These are my Scramble for Africa Flashcards to be put into small booklets etc. I know some of the text got displaced when uploading here for some reason but you can always fix that yourselves. Feel free to use for revision purposes.
Scramble For Theories Africa Hobson – Metropolitan The scramble was for purely Lenin – Metropolitaneconomic reasons, benefitting An economic crisis in the the capitalist elite who could capitalist system led to sell surplus goods in new expansion and colonies to markets overseas as the poor openin Britain couldnt afford them. new markets. Schumpeter – Metropolitan Hobsbawn – Metropolitan Old aristocrats were trying to Technology allowed countriesgain power and glory to stay in the ability to take of colonies the public eye. so they did. Cain and Hopkins – Metropolitan Gentlemanly capitalists were investing in colonies, hoping to make a profit and putting Historytheir interests over those of the country. Flipbook
Robinson and Gallagher - Peripheral AJP Taylor – International The British reluctantly Relations colonized The delicately balancedAfrica after the felts forced to position protect their investments of European powers led to the against colonization of Africa as a local Egyptian nationalism. sparring ground as an alternative to European war. Paul Kennedy – International Relations European powers wished to have the same power andstatus as Britain so colonized, forcing Britain to do the same Timeline to defend her interests and keep dominance. Sudan - 1882 Sudan – 1882British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Former British Gen. Charles Gordon (49) retired from "Chinese" Gordon, Field active duty and moved to Marshal in the Turkish army, Jerusalem commanded the Egyptian forces in Sudan Sudan -1883 Nov 3 A poorly trained Egyptian Sudan – 1883-1884 army, British officered EgyptianLed by British General William armies Hicks, marched toward El were defeated by the Obeid forces of El Mahdi, called in the Sudan--straight into a Dervishes by the British at the Mahdist ambush and battle of El Obeid. massacre.
Sudan - 1884 Jan Lord Garnet Wolseley, adjutant- General of the British Army, Sudan - 1884 Jan 18 asked Charles Gordon toGeneral Charles ("Chinese") comeGordon departed London for out of retirement and lead an Khartoum. evacuation of 15,000 European and Egyptian civilians from Khartoum, Sudan. Gordon Sudan agreed.Mar 11 – 1884 Gen. Gordon learned that the . telegraph cable to Cairo had Sudan - 1884 Feb 18 been cut. Khartoum soldiers General Charles Gordon killed 5 Mahdists at Halfaya. arrived Mahdist insurgents in return in Khartoum to battle the massacred 150 men from the Mahdi and his terrorists. Khartoum garrison as they were cutting wood. Sudan – 1884 Mar 13 Sudan - 1884 Mar 16 Siege of Khartoum, Sudan, A 2nd counter-attack atbegan. Gen. Gordon ordered a Halfaya failed and Gordoncounter-attack at Halfaya and ordered 2 commanders to be troops rescued some 500 executed. from a Mahdist assault Sudan - 1884 Oct 22General Charles Gordon received a letter from Mahdi near Sudan - 1884 Nov 3 Khartoum. A British steamboat arrived atGordon was sent to Khartoum to Khartoum with news that aevacuate the Egyptian garrison. relief force was on its way. Gordon decided to hold the city against El Mahdi.
Sudan - 1885 Jan 26 Sudan – 1885 Jan 2 Gordon (51), British gov-gen of Sudan, was killed on the palace Gen. Wolseley received the steps in the garrison at Khartoum last distress signal of Gen. by the forces of Muhammad Gordon in Khartoum. Ahmed, El Mahdi. Sudan – 1885 Jan 28 Sudan - 1885 Jun 22 Gen’l. Garnet Wolseley In Sudan Muhammad arrived Ahmad ,at Khartoum to relieve Gen’l. the Mahdi, Gordon, but arrived 2 days died of typhus. His chief late. deputy, Abdallahi ibnEl Mahdi died soon thereafter Muhammad took over the but was succeeded by the administration of the nascent Khalifa Mahdist state Sudan – 1886 Sudan – 1896 Sep 21Henry Stanley (1841-1904), General Horatio KitchenersWelsh-born journalist, led the army occupied Dongola,Emin Pasha Relief Expedition Sudan.to "rescue" Emin Pasha, the Gen’l. Herbert Kitchener led governor of Equatoria in the British conquest of the the southern Sudan Sudan. .Sudan – 1898 Apr 8 British General Kitchener defeated the Khalifa, leader of Sudan – 1897 Aug 31 the dervishes in Sudan, at the General Kitchener occupied Battle of Atbara. Anglo- Berber, North of Khartoum. Egyptian forces crushed 6,000 Sudanese.
Sudan – 1898 Sep 2 Anglo-Egyptian lines under Gen’l. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 Sudan – 1898 Sep 1 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers,Lord Kitcheners army bombed machine guns and rifles. The Omdurman Dervishes left 11,000 dead and 16,000 wounded. The Anglo-Egyptian army suffered fewer than a dozen casualties. Sudan – 1899 Nov 24 Abdullah ibn Mohammed Sudan – 1898 Sep 6 al-Taaishi, Khelifa Lord Kitchener destroyed of Sudan (1883-99), died. Mahdis tomb in Omdurman British forces took control of the Sudan. Egypt – 1859 Apr 25 Egypt – 1867 Feb 1 Construction of the Suez The 1st ship passed through Canal the Suez Canal. was started. Egypt – 1869 Nov 17 Egypt – 1867-1875 , The Suez Canal was openedThe Suez Canal Co. issued bonds in for some hundred million Egypt,linking the francs to keep afloat. The Mediterranean Khedive went bankrupt and the British under Disraeli snapped and the Red seas. The 100 up the Khedives shares for mile canal eliminated a £4 million. 4000-mile trip around Africa.
Egypt – 1979Tewfik was appointed as the Egypt – November 1879 Khedive of Egypt and spent Anglo-French dual control of vast amounts on railways, Egypt was established to stop borrowing from European further spending. banks and bankrupting Egypt. Egypt – 1881Nationalist revolts under Colonel Ahmed Arabi started spreading Egypt – 1882 Sep 13 Across Egypt with violent civil British troops defeateddisorder in the major towns with Egyptian Europeans being attacked, their forces in the Battle athomes burnt, and in one incident Tel-el-Kebir in Alexandria the deaths of fifty expatriates Gold Coast – 1823 First Ashanti war was declared Egypt – 1882 as the Ashanti were trying toAnglo-French dual control of take Fanti land. Sir Charles Egypt ended after the MacArthy was killed at the British occupation began. Battle of Nsamankow on 22nd January 1924. Gold Coast – 1824 The Ashanti swept down to the Gold Coast – 1831 coast, but disease forced them The Pra River was accepted back. The Ashanti were so assuccessful in subsequent fighting the border in a Anglo-Ashantithat in 1826 they again moved on peace treaty, ending the first the coast. British Congreve Ashanti war. rockets forced their withdrawal.
Gold Coast – 1863 Second Anglo-Ashanti war Gold Coast – 1864. was Second Anglo-Ashanti war declared as a large Ashanti ended as British troops were delegation crossed the river forced to withdraw because pursuing a fugitive, Kwesi of sickness. Gyana Gold Coast – 1872 Zey, king of the Ashanti Gold Coast – 1871 Feb 25, wrote to the British monarch Britain purchased part of Gold asking for the slave trade to Coast from the Netherlands. be renewed. Gold Coast – 1873 Gold Coast – 1873 Wolseley arrived and made his Third Anglo-Ashanti war was plans before the arrival of his declared as the Ashanti troops in January 1874. He had invaded and made claim fought the Battle of Amoaful onto part of the newly purchased January 31 1874, and, after Dutch Gold Coast. five days fighting, ended with the Battle of Ordahsu. Gold Coast – 1895 Jan Fourth Anglo-Ashanti war was Gold Coast – 1874 July declared so that the British The British forced the Ashanti to could conquer the Ashanti sign after the rejection of becomingthe Treaty of Fomena to end the a British protectorate in 1891.It war, with one of the clauses being a demand for 50,000oz only lasted until Feb 1896 and of gold. ended with the exile of Ashanti leaders.
Gold Coast – 1900 Sep Gold Coast – 1900 Mar The British won the war and The war of the golden stool the was Ashanti became part of adeclared after the British after crown Frederick Mitchell Hodgson, colony, though mostly ruled demanded that the Ashanti themselves with little referenceturn over to the Golden Stool. to the colonial powers. Nigeria – 1882 Nigeria – 1879 The British from the East andThe United African Company The French from the Westwas formed due to high British Started working their way up interest in importing palm oil the from the area and exporting Niger river and eventually cheaper goods such as gin. Clashed near Timbuktu. Nigeria – 1879 Nigeria – 1884 NovThe United African Company The Berlin Conference hostedwas formed due to high British by Bismarck gave Nigeria to interest in importing palm oil the British, forming the “Oil from the area and exporting Rivers Protectorate”. cheaper goods such as gin. Nigeria – 1886 Goldie hired Lugard to make Nigeria – 1886 Treaties with the rules of tribesThe Royal Niger company was in Northern Nigeria. Thefounded by George Taubman French Goldie sent Captain Decour to do the same.
