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Fiatech 2014 - Computer Simulation of Pipe Fabrication, Ramzi Labban

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Pipe spool fabrication is major component of construction operations on large industrial projects. The nature of spooling is relatively short term involving complex construction process and riddled with uncertainty due to the intrinsic unique nature of its outputs and the numerous factors affecting its activities.

With this in mind, it is important for all stakeholders to have a good grasp of the performance of pipe fabrication shops and their ability to meet the site pipe installation schedules.

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Fiatech 2014 - Computer Simulation of Pipe Fabrication, Ramzi Labban

  1. 1. Master Title Click to edit Master subtitle style Computer Simulation of Pipe Fabrication Zuhair Haddad Chief Information Officer CCC Ramzi Labban Manager, Computer Modeling & Simulation CCC
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction • Simulation at CCC • Pipe Spool Fabrication • Discrete Event Simulation Model • Benchmarking • Case Study
  3. 3. Simulation at CCC • Computer Based Modeling and Simulation has been in use at CCC since late 2005 • Main uses include: • Low Level Resource Planning • Performance Improvement • Process Optimization • Schedule Validation • Look Ahead Scheduling • Assessing Direct and Indirect Impact of Changes (Delay and Disruption, lost productivity & rework) • Quantification and Justification of Claims
  4. 4. Simulation at CCC • Material Forward Planning (piping) • Earthworks • Asphalt Paving • Pipe Fabrication and Erection • Pipeline Construction • Building Finishing Activities
  5. 5. • Pipe spool fabrication – A major component of construction operations on large industrial projects – Relatively short term, complex construction process – Riddled with uncertainty due to the intrinsic unique nature of its outputs and the numerous factors affecting its activities – Directly affects pipe installation • Important for all stakeholders to have a good grasp of the performance of pipe fabrication shops and their ability to meet the site pipe installation schedules Pipe Spool Fabrication
  6. 6. Pipe Spool Fabrication • Fabrication Managers or Subcontractors want to “optimize” their operations: – fabricate large bore/heavy spools early in the process – fabricate even if out of sequence • For in-house shops: this keeps manpower busy • For subcontractors: this allows them to earn more cash up front (usually paid by tonnage) • Fabricating out of sequence material required for critical activities leads to delays and disruptions in the fabrication and site installation process
  7. 7. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 53 (1 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  8. 8. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 54 (2 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  9. 9. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 55 (3 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  10. 10. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 56 (4 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  11. 11. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 57 (5 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  12. 12. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Lessons Learned – Week 58 (6 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  13. 13. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 59 (7 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  14. 14. Example of effect of out of sequence fabrication Project Progress– Week 60 (8 of 8) All rights reserved to CCC
  15. 15. Pipe Spool Fabrication • Fabrication needs to meet site installation schedule • Site sequences should drive fabrication sequences (i.e. Priority areas, levels [bottom to up], etc…) • A balance between fabrication shop productivity and cohesion to site installation schedules and priorities needs to exist: – Fabrication of spools adheres to site installation schedule – Fabrication shop manpower idle is kept to a minimum – Critical material is available for critical activities
  16. 16. Pipe Spool Fabrication • Pipe construction managers need to be able to quickly come up with alternate fabrication/installation plans based on changing site conditions: – Major piece(s) of equipment delayed or damaged – Material shortage(s) – Redesign of a system or structure
  17. 17. • Forecasting pipe spool fabrication activity completion and optimizing resource allocation and utilization are complicated by two main factors: – very large number of spools – diverse characteristics and resource requirements for each spool • A complex task well suited to computer modeling and simulation Pipe Spool Fabrication
  18. 18. How can the Pipe Spool Fabrication Simulator help? • The pipe spool fabrication simulator provides stakeholders and end users with a tool to proactively perform schedule validation and low level resource planning on pipe fabrication activities on large industrial projects • The simulation model can be run during the different phases of a project: – Ahead of the project in predictive mode – During execution to aid in optimization and forecasting – Retrospectively for change impact assessment and/or lessons-learned analysis • It helps answer questions such as: – Will we be able to finish the fabrication activities on time with the proposed resources? – Which specific resources are bottlenecks? – Which resources are under-utilized? – How is actual crew productivity compared to planned and forecast productivities
  19. 19. Simulation Model • Abstraction of the real world pipe spool fabrication process into a simulation model representing the operations of a pipe spool fabrication shop: – What are we producing? • Spools & their characteristics • Joints & characteristics – How are we producing them? • Fabrication activities/flow • Resources required
  20. 20. Simulation Model: Activity Flow
  21. 21. Simulation Model: Activities to Model • Major pipe spool fabrication activities modeled:  Cut  Bevel  Fit-up (& tack welding)  Welding (auto and manual)  QC inspection  Post weld heat treatment (PWHT)  Non-destructive testing (NDT)  Painting • For each activity, the type of resource (crew) required and its relevant productivity were also identified
  22. 22. Simulation Model: Resources – Crew Composition • Each pipe fabrication activity is associated with a resource type • Each resource type is typically a crew composed of a group of workers required to perform a specific task Typical crew compositions on a large industrial construction project Crew Type Worker Type 1 Worker Type 2 Worker Type 3 Worker Type 4 Worker Type 5 Worker Type 6 Worker Type 7 Worker Type 8 Worker Type 9 Cut 1 2 1 2 Bevel 1 Fit-up 2 2 1 4 Weld Size 1 1 1 Weld Size 2 2 2 PWHT 1 2 Painting 1 3 4
  23. 23. Simulation Model: Resources - Histogram • Workers available over the duration of the project make up the required crews (resources) for the fabrication activities Typical worker availability over time on an industrial project 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 21 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 2 85 90 95 95 100 100 100 100 3 80 82 85 86 104 104 104 104 5 37 38 40 41 42 42 42 42 6 90 95 100 100 110 110 110 110 7 92 99 112 129 135 135 135 135 Worker Type Month
  24. 24. Simulation Model: Workflow to DES Model Pipe Fabrication Activity Flow Simulation Model
  25. 25. Simulation Model: DES Model
  26. 26. Simulation Model: Parameters Interface
  27. 27. Simulation Model: Data Inputs • Spool and joint characteristics required for simulating the fabrication activities were specified Two-level hierarchy for spools and their relevant joints Spool ID Stauts Material Paint Code Surface Area Priority 3 CS 6D 0.03 180 Weld # Weld Type Weld Inch-Dia PWHT Req'd NDT Req'd 2 SB 0.75 0 0 4 SB 0.75 0 0 5 SB 0.75 0 0 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S102 3 CS 6D 0.01 180 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S103 3 CS 6D 0.15 180 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S101
  28. 28. Simulation Model: Data Outputs • The simulator produces a comprehensive set of data comprised of the artificial history of the simulated pipe fabrication operations • The result set contains a record of the activities performed on the corresponding entities (spools or welds) utilizing the required resources: – Simulated spool start / end dates and times for each status – Simulated joints start / end dates and times for welding activities – Crew man-hour requirements per simulated spool or joint activity Scenario # Spool ID Weld No Activity Start Date and Time End Date and Time Resources 1304152 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S101 2 Welding 4/3/2013 11:01 4/3/2013 11:23 1 1304152 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S101 4 Welding 4/3/2013 11:01 4/3/2013 11:23 1 1304152 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S101 5 Welding 3/3/2013 15:01 3/3/2013 15:23 1 1304152 A140-A141-B92SL-15139D-S101 Painting 3/14/13 8:00 3/16/13 10:00 1
  29. 29. Benchmarking • Multiple fab shop data collection exercises at large CCC industrial construction projects in the Middle East were performed to collect benchmark productivity data for the simulator
  30. 30. Benchmarking • Very practical information was collected by observing the different fabrication shop operations: – Actual uninterrupted work productivity timed from start to finish with a total work scope and number of workers involved – Overall actual to-date production data for the fabrication shops broken down by week including total inch-dia and total manpower per week – Daily worker hours breakdown in terms of breaks related to the current heat index, lunch break, toolbox talks, arrival and departure allowances, etc.
  31. 31. Case Study: Implementation on Large Gas Plant Construction Project Barzan Onshore Project • Location: Ras Laffan Industrial City – Qatar • Production Capacity: 2 bcfpd (Train 1 + Train 2) • Contract: Barzan Central Contract, Package 1 (Process Area & Building Works) • Client: QP and Exxon Mobil • Main Contractor (EPC): Japan Gas Company (JGC) • Scope: Construction of the process plant area, including piping fabrication and erection, civil works, EPC buildings, steel structure erection, equipment erection, E&I, painting, insulation and common scaffolding Phase # of Joints Inch-Dia # of Spools # of ISO's TRAIN 1 367,572 1,203,882 61,490 17,001 TRAIN 2 337,742 1,181,251 52,349 16,757
  32. 32. Case Study: Implementation on Large Gas Plant Construction Project Month Total Inch- Dia Cut Crew Bevel Crew FitUp Crew Weld Crew Autoweld Machines Actual Days Sim Days October 50,798 6 20 30 90 8 28 27 November 61,217 10 20 30 102 8 30 30 December 67,091 15 25 40 118 8 31 29 January 68,220 14 24 38 113 8 31 30 February 70,848 15 25 40 137 8 28 25 March 78,159 15 25 40 156 8 31 24 Detecting Productivity Anomalies • Fabrication activities on site were compared to simulator runs to detect and emphasize productivity anomalies • We can notice a marked decline in February and increase in March
  33. 33. Cut Bevel Fitup Weld 0% 48 51 53 54 10% 45 47 50 51 20% 39 41 44 45 30% 37 39 43 43 40% 33 36 38 39 50% 32 34 37 38 60% 31 33 36 38 70% 29 31 33 37 80% 27 30 32 37 90% 25 27 30 37 100% 24 26 29 37 Additional Cut / Bevel / Fitup Resources Fabrication Activities End Day Case Study: Implementation on Large Gas Plant Construction Project Detecting Bottlenecks and Optimizing Resource Mixes
  34. 34. Case Study: Implementation on Large Gas Plant Construction Project Activity Sim Start Date Sim End Date Cut 3/2/13 8:00 3/3/13 17:01 Bevel 3/2/13 8:06 3/6/13 9:34 FitUp 3/2/13 8:13 3/9/13 17:06 Welding 3/2/13 8:00 3/30/13 17:18 NDT 3/2/13 19:00 5/16/13 5:00 PWHT 3/1/13 5:00 5/16/13 19:22 Blasting 3/2/13 6:00 5/18/13 14:30 Painting 3/2/13 14:30 5/21/13 16:30 Aea Sim Start Date Sim End Date A110 3/1/13 5:12 3/17/13 10:00 A120 3/1/13 5:00 5/17/13 10:00 A130 3/1/13 5:00 3/22/13 16:00 A140 3/1/13 5:12 3/27/13 12:00 A150 3/1/13 5:00 3/30/13 10:00 A160 3/1/13 5:00 4/6/13 16:30 A170 3/1/13 5:12 5/17/13 10:00 A210 3/1/13 5:12 5/17/13 10:00 A220 3/1/13 5:00 5/17/13 10:00 A230 3/1/13 5:12 5/21/13 16:30 A240 3/27/13 11:27 5/17/13 10:00 A250 3/1/13 5:12 3/29/13 14:00 A260 3/6/13 6:00 5/21/13 16:30 A270 3/1/13 5:12 5/17/13 10:00 Forecasting Activity and Area Start and Completion Dates
  35. 35. Future Work • Further development and enhancements to this model include: – A material constraint module (Material Forward Planning) – Full integration with CCC’s C3D construction management software – A pipe installation simulation model covering pipe spool construction activities up to when spools are installed on site and given final release
  36. 36. THANK YOU Zuhair Haddad (ZUHAIR@CCC.ME) Ramzi Labban (RLABBAN@CCC.COM.LB)

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