IPC 2013 - High Performance PHP with HipHop

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A look at Facebook's HipHop for PHP library, both the first generation, HPHPc, and the new HHVM. This presentation walks through the challenges that faced Facebook and their PHP-based solution from a …

A look at Facebook's HipHop for PHP library, both the first generation, HPHPc, and the new HHVM. This presentation walks through the challenges that faced Facebook and their PHP-based solution from a year after their explosive growth in 2007 to late-2013.

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  • {"5":"154k/second, or 154/sec per server on 1000 servers\n","11":"Facebook was customer\nReduced latency from 20ms (Apache) to 2m\nPeak traffic over 1500 req/sec, load tested at over 10k req/sec per serverCode rebuild took almost 10 minutes per server\nHPHP and Apache shared the same document root\nCompilation of HPHP itself was painful! Super-specific dependencies\n","23":"To use:\nAnalyze:\nhhvm --hphp --target hhbc --input-list <(find -name "*.php") -k1 -l3\nMove in hhvm.hhbc\nRestart server\n","8":"Literally translated PHP code into human-readable C++, preserving class names\nAt Facebook, PHP and C++ are common languages, so this works well\nMany versions of each function may be generated with different parameter types to optimized code\nCompilation at Facebook took 20min (across 100 machines)\n"}


  • 1. Steve Kamerman | ScientiaMobile, Inc. Co-Founder / Software Architect High-Performance PHP with HipHop
  • 2. 2008 - Facebook's Challenge ● Explosive growth ● Need more servers! ● Bottleneck: Page generation ● 20% of PHP time was in native code
  • 3. Why is PHP so slow? ● Symbol table lookups ● No static binding ● Dynamic typing ● Share-Nothing-Architecture
  • 4. 2008-2010 – HipHop for PHP is born ● 400 Billion PHP-generated pageviews per month! ● Facebook invents HipHop for PHP ● Deployed system-wide in 2010
  • 5. HipHop for PHP Research & Development HPHPc HHVM
  • 6. What is HipHop for PHP? • Multi-threaded web server + PHP runtime • HPHPc: PHP -> C++ translator • HHVM: PHP virtual machine with JIT compiler • Typically 2x – 5x speed increase over stock PHP + APC
  • 7. HipHop for PHP Compiler (HPHPc) ● Translates PHP code into C++ ● Dynamic typing makes this difficult ● Function parity lacking ● Long compilation time
  • 8. Our Experience ● Created WURFL Cloud REST API ● Evaluated HPHPc ● Improved Latency ● Stability issues
  • 9. Architecture Internet HAProxy Load Balancer (primary) WURFL Node HPHPc Apache WURFL Node HPHPc Apache HAProxy Load Balancer (secondary) WURFL Node HPHPc Apache WURFL Node HPHPc Apache Memcached Memcached Memcached Memcached MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL
  • 10. Codebase Updates http://www.github.com/kamermans/HAProxyAPI
  • 11. Next-Gen HipHop: HHVM ● Virtual Machine ● Better PHP Support ● JIT Compiler ● Bytecode Survives Restart
  • 12. How HHVM works Internet HHV M Web Server Run Native Code Run Bytecode Generate Bytecode JIT Compile
  • 13. HHVM vs HPHPc Performance http://www.hhvm.com/blog/875/wow-hhvm-is-fast-too-bad-it-doesnt-run-my-code https://github.com/facebook/hhvm/blob/master/hphp/doc/ir.specification
  • 14. Optimizing PHP for HHVM ● Type Inference – PHP Gotcha: core function fail with (bool)false ● HHVM Upgrades primitives ● Use strict comparison
  • 15. Don't care about type strict comparison? You should. Trust me. var_export("true" == true); // true   var_export("false" == true); // true   var_export("true" == (bool)"false"); // true var_export(strpos("Steve Kamerman", "Kamerman") == true); // true   var_export(strpos("Steve Kamerman", "Steve") == true); // false   $test = "31 is too old!"; var_export(31 == $test); // true var_export("31.0" == 31); // true var_export("031" == 031); // false var_export(31.0 == 31); // true var_export($test += 1); // 32
  • 16. Avoid global scope ● ● Code in the global scope is interpreted since it is (nearly) impossible to type-track Even wrapping global code helps: class foo{public static function bar(){ $something = "test"; echo $something; }}foo::bar(); ● Better approach: don’t write crappy code!
  • 17. Unique Classes, Functions, Constants ● HHVM supports namespaces – use them! ● MyAppBar and MyAppFooBar are not ambiguous ● ● ● Avoid “dynamic” constants: define("MY_CONST", $foo? "foo": "bar"); I can almost picture a feature request for undefine() and redefine() If they are truly constant, use const
  • 18. Better approach: don't use define() namespace MyApp; class Config { const MY_CONST = "I'm real constant"; private static $storage = array( "PSEUDO_CONSTANT" => "What did you call me?", ); public static function get($name) { if (!array_key_exists($name, self::$storage)) { throw new Exception(__CLASS__." property [$name] does not exist"); } return self::$storage[$name]; } } echo Config::MY_CONST."n";
  • 19. Avoid dynamic variables ● If you are using this syntax, there is a better way to solve the problem: $foo = "Wow, this hurts my brain!"; $var_name = "foo"; echo $$var_name; ● ● extract() and compact() are sometimes used more legitimately (ex: view rendering), but avoid them If you need get_defined_vars() for non-testing code, you need to rewrite it before someone sees it :)
  • 20. Declare class properties ● They should be declared anyway $foo = new stdClass(); echo $foo->bar; // PHP Notice: Undefined property ● Getters are optimized
  • 21. Perfomance Gain ● ● Less than 5%, but still good practice Sub-optimal functions still work, even eval() and goto! http://php.net/manual/en/control-structures.goto.php
  • 22. Repo.Authoritative Mode ● Pre-Analyze files ● PHP files assumed unchanged ● Delete cache manually
  • 23. Current state of HipHop ● HHVM v2.2.0 just released ● Very close to PHP 5.4 ● Dozens of extensions ● Performance nearly 5x ● Goal: Support top 20 frameworks in 2013
  • 24. Framework Support Framework % Unit Tests Pass Framework % Unit Tests Pass Facebook PHP SDK 100 CodeIgniter 81 Paris9 100 Assetic 80 Idiorm9 100 Twig 78 Slim 99 Wordpress 76 Drupal 98 phpBB 0 Composer 97 CakePHP 0 Laravel 95 Joomla 0 yii 92 PHPMyAdmin 0 Symfony 91 zf2 0 PHPUnit2 90 Doctrine 0 Magento 0 http://www.hhvm.com/blog/875/wow-hhvm-is-fast-too-bad-it-doesnt-run-my-code
  • 25. Why is it open source? Will it last? ● Under PHP license, hard to separate ● Public activity slowed in 2011 ● Under active public development in 2012-13 ● Dev team is active on IRC (freenode #hhvm)
  • 26. Facebook's Commitment “In years past we've had a few examples of projects which have not been well supported, but we are now much better at growing and sustaining community projects, including, lately, in mobile. [HipHop for PHP] is absolutely a project that we stand strongly behind… stay tuned.” James Pearce, Head of Developer Advocacy at Facebook
  • 27. References ● ● ● ● ● Special thanks to the HipHop for PHP team! https://www.facebook.com/hphp Twitter: @HipHopVM http://www.hhvm.com/ Sebastian Bergmann – Static Code Analysis with HipHop http://sebastian-bergmann.de/archives/918-Static-Analysis-with-HipHop-for-PHP.html http://www.slideshare.net/nickgsuperstar/static-analysis-for-php https://github.com/sebastianbergmann/hhvm-wrapper Haiping Zhao – HipHop Compiler for PHP? Transforming PHP into C++ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p5S1K60mhQU Sara Golemon – Scaling with HipHop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dwek7dZDFN0 Ben Foster – Facebook Growth Data http://www.benphoster.com/facebook-user-growth-chart-2004-2010/