Aakash raj

Jan. 24, 2017

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Aakash raj

  1. Written by Aakash Raj
  2. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION  Environmental Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of any component of the environment i.e. air, water, soil which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life or property.  Pollution: The term pollution can be defined as influence of any substance causing nuisance, harmful effects, and uneasiness to the organisms  Pollutant:- Any substance causing Nuisance or harmful effects or uneasiness to the organisms, then that particular substance may be called as the pollutant.
  5.  Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use.  Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation. The used water becomes contaminated and is called waste water.
  6. SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  Most of Water Pollution is man made It may also occur naturally by addition of soil particles through erosion animal wastes and leaching of minerals from rocks  The sources of water pollution can be classified as  Municipal Waste Water  Industrial Waste  Inorganic Pollutants  Organic Pollutants  Agricultural Wastes  Marine Pollution  Thermal pollution
  8. INDUSTRIAL WASTE The major source of water pollution is the waste water discharged from industries and commercial bodies, these industries are chemical, metallurgical, food processing industries, textile, paper industries. They discharge several organic and inorganic pollutants. That prove highly toxic to living beings.
  10. INORGANIC POLLUTANTS  They include fine particles of different metals, chlorides, sulphates, oxides of iron, cadmium, acids and alkalies.
  11. ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  They Include oils, fats, phenols, organic acids grease and several other organic compounds
  12. AGRICULTURAL WASTES  Chemical fertilizers and pesticides have become essential for present day high yielding crops.  Consequently , they have become a potential source of water pollution. These fertilizers contain major plants nutrients mainly nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.  Excess fertilizers may reach the ground water by leaching or may be mixed with surface water of rivers, lakes and ponds by runoff and drainage.
  13. MARINE POLLUTION  Ocean are the final sink of all natural and manmade pollutants. Rivers discharge their pollutants into the sea. The sewage and garbage of costal cities are also dumped into the sea. The other sources include, discharge of oils, grease, detergents, and radioactive wastes from ships.
  14. THERMAL POLLUTION  Thermal Pollution of water is caused by the rise in temperature of water. The main source of thermal pollution are the thermal and nuclear power plants. The power generating plants use water as coolants and release hot water into the original source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and other aquatic animals.
  16.  Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.  A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant.
  17. CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION  Carbon dioxide-this happens because of Deforestation and fossil fuel burning.  Sulfur dioxide –Due to the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels.  Sulfur oxides- very dangerous to humans at a high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere is responsible for acid rain.
  18. CONSEQUENCES OF AIR POLLUTION  CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space, which produces the so- called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night.  CO2 in atmosphere --> GLOBAL WARMING
  20.  Land pollution is the demolition of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly.  Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution.
  21. CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION Four Main causes of land pollution: Construction Agriculture Domestic waste Industrial Waste
  22. CONSTRUCTION  Buildings take up resources and land, the trees are chopped down and used to make buildings.  Takes away the places for animals and other organisms to live.
  23. AGRICULTURE  As there are more and more people inhabiting the earth, food is in higher demand and so forests are chopped down and turned into farmland  In addition, herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers, animal manure are washed into the soil and pollute it.
  24. DOMESTIC WASTE  Tons of domestic waste is dumped every day. Some waste from homes, offices and industries can be recycled or burnt in incinerators .  There is still a lot of garbage, such as refrigerators and washing machines that are dumped in landfills simply because they cannot be reused in anyway, nor recycled .
  25. INDUSTRIAL WASTE  Plastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms, coal-fired power plants, metals production factories and other heavy industry all contribute to land pollution.
  26. Marine Pollution
  27. Introduction • The sea is indispensable to life on earth • Coral reefs. • Marine accidents potentially cause serious harm .
  28. What has Happened & What can happen
  29. What has Happened & What can happen
  30. What has Happened & What can happen
  31. What has Happened & What can happen
  32. What has Happened & What can happen
  33. Causes : • Toxic Ocean Pollutants: Sources : The leaking of landfills, dumps, mines and farms. Enters our food chain . Lead: Affects brain, kidneys. Effects : • Food poisoning.
  34. Causes: • Marine Garbage : • Virtual dumping ground for trash. • Fishing nets, plastics, general household garbage. • Animals sometimes eat trash products and die. Effects : • Depletes the oxygen
  35. Causes: • Sewage Disposal in Ocean • Great Stink of London • Nutrient loading in the ocean ecosystem. Effects : •Poisoning of shellfish fisheries.
  36. Causes: • Non-Point Pollutants • Sources : Farmland, Industries, Urban & Atmospheric Runoffs . • Eutrophication. Effects : •Contaminate coastal swimming areas and seafood, spreading cholera, typhoid and other diseases
  37. Conventions : • London Convention • 1973 Convention • The Protocol of 1997 • The 2006 amendments
  38. Prevention & Control : • Spills - Detection and Cleanup • Strict discipline • emergency contingency plan • Oil spill clean up equipment
  39. • Domestic sewage • Green infrastructure approach • Septic tank
  40. • Industrial wastewater treatment • Dissolved air flotation
  41. • Urban runoff • Best management practices
  42. Conclusion: • What is our future ? • Preserve the continental biotopes. • Brighter future for our oceans.
  44.  Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.  Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations.  World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well- being”
  45. SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION  Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas.  Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.  Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution.  Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.
  46. EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION  According to the USEPA, there are direct links between noise and health. Also, noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people.  Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health.  High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution.  It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic attacks.
  47. SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION  Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.  Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution  Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.  Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection.
  48.  Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.  Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside.  Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.  Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas.
  50. Nuclear Power Plants  Nuclear power plants use water as a cooling agent.  After the water is used, it is put back into a water supply at 9-20oC warmer This 1988 thermal image of the Hudson River highlights temperature changes caused by discharge of 2.5 billion gallons of water each day from the Indian Point power plant. The plant sits in the upper right of the photo — hot water in the discharge canal is visible in yellow and red, spreading and cooling across the
  52. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  Nuclear power plants use water as a cooling agent.  After the water is used, it is put back into a water supply at 9-20oC  Emissions from nuclear reactor increase the temperature of water bodies.
  53. Coal-fired power plants  Coal is utilized as a fuel  Condenser coils are cooled with water from nearby lake or river  The heated effluents decrease the DO of water  Damages the marine organisms
  54. Industrial Effluents Discharged water from steam-electric power industry using turbo generators will have a higher temperature ranging from 6 to 9˚C than the receiving water In modern stations, producing 100 MW, nearly one million gallons are discharged in an hour with increase in temperature of the cooling water passing by 8 to 10 ˚C
  55. Domestic sewage Sewage is commonly discharged into lakes, canals or streams Municipal sewage normally has a higher temperature than the receiving water Increase in temperature of the receiving water decreases the DO of water. The foul smelling gases increased in water resulting in death of marine organisms
  56. Hydro electric power generation Generation of hydroelectric power sometimes results in negative thermal loading in water systems Creates less heat on water sources less than nuclear power plant
  57. The Future is Now
  58. Wanted Water Quality Board Actions 1. The Water Quality Board requests TDEC conduct a study of the cumulative water quality impacts of the thermal pollution caused by existing and proposed power generating plants on the Tennessee River, including the climatic scenarios of prolonged drought and warmer temperatures. 2. The Water Quality Board requests that TDEC participate in the environmental scoping of the impacts upon the waters of the State of TN of the proposed TVA Bellefonte, AL nuclear power plants and report periodically to the Board.
  59. CONTROL MEASURES  Cooling towers  Cooling ponds  Spray ponds  Artificial lakes
  60. Nuclear Hazards
  61.  Radionuclides are elements (uranium 235, uranium 283, thorium 232,potassium 40, radium 226, carbon 14 etc) with unstable atomic nuclei and on decomposition release ionizing radiations in the form of alpha, beta and gamma rays.  Out of the known 450 radioisotopes only some are of environmental concern like strontium 90, tritium, plutonium 239, argon 41, cobalt 60, cesium 137, iodine 131, krypton 85 etc.  These can be both beneficial and harmful, depending on the way in which they are used.  We routinely use X-rays to examine bones for fractures, treat cancer with radiation and diagnose diseases with the help of radioactive isotopes.  About 17% of the electrical energy generated in the world comes from nuclear power plants.
  62.  Radioactive substances when released into the environment are either dispersed or become concentrated in living organisms through the food chain.  Other than naturally occurring radioisotopes, significant amounts are generated by human activity, including the operation of nuclear power plants, the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and atomic bomb testing.
  63.  For example, strontium 90 behaves like calcium and is easily deposited and replaces calcium in the bone tissues. It could be passed to human beings through ingestion of strontium-contaminated milk.  Another example is tritium, which is radioactive hydrogen. Nuclear power plants routinely and accidentally release tritium into the air and water. Tritium has a half- life of 12.3 years.  It emits radioactive beta particles. Once tritium is inhaled or swallowed, its beta particles can bombard cells causing a mutation.
  64. A few occupations that involve radioactive exposures are  uranium mineworkers,  radium watch dial painters,  technical staff at nuclear power plants, etc. Exposure to radioactive and nuclear hazards has been clinically proven to  cause cancer, mutations and  teratogenesis (Teratogenesis is a prenatal toxicity characterized by structural or functional defects in the developing embryo or fetus).
  65.  Nuclear hazard effects can be either initial or residual.  Initial effects occur in the immediate area of explosion and are hazardous immediately after the explosion where as the residual effects can last for days or years and cause death.  The principal initial effects are blast and radiation. Blast causes damage to lungs, ruptures eardrums, collapse sstructures and causes immediate death or injury. Thermal Radiation is the heat and light radiation, which a nuclear explosion’s fireball emits producing extensive fires, skin burns, and flash blindness.  Nuclear radiation consists of intense gamma rays and neutrons produced during the first minute after the explosion. This radiation causes extensive damage to cells throughout the body. Radiation damage may cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and even death, depending on the radiation dose received.
  66. Sources  The sources of radioactivity include both natural and manmade. Natural sources  Cosmic rays from outer space  Emissions from radioactive materials in the earth’s crust (rocks, marine sediments etc)
  67.  Man-made sources include the nuclear wastes produced during  Mining and processing of radioactive ores  Use of radioactive materials in power plants  Use of radioactive isotopes in medical technology (x-ray machines, radioisotopes used in medicine)  Industrial applications include wastes from nuclear reactors  Research applications: radioactive fallouts during nuclear weapons testing.  In a nuclear power plant, any leak or accident taking place emit nuclear radiation.  In either case it results in nuclear hazard.  Nuclear tests Conducted under the ground or under oceans which also release radiation.  Uranium mining and milling, Nuclear reactors and reprocessing of nuclear fuel cause nuclear pollution.
  68. EFFECTS  Studies - health effects due to radiation are dependent on the level of dose, kind of radiation, duration of exposure and types of cells irradiated.  Radiation effects can be somatic or genetic.  Somatic affects the function of cells and organs. It causes damage to cell membranes, mitochondria and cell nuclei resulting in abnormal cell functions, cell division, growth and death.  Genetic affects the future generations. Radiations can cause mutations, which are changes in genetic make up of cells. These effects are mainly due to the damages to DNA molecules.  People suffer from blood cancer and bone cancer if exposed to doses around 100 to 1000 roentgens.
  69. CONTROL MEASURES  Laboratory generated nuclear wastes should be disposed off safely and scientifically.  Nuclear power plants should be located in areas after careful study of the geology of the area, tectonic activity and meeting other established conditions.  Appropriate protection against occupational exposure  Leakage of radioactive elements from nuclear reactors, careless use of radioactive elements as fuel and careless handling of radioactive isotopes must be prevented.  Safety measure against accidental release of radioactive elements must be ensured in nuclear plants.  Unless absolutely necessary, one should not frequently go for diagnosis by x rays.  Regular monitoring of the presence of radioactive substance in high risk area should be ensured.
  70. WAYS TO STOP POLLUTION  We believe that it is the responsible thing to do to increase recycling.  It is just like doing laundry and separating blacks and colors.  The residents of the country should also try and do their part and put in at least one day of litter picking up.
  72. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GLOBAL WARMING AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the surface of the earth. The Greenhouse Effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions.