AS Philosophy notes on God and the World and the Value of Art
Philosophy God Flipbook The problem of evil • That the existence of evil counts The argument from design against the existence of an all loving • Arguments for design based on and all powerful God. Moral and apparent order and purpose and natural evil and their relation to one challenges to those arguments. another.• Arguments from design (analogy, • Attempts to reconcile the evil we the inadequacies of naturalistic perceive with the existence of God explanations) and challenges (the free will defence, the best of to those arguments. all possible worlds, soul making and the afterlife). The religious point of view• Consideration of the claim that the world can accommodate different perspectives („seeing as‟). • The status of the religious hypothesis; is it a „hypothesis‟ at all? Consideration Paley of the claim that religious „belief‟ mirrors the feelings, attitudes andcommitments of the religious rather than facts about the world. Paleys Teleological ArgumentPaleys Teleological Argument (cont) 4. A watch has many complex1. Walking through a heath, he parts all working for one purpose, stubs his toe on a stone. It must have a designer, a2. He believes that stone could watchmaker. have been there forever. 5. Natural objects, such as the 3.He imagines the stone as a human watch. He cannot say that it eye, have many parts Working towards has one purpose as well, so must be been there forever Designed and have a designer.
Paley to the idea of universe by chance "Nor … would any man in his Paley Strengths senses •It uses literal logic, which says think the existence of the watch, basically that anything with its various machinery, designed, implies that it had accounted for, by being told a designer. that it was one out of possible Paley Weaknessescombinations of material forms…" •Even if there is a designer, the Paley Weaknesses concept of design tells us•The analogy is weak. A watch, nothing about them. Gods human eye and the universe traits are not similar enough for the have been Same conclusions to be anthropormorphised. reached •It does not explain the Something being complex problem does of evil and the flaws in the not mean it was necessarily world. designed, eg. evolution •Some things appear to have Paley Counter-arguments Criticsno Paley of •It is not necessary to show that David Hume: "Design something is perfect in purpose Argument: order to show that there is a Critique" design. •Simply because we do not know Charles Darwin: the function of the parts does “Recapitulation not imply that there is no function. and Conclusion" the design is evident from the Richard Dawkins:” The Blind rest of the watch (the universe). Watchmaker” 1.The combination of physical constants that we observe in our universe is the only one Fine capable of sustaining life as we know it. 2.Other combinations of physical Tuning constants are conceivable. 3.Therefore, some explanation is needed why our actual combination of physical constants exists rather than a different one.
4. The very best explanation of the given fact is that our universe, with the particular combination of physical 5.But such a being asconstants that it has, was created out of described nothing by a single being who is omnipotent, omniscient, in 4. is what people mean all-loving, eternal, and interested by "God." in sentient organic systems, and that 6.Hence there is good he "fine-tuned" those constants in a evidence that God exists. way which would lead to the evolution of such systems. Fine tuning weaknesses It could still be chance Fine tuning strengths The multiverse theory could With all the precision at each explain it: There are an infinite stage of the creation of the number of universes, each universe, it is hard to argue with that slightly different physical it has no been fine tuned. constants and ours just happened to be the one that Fine tuning weaknesses support life. Fine turning Counter Even if there is a God who Arguments finely tuned the universe, it Though chance cannot be does rulednot tell us anything about him. out, if the big bang had been 1Anything we assume it though in 1060 stronger, it would have the anthropic principle and expanded too quickly for theknowing that there is a creator creation of stars. If gravity was does not give him 1 in 10 then stars could not be characteristics sustained often associated with him. Critics of Fine Tuning Terry M. Gray “A creationist criticism of Problem of irreducible complexity” Evil
There are 2 problems of evil: The logical problem, in which The Logical Problem: All 4 statements about God Gods exists. and God is omnipotent.evil co-existing cannot be true, God is benevolent.and the evidential problem, in Evil exists. which there is not only evil but great quantities of it. Possible solutions to the logical Problem of evil: An atheist would conclude that God does not exist. The Evidential Problem: Perhaps this world is the one Jewish Holocaust, 1984 with the smallest amount of evil Ethiopian God may not be omnipotent Famine, Eruption of Pompeii, or benevolent, they are Asian Tsunami 2004 anthropomorphised traits. The God of the Old Testament is often quite malicious.There are also 2 types of evil:Moral evil which is caused by There are other related humans, eg. Civil wars, and arguments that pose similar natural evil which occurs problems, such as the problem without human intervention, of hell. If God is benevolent, eg. Tsunamis. Both types of then why send people to a evil place of eternal suffering? cause suffering. If unbelief, incorrect beliefs, or poor design are considered evils, then the argument from nonbelief, the argument from inconsistent Augustinianrevelations, and the argument from poor design may be Theodicy seen as particular instances of the argument from evil
Augustinian Nature of Evil: Evil is not something that Augustinian Creation: actually exists, evil is the God made a perfect world privation (a lack of) of good. and it is humans that It is similar to dark being a made it imperfect. lack of light, as opposed to something on its own. Augustinian Origin of Moral Evil Augustinian Origin of NaturalFree will allowed humans the Eviloption to commit moral evils. Fallen angels also have freeThere is also an inherant sin will and use it to changecarried down from Adam and the laws of nature and cause Eve in the Fall, eating the natural disasters such as apple earthquakes, tsunamis and from the forbidden tree of volcanoes knowledge. Augustinian Nature of Man Augustinian View of theMen have free will so have the Afterlife choice between committing Souls will go to Heaven or good or evil acts but they Hell. are tempted by desires. Augustinian Possible Objections It does not explain for the suffering of innocents IrenaeanWhy is there a hell is God is benevolent? Theodicy Why didnt God make us/atleast tempt us more towards the better decision? (Hicks)
Irenaean Creation: Irenaean Nature of Evil: God created an imperfect Evil comes in many forms world and is used to develop and it is humans that must people through the process of develop it and make it soul-making, so a person perfect. suffers to become better.Irenaean Origin of Moral Evil Irenaean Origin of Natural Evil Humans were allowed free God created natural evil in the will and many abuse it and world so that humans can beuse it to commit acts of moral tested and challenged by it evil, which is destructive to to develop their souls. their soul-making. Irenaeann Nature of Man Man was made as part of an Irenaean View of the Afterlife imperfect world and is Everyone will eventually therefore go to heaven, however they imperfect too, but through must have suffered and suffering and soul-making, developed enough in orderthey can come closer to being to get there. perfect.Irenaean Possible Objections The quantity and extremity of some evil eg. Mengeles experiments. Evil goes unpunished and Leibniz justice is not ultimately given if everyone eventually goes to heaven anyway – no Theodicy incentive to act morally.
Leibnizian Creation: God created the best of all Leibnizian Nature of Evil:possible worlds. It must work Evil is a relative concept, logically with physical and like light and dark, and it chemical laws that must is impossible to know one be followed, and this world without the other so both has the least amount of evil are necessary.while still following these laws. Leibnizian Origin of Natural EvilLeibnizian Origin of Moral Evil God cant create a world thatHumans exercising their free is logically impossible so will created moral evil. included evil in order to make it logically possible as the best of all possible worlds. Leibnizian View of the Afterlife Leibnizian Nature of Man At death the soul passes Man has free will and is out of one body and enters able to understand that into another (influenced by suffering is a necessity Giordano Bruno).Leibnizian Possible Objections If the best of all possible worlds Religious is flawed, how is God omnipotent? Point ofWhy does God have to follow logic and the physical laws? View
Wittgenstein The phrase “language games” is used to express that words only make sense in the contextWittgenstein and a background of other words that belong to the same “game” Wittgenstein: Strengths Wittgenstein It may eliminate the logical If the concept of language problem of evil as people aregames is applied to religion, it simply applying language in shows that many people the wrong way, perhaps not use scientific and evidential understanding what evil truly language, where as they means in the religiousare a different language game. language game Wittgenstein: Weaknesses: If God is all powerful, then Wittgenstein: Weaknesses whyThe concept wasnt produced can we not see him whendirectly for religious arguments using so many not work at times scientific or evidential Wittgenstein had 2 theories language? and discounted the first, what Surely if he exists he should is stopping the 2nd from also be able to stand up to thebeing false and needing to be same discounted? words we use for other things James The Will to Believe we can observe "The Will to Believe" hinges on the idea that access to the evidence for whether or not certain beliefs William are true depends crucially upon first James adopting those beliefs without evidence. It is this belief that presents the benefits and comfort that come along with religion and gives people reason to believe.
James The Will to Believe: Strengths James The Will to Believe The option to believe or not Theists do seem to get a to believe is live, forced, and psychological comfort from momentous so has an emotive holding belief: in hard timesappeal, has only 2 options, believe theyor not believe, and is an important may often pray to God in decision in someones life. hopes of things getting betterJames The Will to Believe: Weaknesses People do not always make theirmind up and are agnostic: not a forced decision People may convert and change their minds to or fromPeople may still find it hard to believe in God if bad things happen frequently
We value art because it informs us: Value Good art should illuminate our experience: reveal truths, Of articulate a vision, be epiphanic, portray authentically or at least Art Imitate or represent its subject convincingly or faithfully. How is art supposed to stand for reality? Are all arts equally concerned with representing?What could we mean by „truth‟ Plato in art? Even if art informs us, is that why we value it as art? Is art especially informative? Plato Theory of forms PlatoGod, the creator, had the one true Theory of forms form when he imagined and The first imitation of the one true created objects. Every object in form is where a carpenter its likeness after this is merely produces a a physical form an instance, capturing just from the idea of a one true form. a small part of the true form. Plato Plato Theory of Forms: Strengths Theory of forms It can be applied to almost everyAn artist will see a carpenters kind of art. Impression of the one true It seems logical as a lot of things Form and use it to inspire in art are based on a physical Their artwork, creating an object eg. Van Goghs bedroom is Inferior imitation of an an Imitation of the form. imitation of a physical bed, table and chair.
Plato Theory of Forms: Plato Theory of Forms Weaknesses Supporting examples of art There are some mediums it Leonardos: Mona Lisa doesnt Vermeers: Girl with the pearl work with at all eg. Abstract earring It suggests that art MUST be Shakespeares: Anthony and Cleopatra inferior Michaelangelos: David when it can in fact show things Homers :Blue Boat that a physical forrm cant Plato Theory of Forms Contradicting examples of art Raphaels: Lady with a unicorn Pollock: No. 5 Dali: The persistence of Aristotle memory Schoenburg: Peripetie Aristotle Poetics Aristotle PoeticsThough it was aimed primarily Catharsis is purging of the at tragedies, Aristotle states emotions "through pity and that fear" art is important in provoking and leaves the spectatoremotions within the spectator without the emotions so they so they may undergo the feel refreshed and better for process of catharsis. having viewed the work of art. Aristotle Poetics Aristotle Poetics: Strengths Supporting examples of art All forms of art do have some Shakespeares: Hamlet emotional effect on the Corneille: Medéespectator and may leave them Davids: The oath of the feeling better HoratiiIt sets out exactly what makes Turners: Slave ship a good piece of work, as far Ghostly Theatre: Lament of as tragedies go Innocence
Aristotle Poetics: Weaknesses His 6 criteria can only beapplied to tragedies, not other Aristotle Poetics forms of art. Contradicting examples of art He believed that there was Pace: Nanas Blue Fruit Bowl some Monty Pythons: Flying Circus imitation involved as art is Shakespeares: The Merry based Wives of Windsor on peoples actions, though Beethovens: Ode to Joy there Supergott: Carmelldansenare some pieces which cannot be based on actions. Hume Of the Standard of Taste It seems clear that tastes differ to a certain extent however there is a general rule to taste Hume which all people will adhere to as humans are all fundamentally the same, and anyone who doesnt must have a defectStandard of Taste Hume Of the or imperfection. 1. Start with the right equipment. To discern "the sentiment of beauty" reliably requires "a delicate imagination."Hume Of the Standard of Taste 2. Practice makes perfect. The more experience The general rule of taste is you get in looking at works of art, the more established through 2 tests: discerning your judgment becomes. 3. Take several looks. What you miss on theif it lasts through time and the first other is a recommended examination may become clear on the third or fourth. procedure for critics to follow. 4. Compare the work with others like it. This will help you see what you might otherwise miss. 5. Free the mind from prejudice. Try to be a disinterested observer. Hume OtSoT: Strengths Hume Of the Standard of TasteThere does seem to be some Supporting examples of arttruth behind it, there are books Shakespeares: Romeo and Juliet that become popular among Da Vincis: Mona Lisa Curtizs: Casablanca many, suggesting a similar Fausts: My Little Pony Friendship taste, and most would agree is that Shakespeare is a greater Magic author than John Grisham Michael Jacksons: Billie Jean
Hume OtSoT: Weaknesses Hume Of the Standard of TasteSkeptical philosophy opposes the Contradicting examples of art idea that there is any standard of Meyers: Twilight Saga taste. It assertsthe equal right Ofili‟s: Holy Virgin Mary of every personal evaluation Lagenbach‟s:Loose Lips Sink There are some works of art that Ships are highly controversial so do not Schmidlins: Miss Kittyseem to have a fundamental taste Harveys: Myra that all people adhere to Orwells: Nineteen Eighty-four Tolstoy What is Art Tolstoy defines art as an expression of a feeling or experience in such a way Tolstoy that the audience to whom the art is directed can share that feeling or experience so an artists job is to communicate this feeling. Tolstoy What is ArtAccording to Tolstoy, good art isintelligible and comprehensible. Tolstoy What is Art Strengths Bad art is unintelligible Almost all art communicates and incomprehensible. The some level of emotions, so it more that art restricts itself to a seems to work particular audience, the more It can be applied to anyobscure and incomprehensible it mediumbecomes to people outside that particular audience. Tolstoy What is Art Tolstoy What is Art Weaknesses It is developed from a series Supporting examples of art of unprovable assumptions Picassos: Weeping woman about Munchs: The Scream what is good and what is bad Bronté: Jane Eyre It assumes that there must be Shakespeares: Othello a deeper purpose to art, an Seress: Gloomy Sunday artist cannot create a piece simply for the sake of creating
Tolstoy What is Art Contradicting examples of art Westalls: Surrender of the San Nicolas at St Vincent The Bayeux Tapestry Collingwood ODells: Island of the Blue Dolphins Collingwood Aesthetics For Collingwood, art is about Collingwood Aesthetics: Strengths Clarifying the emotion for the Corresponds closely to the intuitions of many contemporary artists Artist. They feel the emotion eg. Van Goghs letter to Theo; "I But are unclear and only have have tried [in The Night Café] to A vague idea of what it is. express the terrible passions of Through the process of humanity by mean of red and green." creating The theory includes what art is, the process of creation and Art, they clear up the emotion the relationship between the For themselves and artist and the art. understand it. Collingwood Aesthetics Collingwood Aesthetics: Weaknesses Supporting examples of art The theory fails to take account Hoffmans: Self-Portrait of the vast numbers of works of art Expressive dance that were created on commission, Paalens: Implicit Spaces under duress, or as production. Shakespeares: O Mistress Historically, much of art was Mine produced not by individuals to express personal emotions, butTichbornes: Tichbornes Elegy by an assemblage of artists. Heaneys: Mid-term break Collingwood Aesthetics Contradicting examples of art Battle of Kadesh at Abu SimbelMichaelangelo: Sistine Chapel Gillespes: Famine Moyne de Morguess: Clive Bell Oranges and Lemons Mozarts: Requim in D minor
taste, Clive Bell Art people enjoy a piece of art There is a certain uniquely work aesthetic emotion, and that when they are able to aesthetic qualities are the recognize qualities in an object that the significant forms present in evoke this emotion. These it. As a critic of abstract art, qualities are the significant Bell forms believed he was good at doing and include the lines, colour, Clive Bell Art this in that genre, but less symmetry and geometry. Aesthetic emotions are Clive BellgoodStrengths Art: different in explains why people may It others which he enjoyed from other emotions, for seem to have less. different taste in art example the aesthetic value of a painting or a photograph of a loved one sculpture has absolutely nothing may evoke emotion, however to do with its success as a it is at the memory of them representation of something rather else than the forms within the allowing for almost any kind piece, of Clive Bell Art: Weaknesses medium to be good or bad It applies easiest to visual artsso is not Clive Bell Art emotion. an aesthetic and is Supporting examples of art harder to apply to music or Polynesian carvings literature The conceptual circle of aesthetic Delaunays: Le Premier emotion, aesthetic quality, and Disque significant form is so small that in The Parthenon theHolbeins: The Ambassadors end, one cannot give reasons Landseers: Monarch of the why a work is good. Glen There is a sharp separation between aesthetic and other emotions. Clive Bell Art Contradicting examples of artTitians: Bacchus and Ariadne Klimts: Adele Bloch-Bauer I Dickens: A Christmas carol Berninis: The Rape of Kant Proserpina
Kant Observations on the Feeling Kant of the Beautiful and Sublime He claimed that judgments of taste Kant thought that Beauty or are both subjective and universal. They are subjective, because they Sublimity were not really are responses of pleasure, and do properties of objects, but not essentially involve any claims ways in which we respond to about the properties of the objectobjects. He was concerned to show Itself. On the other hand, aesthetic that this focus on the subjective judgments are universal and not aesthetic response did not merely make aesthetic value a mere personal. Thats because in a crucial function of individual or personal way they must be disinterested. Kant Kant taste. Kant divided the kinds ofThese non-aesthetic interests aesthetic response into responses are extraneous to my to the Beautiful and the Sublime. appreciation The one represents a pleasure of the painting. Rather I am in order, harmony, delicacy andpleased by the painting just for the like. The other is a response what it is, apart from anything of awe before the infinite or the overwhelming. While the beautiful I presents the appearance of form, may get out of it, therefore it the sublime may often seem is art for arts sake. formless. Kant Strengths It eliminates a personal bias Kant so Supporting examples of art good art is always defined as Kushs: Treasure Island good Botticellis: The Birth of Venus Many of contemporary Eschers: Relativity philosophers Edgar Allan Poes: The Ravenagreed or came up with similar theories eg. Burke Kant WeaknessesJust because something is not “beautiful” does not make it Kant a bad piece of art work Contradicting examples of art Kant thought to be beautiful Sanzios: The deposition of Christ works had to be disinterested, Van Goghs: Starry Night universal, necessary and Banksys: Kissing policemen purposive Anything with expression orwithout purpose, however we may information feel something is beautiful while others disagree, so may