 2009)• Structural changes in the Indian Steel Industry 2003, http://jpcindiansteel.nic.in/structure.asp (accessed December 2008)• Tower design specifications, http://www.rajessh.com/towerdesignspecifications (accessed February 2009)• Tower materials, http://www.topcomco.com/ti.htm (accessed April 2009)• Tower specifications, http://www.monsterfm.com/tech/tower/towerspecs.htm (accessed January 2009)• Why cell tower business is booming?, www.financialexpress.com/news/whys-cell-tower-business-booming/407427/ (accessed April 2009) 47
  • 48. THANK YOU 48
  • 49. Back 49

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