Sewage and pollution


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Sewage and pollution

  1. 1. College of pharmacy Ips academy 2013-2014 “SEWAGE DISPOSAL AND POLLUTION CONTROL” Submitted by Ms. SHEETAL MANE M. PHARM (IST SEM)
  3. 3. CONTENTS            Sewage. Origins of sewage. Classification of sewage. Sewage treatment. Pollution control. Pollutant. Air pollution. Noise pollution. Soil pollution or land pollution. Water pollution. Pollution control act.
  4. 4. SEWAGE  It is water-carried wastes, in solution or suspension; that is intended to flow away from a community also known as waste water flow.  It is the used water supply of the community.
  5. 5. ORIGINS OF SEWAGE  Sewage is generated by residential, institutional, commercial and industrial establishments.  It includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce.  Sullage is applied to waste water which does not contain human excreta e.g. Waste water from bathroom and kitchen
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF SEWAGE Sewage is mainly classified in two groups: 1) Domestic Sewage. 2) Industrial Sewage.
  7. 7. DOMESTIC SEWAGE  It is composed of human waste and waste water resulting from personal washing, institutions, and other waste products of normal living.  It contain low amount of solid usually being 99% of water.  It contains million of bacteria per millilitre which may cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever.  It contains numbers of synthetic detergent, resistant to biodegradation.
  8. 8. INDUSTRIAL SEWAGE  These are wastes that result from an industrial process or the production or manufacture of goods.  Their flows and strength are usually more varied, intense, and concentrated than those of sanitary sewage.  It contain both organic and inorganic compound.  It contain high amount of solid content.
  9. 9. SEWAGE TREATMENT  The treatment of wastewater is divided into three phases:  Pre-treatment.  Primary treatment.  Secondary treatment.
  10. 10. Sewage Treatment
  11. 11. PRE-TREATMENT Large solids (i.e. those with a diameter of more than 2cm) and grit (heavy solids) are removed by screening. These are disposed of in landfills. Primary treatment The water is left to stand so that solids can sink to the bottom and oil and grease can rise to the surface. The solids are scraped off the bottom and the scum is washed off with water jets. These two substances are combined to form sludge.
  12. 12. Primary treatment
  13. 13. Secondary treatment  The sludge is further treated in 'sludge digesters': large heated tanks in which its chemical decomposition is catalysed by microorganisms.  The sludge is largely converted to biogas which is used to generate electricity for the plant.  The liquid is treated by bacteria which break down the organic matter remaining in solution.  It is then sent to oxidation ponds where heterotrophic bacteria continue the breakdown of the organics and solar UV light destroys the harmful bacteria.
  14. 14. Secondary treatment
  16. 16. POLLUTION  When harmful substances contaminate the environment it is called pollution.  Pollution refers to the very bad condition of environment in terms of quantity and quality.  Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
  17. 17. POLLUTANT  A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.  A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species, or by interfering with human amenities, comfort, health, or property values.
  18. 18. Types of Pollutants On the basis of decomposition On the basis of medium 1. Biodegradable 1. Air 2. Water 3. Soil 2. Non-Biodegradable On the basis of occurrence 1. Primary Pollutants 2. Secondary Pollutants On the basis of existence 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative
  21. 21. What Is air pollution?  Air pollution is the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere.  Common gaseous pollutants include  Carbon monoxide,  Sulfur dioxide,  Chlorofluorocarbons  nitric oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles.
  22. 22.  Dust Storms and dust from natural sources like     large areas of land with little or no vegetation. smoke and carbon dioxide from Forest Fires Volcanic activity which produces sulphur, chlorine, and ash particulates. Methane that is emitted by the digestion of food by animals e.g. Cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the earth‟s crust.
  23. 23. b) Anthropogenic Sources  Stationary sources such as smoke stacks of power plants, and manufacturing units.  Mobile sources such as motor vehicles, aircraft etc.  Chemicals, dust and crop waste burning.  Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents.  Burning wood, furnaces and incinerators.
  24. 24. To control particulate emissions following equipments are employed: » Settling chambers » Cyclone separators » Fabric filters » Electrostatic precipitators » Wet collector
  25. 25. Cyclone or cyclone precipitator
  26. 26. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
  27. 27. Fabric Filter / Bag House
  28. 28. Scrubbers
  30. 30. WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?  Sound that is unwanted or which disrupts one‟s quality of life is called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution.  Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations.  It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact that we can‟t see, smell, or taste it.  World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being”
  31. 31. Sources of Noise Pollution  Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas.  Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.  Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution.  Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.
  32. 32. Effects of Noise pollution  Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people.  Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health.  High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution.  It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic attacks.
  33. 33. Noise Measurement  A scale of different sound levels exists so that the loudness of different sounds can be compared, often called the decibel (dB) scale.  The zero on the decibel scale (also known as the threshold of hearing) is the quietest sound that the human ear can hear.
  34. 34. The decibel scale.
  35. 35. Permitted noise level
  36. 36. Noise Control Strategy  Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.  Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution.  Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing material for the walls, windows, and ceilings.
  37. 37.  Workers should be provided with equipment's such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection .  Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.  Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside.  Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.
  38. 38.  Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.  Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas.  Community development or urban management should be done with long-term planning, along with an aim to reduce noise pollution
  40. 40. what is Soil pollution? • • • Soil pollution is defined or can be described as the contamination of soil of a particular region. The contamination of soil with solid waste, acid rain, excess of fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides is called soil pollution (or land pollution). Soil pollution is caused by addition of chemicals, which reduces it‟s productive capacity.
  41. 41. SOURCES OF SOIL POLLUTION 1) Acid Rain Acid Rain is caused by air pollution. The acidic water falls on the soil and pollutes it by making the soil acidic.
  42. 42. 2) Solid Wastes  Comes from homes, cattle sheds, agricultural fields, industries and many other places and get accumulated in the form of heaps.  Solid waste include Cow dung; Night soil (Human excreta), fruits and vegetable peels ash ,waste paper, metal objects etc.
  43. 43. 3) Fertilizers The use of excess fertilizers to increase the crop yields makes the soil either acidic or alkaline and pollutes it. For example, Excessive use of ammonium sulphate, fertilizers makes the soil highly acidic whereas the excessive use of sodium nitrate fertilizers makes the soil highly alkaline.
  44. 44. 4) Insecticides and Herbicides Insecticides and Herbicides are poisonous chemicals which are used to spray standing crops to prevent them from harmful insects and herbs . These insecticides and herbicides mix with the soil and pollute it. Insecticides
  45. 45. EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION  The solid wastes like garbage destroy the natural beauty and become a breeding ground for mosquitoes which spread diseases like malaria and Dengue.  Land Pollution caused by acid rain reduce the fertility of soil leading to reduction of crop yields and deforestation Mosquito Breeding
  46. 46. The pollution caused by the excessive use of fertilizers reduces the fertility of the soil and crop yields by making the soil either highly acidic or highly alkaline. The soil pollution caused by the use of insecticides and herbicides in agriculture is very dangerous because these chemicals can enter our food chain and damage our health.
  47. 47. CONTROL OF SOIL POLLUTION  To control soil/ land pollution we had utilize different modes of waste disposal.  The disposal of waste should be done in a scientific way.  There are different methods of waste disposal.  The methods to be used depends on the nature of the waste.
  48. 48. modes of waste disposal      Landfills Recycling Compositing Incineration Production of bio gas and manure.
  49. 49. 1) Landfills Most of the solid wastes in urban areas are buried in low-lying areas to level the uneven ground. This is called Landfills.
  50. 50. 2) Recycling of It is the method of recovery and processing Biodegradable wastes or materials after they have been used, which enables them to be used. For example, solid wastes like paper, plastics and metals, etc., are recycled. Industrial wastes are treated in special plants and valuable wastes are recycled.
  51. 51. 3) Composting  In this method, the domestic waste like fruit and vegetable waste, left-over food, leaves of potted plants etc., can be converted into compost and used as manure.
  52. 52. 4) incineration  It means „reduction to ashes‟. The burning of a substance at high temperature to form ash is called Incineration.  It is used to destroy household waste, chemical waste and biological waste. Incineration is carried out in incinerator.
  53. 53. 5) Production of Biogas & Manure In this method Cow dung is fed into biogas plants to produce biogas and obtain manure.
  54. 54. Other measures to Control soil pollution      Ban on use of plastic bags which are major cause of pollution in cities. Recycling of plastic wastes. Ban on deforestation. Encouraging forest replantation programmes. Use carefully the fertilizers & pesticides preferable in optimal dose.
  55. 55. Water pollution
  56. 56. What is water pollution?  Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater).  Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.  Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water.  In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.
  57. 57. CATEGORIES OF WATER POLLUTION  Surface water. Point sources Non point sources.  Ground water.
  58. 58. Point Sources  Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source.  Some point sources of water pollution include      Waste products from factories Waste from sewage system Waste from power plants Waste from underground coalmines Waste from oil wells
  59. 59. Example of a point source
  60. 60. Non-point Sources  Non point source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source.  It is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area.  Non-point source includes:  when rain or snow moves through the ground and picks up pollutants as it moves towards a major body of water  the runoff of fertilizers from farm animals and crop land  air pollutants getting washed or deposited to earth  storm water drainage from lawns, parking lots, and streets
  61. 61. Example of Non-point source  Agricultural runoff
  62. 62. Effects of water pollution  Number of water borne diseases are produced.  Marine life becomes deteriorated.  Carcinogenic pollutants found in polluted water might cause cancer.
  63. 63. Solutions on Water Pollution Prevent groundwater contamination. Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff. Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation. Find substitutes for toxic pollutants. Work with nature to treat sewage. Practice four R's of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse) Reduce resource waste. Reduce air pollution. Reduce poverty. Reduce birth rates.
  64. 64. Pollution control act
  65. 65. VARIOUS ACTS TO CONTROL POLLUTION  Water prevention and control of pollution act 1974.  Air prevention and control of pollution act 1981.  Eenvironment protection act, 1986 (solid waste pollution)  Noise pollution rules,2000.
  66. 66. The water (prevention and control of pollution) act,1974 This act was enacted to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment with a view to carrying out the purposes of Board for the prevention and control of water pollution for conferring on and assigning to such Board powers and functions relating there to and from matter connected therewith.
  67. 67. Air (prevention and control of pollution) act,1981 In order to prevent and control pollution of air parliament passed a law in the year 1981 and which came in to force on 30-3-1981.The act provide to preserve the quality of air and to control air pollution. Amendments were made in this act in the year of 1987, 1988.
  68. 68. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT ,1986  Power of Central Government to take measures to protect and improve environment (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government, shall have the power to take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing controlling and abating environmental pollution. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of subsection (1) such measures may include measures with respect to all or any of the following matters, namely:-
  69. 69. (i) planning and execution of a nation-wide programme for the prevention & control and abatement of environmental pollution. (ii) laying down standards for the quality of environment in its various aspects; (iii) laying down standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources whatsoever:o Provided that different standards for emission or discharge may be laid o down under this clause from different sources having regard to the quality o or composition of the emission or discharge of environmental pollutants (iv) restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards;
  70. 70. v) laying down procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents which may cause environmental pollution and remedial measures for such accidents; (vi) laying down procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substances; (vii) examination of such manufacturing processes, materials and substances as are likely to cause environmental pollution; (viii) carrying out and sponsoring investigations and research relating to problems of environmental pollution;
  71. 71. NOISE POLLUTION RULES, 2000 Ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas/zones: The State Government shall categorize the areas into industrial, commercial, residential or silence areas/zones for the purpose of implementation of noise standards for different areas.  The State Government shall take measures for abatement of noise including noise emanating from vehicular movements and ensure that the existing noise levels do not exceed the ambient air quality standards specified under the rules.
  72. 72.  All development authorities, local bodies and other concerned authorities while planning developmental activity or carrying out functions relating to town and country planning shall take into consideration all aspects of noise pollution as a parameter of quality.  An area comprising not less than 100 meters around hospitals, educational institutions and courts may be declared as silence area/zone for the purpose of these rules.
  73. 73. Consequences of any violation in silence zone/area Whoever, in any place covered under the silence zone/area commits any of the following offence, he shall be liable for penalty under the provision of the Act:- (i)whoever, plays any music or uses any sound amplifiers. (ii)whoever, beats a drum or tom-tom or blows a horn either musical or pressure, or trumpet or beats or sounds any instrument. (iii)whoever, exhibits any mimetic, musical or other performances of a nature to attract crowds.
  74. 74. If everyone would help to save the earth we would live in a safe environment!