SHAISTA ZAFAR
BASIC
INTRODUCTION TO
RADIOGRAPHS & DIGITAL
RADIOGRAPHY
RADIATION
Radiation is energy that comes from a source
and travels through space and may be able to
penetrate various mate...
DENTAL
RADIOGRAPHS
Type Of An Image Of The Oral Cavity Which Results
From Penetration Of A High Energy Electromagnetic
Rad...
MEASURING UNIT
The
scientific unit of measurement for radiation dose,
commonly referred to as effective dose, is the
micro...
GOAL
-Diagnostic information
with minimal exposure
ARE DENTAL
RADIOGRAPHS SAFE?
INDICATIONS!!!
• Loss of tooth structure
• Caries(occlusal/proximal)
• Non-carious(attrition,fracture)
• Periodontal disea...
ATTRITION
PROXIMAL CARIES
IMPLANT
9/29/2013 FJDC&H 18
DENTINOGENESIS IMPERFECTA
9/29/2013 FJDC&H 19
ENDODONTICS
RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR
PRESCRIBING
DENTAL
RADIOGRAPHS
9/29/2013 FJDC&H 22
TYPE OF
ENCOUNTER
CHILD
(PRIMARY
DENTITION)
CHILD
(TRANSITION
AL
DENTITION)
ADOLESCENT
(PERM.
DENTITIO...
RECALL ED
PATIENT
(periodontal
disease)
Clinical
judgement/
periapical/
bitewing
(same) (same) (same) _
Patient for
monito...
RADIATION PROTECTION
• Use of proper
exposure and
processing techniques
• Patients should be
shielded with lead
aprons and...
IMAGE RECEPTORS
• RADIOGRAPHIC FILM
• DIGITAL RECEPTORS
FILM PACKET
CONTENTS
SIZES
• Various sizes available, although only three are
usually used routinely:
• For periapical & bitewings
31 X 41 mm
2...
TYPES
INTRA ORAL
RADIOGRAPHS EXTRA ORAL
RADIOGRAPHS
TYPES
INTRAORAL RADIOGRAPHS
• Bitewing
• Occlusal
• Peri apical
BITEWING
• So called because patient closes the teeth
together biting on a wing of card projecting
from the tube side of t...
OCCLUSAL
• Utilize the largest intra oral film (6 X 8cm)
• Various projections
• Maxillary occlusal projections
-Upper sta...
PERIAPICAL
• Shows usually 2-4 teeth,individual teeth &
tissues around apices
INDICATIONS
• Detection of apical infection
• Assessment of periodontal status
• After trauma to teeth & associated alveol...
PARALLELING
TECHNIQUE
BISECTED ANGLE
TECHNIQUE
PROBLEMS
OF GAGGING
EXTRA ORAL RADIOGRAPHS
• Oblique lateral Radiography
• Cephalometrics
• Tomography
• Panoramic radiography
ORTHOPANTOGRAM
ALTERNATIVE AND SPECIALIZED
IMAGING MODALITIES
• Contrast studies
• Radioisotope imaging(nuclear
medicine)
• Computed tomo...
• SIALOGRA
PHY
SIALOGRAPHY
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY(CT)
• INDICATIONS
• Intracranial disease e.g:
tumors,haemorrhage,infarcts
• Assessment of fracture inv...
CBCT
DIGITAL
RADIOGRAPHY
• Dental radiographs produced with
a special computer create digital
images (computerized dental
radiographs) that can be ...
• Accepted?
• Radiation Source?
• Ordering Dental radiographs?
• Operator Location?
• Advantages?
• Disadvantages?
ADVANTAGES
• requires 50-80% dose reduction
• No films,no dark room,no chemical are needed
• No lead foil waste generated
...
CORRECT TERMINOLOGY
• One examines a radiograph and not an x-ray,
bear in mind that xray cannot be seen
• One does not see...
COMMON QUESTIONS ASKED BY A PT
• Are regular scans and xrays necessary?
• If the period of time between them
could be leng...
REFERENCES
• Essentials of Dental Radiography &
Radiology ERIC WHAITES (by
Roderick Cawson)
• Images from GOOGLE
THANKYOU
I'm always amazed to hear of air crash victims so
badly mutilated that they have to be identified by
their dental...
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
Radiography
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Radiography

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  • Dental radiographic examinations require exposureto very low levels of radiation, which makesthe risk of potentially harmful effects extremelysmall.-Dental radiographic equipment and techniquesare designed to limit the body’s exposure to radiation.-A couple of steps can limit the area exposedduring any dental radiographic examination:dlimiting the size of the radiographic beam toapproximately the size of the film or sensor beingused;dusing a leaded apron and thyroid shield (most X-rays are stopped by lead).
  • Radiography

    1. 1. SHAISTA ZAFAR BASIC INTRODUCTION TO RADIOGRAPHS & DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY
    2. 2. RADIATION Radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through space and may be able to penetrate various materials
    3. 3. DENTAL RADIOGRAPHS Type Of An Image Of The Oral Cavity Which Results From Penetration Of A High Energy Electromagnetic Radiation Through Dense Body Structures To Form An Image On A Dental Film
    4. 4. MEASURING UNIT The scientific unit of measurement for radiation dose, commonly referred to as effective dose, is the microsievert per hour (mSv/hour) Intraoral x-ray= 0.005 mSv
    5. 5. GOAL -Diagnostic information with minimal exposure
    6. 6. ARE DENTAL RADIOGRAPHS SAFE?
    7. 7. INDICATIONS!!! • Loss of tooth structure • Caries(occlusal/proximal) • Non-carious(attrition,fracture) • Periodontal disease; • Endodontic disease • Developmental abnormalities; • Tumors • Trauma • Impacted teeth • Unerupted teeth • Other bone pathologies • Implants
    8. 8. ATTRITION
    9. 9. PROXIMAL CARIES
    10. 10. IMPLANT
    11. 11. 9/29/2013 FJDC&H 18 DENTINOGENESIS IMPERFECTA
    12. 12. 9/29/2013 FJDC&H 19 ENDODONTICS
    13. 13. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRESCRIBING DENTAL RADIOGRAPHS
    14. 14. 9/29/2013 FJDC&H 22 TYPE OF ENCOUNTER CHILD (PRIMARY DENTITION) CHILD (TRANSITION AL DENTITION) ADOLESCENT (PERM. DENTITION) ADULT, DENTATE OR PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS ADULT EDENTULOUS NEW PATIENT Periapical/ occlusal or post. bitewing Post. Bitewing with either OPG or periapical Post. Bitewing with OPG (same) Based on clinical signs & symptoms RECALLED PATIENT (with clinical caries or inc.caries risk) Post. Bitewing at 6-12mons interval (same) (same) Post. Bitewing at 6-18mons interval _ RECALLED PATIENT (with no clinical caries or inc. caries risk Post. Bitewing at 12-24mon interval (same) Post. Bitewing at 18-36mon interval Post. Bitewing at 24-36mon interval _
    15. 15. RECALL ED PATIENT (periodontal disease) Clinical judgement/ periapical/ bitewing (same) (same) (same) _ Patient for monitoring dentofacial growth/ dento skeletal relationship Clinical judgement (same) Clinical judgement/ panoramic/ periapical Usually not indicated (same) Pt. with implants, other dentofacial pathoses, restorative/en dodontic needs, Clinical judgement (same) (same) (same) (same) 9/29/2013 FJDC&H 23
    16. 16. RADIATION PROTECTION • Use of proper exposure and processing techniques • Patients should be shielded with lead aprons and thyroid shields. • These shields should have at least 0.5 mm of lead equivalent. • Film badges
    17. 17. IMAGE RECEPTORS • RADIOGRAPHIC FILM • DIGITAL RECEPTORS
    18. 18. FILM PACKET CONTENTS
    19. 19. SIZES • Various sizes available, although only three are usually used routinely: • For periapical & bitewings 31 X 41 mm 22 X 35 mm • For occlusal 57 X 76 mm
    20. 20. TYPES INTRA ORAL RADIOGRAPHS EXTRA ORAL RADIOGRAPHS TYPES
    21. 21. INTRAORAL RADIOGRAPHS • Bitewing • Occlusal • Peri apical
    22. 22. BITEWING • So called because patient closes the teeth together biting on a wing of card projecting from the tube side of the film • Demonstrates occlusal surfaces,inter proximal surfaces of enamel,enamel-dentine junction & the bone levels surrounding the tooth • Used for pre-molars,molars • indications:DC,assessment of fillings & crown,periodontology
    23. 23. OCCLUSAL • Utilize the largest intra oral film (6 X 8cm) • Various projections • Maxillary occlusal projections -Upper standard -Upper oblique standard • Mandibular occlusal projections -lower 90 degree occlusal -lower 45 degree occlusal -lower oblique occlusal
    24. 24. PERIAPICAL • Shows usually 2-4 teeth,individual teeth & tissues around apices
    25. 25. INDICATIONS • Detection of apical infection • Assessment of periodontal status • After trauma to teeth & associated alveolar bone • Assessment of root morphology before extraction • During endodontics • Detailed evaluation of apical cyst & other lesion within the bone • Evaluation of implants postoperatively
    26. 26. PARALLELING TECHNIQUE
    27. 27. BISECTED ANGLE TECHNIQUE
    28. 28. PROBLEMS OF GAGGING
    29. 29. EXTRA ORAL RADIOGRAPHS • Oblique lateral Radiography • Cephalometrics • Tomography • Panoramic radiography
    30. 30. ORTHOPANTOGRAM
    31. 31. ALTERNATIVE AND SPECIALIZED IMAGING MODALITIES • Contrast studies • Radioisotope imaging(nuclear medicine) • Computed tomography • Cone beam CT (CBCT) • Ultrasoud • Magnetic Resonance
    32. 32. • SIALOGRA PHY SIALOGRAPHY
    33. 33. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY(CT) • INDICATIONS • Intracranial disease e.g: tumors,haemorrhage,infarcts • Assessment of fracture involving cranial base,orbits,naso-ethmoidal complex • Assessment of size & extent of cyst • Tumor staging • Investigation of TMJ,osteomyelitis • Pre-operative assessment of maxillary and mandibular alveolar height
    34. 34. CBCT
    35. 35. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY
    36. 36. • Dental radiographs produced with a special computer create digital images (computerized dental radiographs) that can be displayed and enhanced on the computer monitor. • It involves the use of a radiography machine like that used for conventional xrays. But instead of using films, the clinician makes digital images using a small electronic sensor or an image receptor placed in mouth to capture the image.
    37. 37. • Accepted? • Radiation Source? • Ordering Dental radiographs? • Operator Location? • Advantages? • Disadvantages?
    38. 38. ADVANTAGES • requires 50-80% dose reduction • No films,no dark room,no chemical are needed • No lead foil waste generated • Digital images can be magnified • Friendly DISADVANTAGES • Cost • Infection control
    39. 39. CORRECT TERMINOLOGY • One examines a radiograph and not an x-ray, bear in mind that xray cannot be seen • One does not see infection at the apex of a tooth—radiolucency/opacity • Periodontal bone loss is not periodontitis • In radiologic terminology PA is a postero- anterior view
    40. 40. COMMON QUESTIONS ASKED BY A PT • Are regular scans and xrays necessary? • If the period of time between them could be lengthened? • Are dental x-rays safe for a pregnant women? • Estimated risk for cancer?
    41. 41. REFERENCES • Essentials of Dental Radiography & Radiology ERIC WHAITES (by Roderick Cawson) • Images from GOOGLE
    42. 42. THANKYOU I'm always amazed to hear of air crash victims so badly mutilated that they have to be identified by their dental records. What I can't understand is, if they don't know who you are, how do they know who your dentist is? -Paul Merton
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