CE 597 – VAR for A/E/C Term Paper PresentationInstructor: Presented by:Dr. Philip S Dunston Srinivasa Nookala
To review the current and potential applications of VR/AR in the construction industry To quantify the advantages and limitations of all the applications reviewed To explore processes by which emerging technologies can be introduced into construction organizations
Limited to the applications of VR/AR in the design phase of the construction of buildings Design applications were found to be at a more advanced stage due to the fact that computer visualization and modeling techniques have always been an important part of building design
Virtual Reality (VR) - Technology, which allows a user to interact with a computer- simulated environment that is primarily presented visually, but may also incorporate other sensory experience (e.g., aural, haptic). It is also a medium, which is interactive, spatial, and real-time (Whyte 2002). Desktop VR Immersive VR
Augmented Reality (AR) allows the user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with the real world. AR supplements reality, rather than completely replacing it. Some researchers define AR in a way that requires the use of Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs)
Four technologies are considered very crucial for VR (Durlach and Mavor 1995; Burdea and Coiffet 1994): The visual displays that immerse the user in the virtual world and that block out contradictory sensory impressions from the real world; The graphics rendering system that generates the ever-changing images; The tracking system that continually reports the position and orientation; and The database construction and maintenance system for building and maintaining detailed and realistic models of the virtual world.
VR forms a natural medium for building design as it provides 3D visualization, can be manipulated in real-time and can be used collaboratively to explore different stages of the construction process. With VR techniques, direct manipulation and interaction with models is possible VR is used to communicate ideas from designers to clients by generating walkthrough models to test the design in a more direct manner. Visualization can be used to model the construction sequence in order to simulate and monitor site progress
Superscape: Early PC based VR packages Difficult to import large-scale 3D models from CAD into Superscape. Construction scheduling (Bouchlaghem et al. 2005).
VRML: Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) International standard for 3D modeling (VRML‘97 — ISO/IEC 14772) VR model built from CAD data of the house type translated into VRML and assembled in an authoring tool (Bouchlaghem et al. 2005)
CALVIN: Collaborative Architectural Layout via Immersive Navigation (CALVIN) - prototype system that applies the idea of providing multiple perspectives for collaborative design (Leigh 1996) User interaction with objects is limited in CALVIN. CALVIN has a very limited form of persistence.
VR and VE - benefits and potentials of both technological and psychological capabilities in creating engagement, interactive and immersive learning experiences for the people using these technologies. VR has a lot of potential market demand, primarily in the Healthcare sector, where they develop physical mockups of patient rooms before they are actually constructed.
AR - combination of virtual object(s) with real scene(s), giving the user the ability to take advantage of the surrounding environment as so-called ―background and make decisions based on virtual objects superimposed over that real background. AR aids general visualization tasks. Database containing information about a buildings structure - AR might give architects "X-ray vision" inside a building (Azuma et al. 1997).
VRAM (Virtual Reality Aided Modeler) - test bed for three dimensional user interface (3DUI) techniques Better navigation, orientation, and modeling within virtual (architectural) environments. Overlay the virtual environment in the real environment and can be used to access the impact of the decisions made during the design phase of the construction project, especially during building renovations, remodeling etc.
ARGOS (Augmented Reality through Graphic Overlays on Stereo video) - makes images easier to understand during difficult viewing conditions. Virtual lines and objects could aid navigation and scene understanding during poor visibility conditions, such as underwater or in fog
One of the most basic problems currently limiting AR applications is the registration problem. The objects in the real and virtual worlds must be properly aligned with respect to each other, or the illusion that the two worlds coexist will be compromised.
VR/AR technologies costly high maintenanceFind wide use in movie entertainment, educational institutions, military purposes and research laboratories.
The framework of different types of projects provides a first step towards more differentiated understanding of VR applications within the construction industry. It can be used as a starting point for exploring patterns of use of other generic technologies within this project-based construction sector and should be tested in future work.
Interaction between design, engineering and construction firms and their IT suppliers also requires further study. Further study is also required of the role of intermediary organizations in adapting technological capacity of the construction sector to the rate of change in the production of generic technologies.