Nigeria – 1895 A massacre occurred due to a dispute with the Nembe over Nigeria – 1893 palm oil as Goldie stopped the Ijaw middlemen from shipping oilThe “Oil Rivers Protectorate” directly to firms in Britain while at the Was renamed the “Niger same time insisting on an Coast Protectorate” unhindered access into the Hitherlands. The Nembe took 67 hostages so Goldie had 2000 women and children killed. Nigeria – 1896 Nigeria – 1898 In 1896, Bretonnet was givencommand of an expedition meant Anglo-French tension over to Nigeria peaked at a standoff establish French control on at Borgu. The French left the navigable portions of the Bussa, Niger River below Bussa.These Illo and Gomba in exchangeplans were opposed by the Royal For 2 small plots of land, at the Niger Company, claiming the Mouths of the rivers Moshi and English Niger in the Anglo-French had already treaty rights on the region. Convention. Nigeria – 1901-02The Anglo-Aro war was declaredafter increasing tension between Nigeria - 1903 Mar 15 Aro leaders and British The British conquest was colonialists completed, 500,000 square after years of failed negotiations miles were now controlled as the Aro tried to resist by the U.K. British expansion. The British beat the Aro. Uganda – 1888 Uganda – 1886 Jun 3 The Imperial British East Africa 24 Christians are burnt Company was chartered by to death in Namugongo. William MacKinnon.
Uganda – 1890 Feb Uganda – 1890 Karl Peters explores Lugard was dispatched by the Uganda and makes treaties IBEAC to Uganda, forcing Karlwith Mwanga II of Buganda in Peters to leave. favour of the Germans. Uganda – 1890 Jul 1The Heligoland-Zanzibar treaty Was signed between the British Uganda – 1892 Jan 24And the Germans. The British Civil war broke out between Gained Kenya and Uganda, the Kabaka, French Catholics, and British Protestants, and the The Germans gained IBEAC. HeligolandAnd the Caprivi Strip. Zanzibar Stayed under control of the sultan. Uganda – 1892 The IBEAC went broke from financing the civil war and Uganda – 1894 Uganda not being as rich Uganda was declared a British in resources as previously protectorate. believed. The IBEAC demanded government funds Kenyawithdrawal. 1 for a – 1890 JulThe Heligoland-Zanzibar treaty Was signed between the BritishAnd the Germans. The British Gained Kenya and Uganda, Kenya – 1895 and Kenya was declared the British The Germans gained East African Protectorate. HeligolandAnd the Caprivi Strip. Zanzibar Stayed under control of the
South Africa - 1838 Dec 16 Boers defeated the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River and settled in Natal The Afrikaners while escaping South Africa – 1806 from Cape Town was annexed British rule encountered to Britain. resistance from the native black peoples. In the Battle of Blood River a few hundred Boers repelled an attack by more than 10,000 Zulu warriors. South Africa – 1877 Shepstone annexed the South Africa – 1867 Transvaal in order to saveDiamonds were discovered in them Kimberly from bankruptcy, protect them from the Pedi and settle border disputes with the Zulu South Africa – 1879 Jan 11 The Zulu war began with the South Africa – 1879 rejection of an ultimatum that Paul Kruger of the Transvaal Cetswayo could not comply offered the British advice on with how to deal with the Zulu from as demobilizing his army their own experiences at the would Battle of Blood River. Theleave them open to attack and British ignored him. destroy the traditional militant culture. South Africa – 1879 Jan 23 Just over 150 British and colonial South Africa – 1879 Jan 22 troops successfully defendedThe Battle of Isandhlwana hill the garrison against an was an embarrassing defeat intensefor the British as 1,300 were assault by 3,000 to 4,000 Zuluslaughtered by the tribesmen. warriors at the Battle of Rorkes Drift.
South Africa – 1879 Jul 4 South Africa – 1880 Dec 16 The Battle of Ulundi finally The First Boer war was beat declaredthe Zulu forces and Cetswayo as many Boers felt resentful was sent into exile. The war to having to follow British was ways from the earlier ended. annexation. South Africa – 1881 Feb 27 South Africa – 1881 Mar 23 The Boers had a massive A peace treaty was signedvictory over the British at the that allowed Boer self-Battle of Majuba Hill where the government on the condition that the Boers 92nd Highlanders (one of the accepted Queen’s nominal supposedly best regiments) rule and British control over was African affairs and native seen fleeing from the Boers. districts South Africa – 1895 Dec 29 The Jameson Raid was set out and The basic plan was that British expatriates in Johannesburg South Africa – 1886 would revolt and seize the Boer The discovery of gold on the armoury in Pretoria. Jameson and his force Witwatersrand launched the would city dash across the border to of Johannesburg. Labor was Johannesburg provided from Lesotho to "restore order" and with control of Johannesburg would control the gold fields. It failed and those involved were jailed. South Africa – 1889 South Africa – 1899 Oct 11British South Africa Company was The Second Boer war was established by Cecil Rhodes declared after a British through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and ultimatum the Exploring Company Ltd., to the Boers demanding equal receiving Rights to the uitlanders a royal charter (foreigners)
South Africa – 1899 Oct-Dec South Africa – 1900 Jan-Sep The Boers had the initial A British offensive held some offensive successes and relieved Ladysmith and had many successes at And Mafeking. They also first, captured primarily, with sieges of Johannesburg and the Ladysmith, Mafeking and Transvaal South Africa – 1900 Sep-1902 Kimberly. capital, Pretoria. MayThe Boers changed their tactics to Guirella warfare with skirmishes like South Africa – 1901 Dec Lindley (where 500 Yeomanry The Fawcett commission was surrendered), and at Heilbron sent to South Africa to check (where a large convoy and its conditions of concentration escort camps with unusually high death were captured) and other rates. Kitchener slowly improved skirmishes The conditions of the camps resulting in 1,500 British After the report was filed. casualties in less than ten days. The British had To adapt to cope with it.South Africa – 1902 May 31 South Africa – 1910 May 31The Second Anglo-Boer war The Union of South Africa was came to an end and the formed from the Cape Colony, Transvaal and Orange Free Natal, the Transvaal and the State Orange Free State came under British rule. Rhodesia – 1888 Oct 13The Rudd Concession was the Signing away of the mineral Rights in Matabeleland and Rhodesia – 1889 Mashonaland by Charles British South Africa Company was established by Cecil RhodesRudd and Cecil Rhodes. Deceit through the amalgamation of the Was used so that Lobengula Central Search Association and Didnt fully understand what the Exploring Company Ltd., He was signing and many receiving a royal charter friends, Like Jameson, advised him to
Rhodesia – 1889 Apr Lobengula found out his Rhodesia – 1890 mistakes with the Rudd Rhodes started moving north concession and attempted of Matabeleland where he hadto undermine it with the Lippert made treaties with Lobengula Concession which Rhodes And into Mashonaland. later bought out. Rhodesia – 1893 Oct- 1894 Rhodesia – 1890 Sep 12 Jan Fort Salisbury was founded The First Matabele war was As a small city for military Declared as the company had volunteer Wanted to avoid problems in force of settlers organised Their territories, but Lobengula by Cecil Rhodes to watch Approved a raid to extract the over Mashonaland.. Mashona chief, leading to a clash Rhodesia – 1896 The first Chimurenga (Second Matabele War) was declaredafter Mlino convinced everyone it Other Factors – 1875 Nov 7was the white Men causing cattle Verney Cameron became the to die. It went on until Rhodes 1st European to cross persuaded natives to stop and equatorial Africa combined the provinces of Mashonaland and Matabeleland into Southern Rhodesia. Other Factors – 1898 The Fashoda Incident was a Other Factors – 1885 strong tension between BritainKing Leopald of Belgium took and France and a possible over the Congo Free State reason for Britain expanding into the Sudan.
Other Factors – 1870 Jul 19The Franco-Prussian War began. Napoleon declared war onBismarck. Emperor Napoleon III ofFrance declared war on Germany Other Factors – 1896 under Otto von Bismarck. The French annexed Napoleon Madagascarwas defeated in three months and Abdicated, leaving tension between The French and Germans. Other Factors - 1895 French West Africa was Other Factors – 1888 Established contraining :The Italians made a pact with Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Sultan Kenadid making an Mali), Italian Somaliland French Guinea, Côte dIvoire Protectorate. (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger. Other Factors – 1885 German East Africa was developed Other Factors – 1884 and included what are now German South West Africa Burundi, