Origins of sewage.
Classification of sewage.
Soil pollution or land pollution.
Pollution control act.
It is water-carried wastes, in solution or
suspension; that is intended to flow away
from a community also known as waste
It is the used water supply of the
ORIGINS OF SEWAGE
Sewage is generated by residential, institutional,
commercial and industrial establishments.
It includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths,
showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed
of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes
liquid waste from industry and commerce.
Sullage is applied to waste water which does not
contain human excreta e.g. Waste water from
bathroom and kitchen
Sewage is mainly classified in two
1) Domestic Sewage.
2) Industrial Sewage.
It is composed of human waste and waste water
resulting from personal washing, institutions, and
other waste products of normal living.
It contain low amount of solid usually being 99%
It contains million of bacteria per millilitre which
may cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever.
It contains numbers of synthetic detergent,
resistant to biodegradation.
These are wastes that result from an industrial
process or the production or manufacture of
Their flows and strength are usually more
varied, intense, and concentrated than those of
It contain both organic and inorganic
It contain high amount of solid content.
The treatment of wastewater is divided into
Large solids (i.e. those with a diameter of more than
2cm) and grit (heavy solids) are removed by
screening. These are disposed of in landfills.
The water is left to stand so that solids can sink to the
bottom and oil and grease can rise to the surface.
The solids are scraped off the bottom and the scum is
washed off with water jets. These two substances are
combined to form sludge.
The sludge is further treated in 'sludge digesters':
large heated tanks in which its chemical
decomposition is catalysed by microorganisms.
The sludge is largely converted to biogas which is
used to generate electricity for the plant.
The liquid is treated by bacteria which break down
the organic matter remaining in solution.
It is then sent to oxidation ponds where
heterotrophic bacteria continue the breakdown of
the organics and solar UV light destroys the harmful
When harmful substances contaminate the
environment it is called pollution.
Pollution refers to the very bad condition of
environment in terms of quantity and quality.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants
into the natural environment that cause
A pollutant is a substance or energy
introduced into the environment that has
undesired effects, or adversely affects the
usefulness of a resource.
A pollutant may cause long- or short-term
damage by changing the growth rate of plant
or animal species, or by interfering with
human amenities, comfort, health, or property
On the basis of
On the basis of medium
On the basis of occurrence
1. Primary Pollutants
2. Secondary Pollutants
On the basis of existence
What Is air pollution?
Air pollution is the release of chemicals and
particulates into the atmosphere.
Common gaseous pollutants
nitric oxides produced by
industry and motor vehicles.
Dust Storms and dust from natural sources like
large areas of land with little or no vegetation.
smoke and carbon dioxide from Forest Fires
Volcanic activity which produces
sulphur, chlorine, and ash particulates.
Methane that is emitted by the digestion of food
by animals e.g. Cattle
Radon gas from radioactive decay within the
Stationary sources such as smoke stacks of
power plants, and manufacturing units.
Mobile sources such as motor vehicles, aircraft
Chemicals, dust and crop waste burning.
Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol
sprays and other solvents.
Burning wood, furnaces and incinerators.
To control particulate emissions following
equipments are employed:
» Settling chambers
» Cyclone separators
» Fabric filters
» Electrostatic precipitators
» Wet collector
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?
Sound that is unwanted or which disrupts one‟s quality of life is
called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is
termed as noise pollution.
Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities
such as working, sleeping, and during conversations.
It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact
that we can‟t see, smell, or taste it.
World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be recognized
as a major threat to human well-being”
Sources of Noise
Transportation systems are the main source of noise
pollution in urban areas.
Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot
of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers,
loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.
Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of
Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air
conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing
Effects of Noise
Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of
Noise pollution can damage physiological and
High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep
disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the
problems related to noise pollution.
It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and
A scale of different sound levels exists so that
the loudness of different sounds can be
compared, often called the decibel (dB) scale.
The zero on the decibel scale (also known as
the threshold of hearing) is the quietest sound
that the human ear can hear.
Planting bushes and trees in and around
sound generating sources is an effective
solution for noise pollution.
Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles
can effectively reduce the noise pollution.
Buildings can be designed with suitable noise
absorbing material for the walls, windows,
Workers should be provided with equipment's
such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing
Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the
machinery and servicing should be done to
minimize noise generation.
Soundproof doors and windows can be installed
to block unwanted noise from outside.
Social awareness programs should be taken up
to educate the public about the causes and
effects of noise pollution.
Regulations should be imposed to restrict the
usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas
and public places.
Factories and industries should be located far
from the residential areas.
Community development or urban
management should be done with long-term
planning, along with an aim to reduce noise
what is Soil
Soil pollution is defined or can be described as the
contamination of soil of a particular region.
The contamination of soil with solid waste, acid rain,
excess of fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides is
called soil pollution (or land pollution).
Soil pollution is caused by addition of chemicals,
which reduces it‟s productive capacity.
SOURCES OF SOIL
1) Acid Rain
Acid Rain is caused by air
pollution. The acidic water
falls on the soil and pollutes
it by making the soil acidic.
2) Solid Wastes
Comes from homes, cattle sheds, agricultural
fields, industries and many other places and get
accumulated in the form of heaps.
Solid waste include Cow dung; Night soil (Human
excreta), fruits and vegetable peels ash ,waste
paper, metal objects etc.
The use of excess fertilizers to
increase the crop yields makes the
soil either acidic or alkaline and
Excessive use of ammonium
sulphate, fertilizers makes the soil
highly acidic whereas the excessive
use of sodium nitrate fertilizers
makes the soil highly alkaline.
Insecticides and Herbicides are
poisonous chemicals which are
used to spray standing crops to
prevent them from harmful insects
and herbs .
These insecticides and herbicides
mix with the soil and pollute it.
EFFECTS OF SOIL
The solid wastes like garbage
destroy the natural beauty and
become a breeding ground for
diseases like malaria and
Land Pollution caused by acid
rain reduce the fertility of soil
leading to reduction of crop
yields and deforestation
The pollution caused by the
excessive use of fertilizers reduces
the fertility of the soil and crop
yields by making the soil either
highly acidic or highly alkaline.
The soil pollution caused by the use
of insecticides and herbicides in
agriculture is very dangerous
because these chemicals can enter
our food chain and damage our
CONTROL OF SOIL
To control soil/ land pollution we had utilize
different modes of waste disposal.
The disposal of waste should be done in a
There are different methods of waste disposal.
The methods to be used depends on the nature
of the waste.
modes of waste
Production of bio gas and
Most of the solid wastes
in urban areas are buried
in low-lying areas to level
the uneven ground. This is
2) Recycling of
It is the method of recovery and processing
Biodegradable wastes or materials after they have
been used, which enables them to be used. For
example, solid wastes like paper, plastics and
metals, etc., are recycled. Industrial wastes are
treated in special plants and valuable wastes are
In this method, the domestic waste like
fruit and vegetable waste, left-over food,
leaves of potted plants etc., can be
converted into compost and used as
It means „reduction to ashes‟. The burning of a
substance at high temperature to form ash is called
It is used to destroy household waste, chemical waste
and biological waste. Incineration is carried out in
5) Production of Biogas
In this method Cow dung is fed into biogas
plants to produce biogas and obtain manure.
Other measures to
Control soil pollution
Ban on use of plastic bags which are major cause
of pollution in cities.
Recycling of plastic wastes.
Ban on deforestation.
Encouraging forest replantation programmes.
Use carefully the fertilizers & pesticides
preferable in optimal dose.
What is water
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies
(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and
Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly
or indirectly discharged into water bodies without
adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in
these bodies of water.
In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to
individual species and populations, but also to the
natural biological communities.
CATEGORIES OF WATER
Non point sources.
Point source water pollution refers to
contaminants that enter a waterway from a
single, identifiable source.
Some point sources of water pollution include
Waste products from factories
Waste from sewage system
Waste from power plants
Waste from underground coalmines
Waste from oil wells
Non point source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that
does not originate from a single discrete source.
It is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of
contaminants gathered from a large area.
Non-point source includes:
when rain or snow moves through the ground and picks up
pollutants as it moves towards a major body of water
the runoff of fertilizers from farm animals and crop land
air pollutants getting washed or deposited to earth
storm water drainage from lawns, parking lots, and streets
Example of Non-point source
Effects of water
Number of water borne diseases are
Marine life becomes deteriorated.
Carcinogenic pollutants found in polluted
water might cause cancer.
Solutions on Water Pollution
Prevent groundwater contamination.
Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff.
Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation.
Find substitutes for toxic pollutants.
Work with nature to treat sewage.
Practice four R's of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle,
Reduce resource waste.
Reduce air pollution.
Reduce birth rates.
VARIOUS ACTS TO CONTROL
Water prevention and control of pollution act
Air prevention and control of pollution act
Eenvironment protection act, 1986 (solid
Noise pollution rules,2000.
The water (prevention and
control of pollution) act,1974
This act was enacted to provide for the prevention
and control of water pollution and the maintaining
or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the
establishment with a view to carrying out the
purposes of Board for the prevention and control of
water pollution for conferring on and assigning to
such Board powers and functions relating there to
and from matter connected therewith.
Air (prevention and
control of pollution)
In order to prevent and control pollution of air parliament
passed a law in the year 1981 and which came in to force
on 30-3-1981.The act provide to preserve the quality of
air and to control air pollution.
Amendments were made in this act in the year of 1987,
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT
Power of Central Government to take measures to
protect and improve environment
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central
Government, shall have the power to take all such
measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the
purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the
environment and preventing controlling and abating
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of
the provisions of subsection (1) such measures may
include measures with respect to all or any of the
following matters, namely:-
(i) planning and execution of a nation-wide programme for the
prevention & control and abatement of environmental pollution.
(ii) laying down standards for the quality of environment in its various
(iii) laying down standards for emission or discharge of environmental
pollutants from various sources whatsoever:o Provided that different standards for emission or discharge may be
o down under this clause from different sources having regard to the
o or composition of the emission or discharge of environmental
(iv) restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes
or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried
out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards;
v) laying down procedures and safeguards for the
prevention of accidents which may cause environmental
pollution and remedial measures for such accidents;
(vi) laying down procedures and safeguards for the
handling of hazardous substances;
(vii) examination of such manufacturing processes,
materials and substances as are likely to cause
(viii) carrying out and sponsoring investigations and
research relating to problems of environmental
NOISE POLLUTION RULES, 2000
Ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for
different areas/zones: The State Government shall categorize the areas into
industrial, commercial, residential or silence
areas/zones for the purpose of implementation of noise
standards for different areas.
The State Government shall take measures for
abatement of noise including noise emanating from
vehicular movements and ensure that the existing noise
levels do not exceed the ambient air quality standards
specified under the rules.
All development authorities, local bodies and
other concerned authorities while planning
developmental activity or carrying out functions
relating to town and country planning shall take
into consideration all aspects of noise pollution
as a parameter of quality.
An area comprising not less than 100 meters
around hospitals, educational institutions and
courts may be declared as silence area/zone for
the purpose of these rules.
Consequences of any violation in
Whoever, in any place covered under the silence zone/area
commits any of the following offence, he shall be liable for
penalty under the provision of the Act:-
(i)whoever, plays any music or uses any sound amplifiers.
(ii)whoever, beats a drum or tom-tom or blows a horn
either musical or pressure, or trumpet or beats or
sounds any instrument.
(iii)whoever, exhibits any mimetic, musical or other
performances of a nature to attract crowds.
would help to
save the earth
we would live
in a safe