What is Plumbing?
The system of pipes, tanks, fittings, and other apparatus
required for the water supply, heating, and sanitation in a
building called a Plumbing.
Plumbing system comprise the entire system of piping
fixtures and appliances etc. use for WATER SUPPLY and
Plumbing water supply system
Plumbing drainage system consists of:
Soil waste pipes
Vent pipes and
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
Water is first collected in underground tank
(known as Suction tanks) and then it is
pumped to the to elevated storage tanks
,usually situated at the top of the buildings.
1.While laying out the pipe lines ,the following
considerations should be kept in mind to prevent the
Contamination of water:
No cross section between pipes
No backflow from any appliance towards source of
Water supply pipes or drainage pipes should not be
very close to each other.
under ground pipe lines should be enclosed in a
cement mortor BATA so that it’s rusting by soil
bacteria is prevented.
Pipes should have earth cover of atleast 60cm
When pipe laid above ground ,it should run clean
Pipes should carry water under adequate water
Lay out of the pipe should be simple and direct as far
2.Estimation of water requirements:
It is very difficult to precisely assess the quantity of water demanded by
the public, since there are many variable factors affecting water
consumption. The various types of water demands, which a city may have,
may be broken into following classes:
Types of Consumption Normal Range
1 Domestic Consumption
2 Industrial and Commercial Demand
3 Public Uses including Fire Demand
4 Losses and Waste
The pipe leading from the distribution main of the
municipal water supply to the plumbing system of
house is known as SERVICE PIPE.
The following materials are commonly used for
(i)Copper pipe or brass pipe
(ii) Galvanised iron
It is non corrosive with most waters.
It has considerable strength , reasonable ductility , and is
obtained in long lengths
There are two types of copper water service pipes:
Little gauge : For general purpose works where pressure does not
exceed 0.15 N/mm2 and for domestic purposes.
Heavy gauge : Used for high pressure works in industrial layouts.
Galvanised iron pipes:
In India these are extensively used
because of low cost in comparison to
The are used in hard water area , but
they corrode more readily in soft and acid
waters.So they are not used for soft water
They are highly resistant to corrosion,
However ,lead has cumulative poisoning
effect , due to this it is not preferred.
These are being increasingly used in
externally and internally for cold water
pipes services only.
They have following advantages over
(i)Lower in cost
(iii)Light in weight
(iv)Doesn’t require threading
(v)It has some insulating value
(vi)More resistant to bacterial scale
Valves are used in pipe lines for convenience in
manually closing the pipes to control the flow of
For domestic water supply there are two tupes of
valves commonly used:
(a) Globe valve
(b) Gate valve
Comparison between global valves and gate
Gate valves are used for On-Off control whereas Globe valves in
addition can also be used for the flow regulation.
Gate valves offer very little resistance to fluid flow in
fully open position and also have small pressure drop across the
valve. Globe valves on the other hand have a high pressure drop
even in fully open conditions and offer substantial resistance to
Gate valves of the same size are cheaper than globe valves.
Gate valves because of their design have very little fluid trapping
in the line but the globe valves have a larger amount due to the
direction of flow.
Gate valves are unidirectional and can be put around in any way.
The globe valves are not.
When supplying of water to a building the
pressure of water may not sufficient to rise all the
floors of the building . Then storage tanks are
required to supply water to all floors of a building.
A storage tanks may be situated at ground level or
roof level or at both levels.
A storage tank is made of the following materials:
(i) Mild steel plates
(ii) Reinforced concrete
(iii)Stone or brick masonry
A storage tank consists of :
Top cover : It is made of steel or aluminium or other suitable
material ,light in weight and tight fitting , so that any insects does
Ball Valve with float :It is provided near the inlet of the tank , so
as to control the inflow of water.
Over flow pipe : If the floating assembly fails ,the inflow is not
cut-off and the water entering the tank overflows through this pipe
Inlet pipe or Supply pipe: Admitting water into the tank.
Outlet pipe: It is set about 2.5 to 5cm above the bottom of the
tank ,for cutting the supply to house
Drain pipe : For cleaning of the tank periodically
Water Supply and Distribution System:
TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION
Water is provided by the city water companies using normal pressure from
public water main
DIRECT :Water is provided by the city water companies using normal
pressure from public water main
-Air Pressure System
Water is provided by the city water companies using normal pressure from public water main
GRAVITY SYSTEM AIR PRESSURE SYSTE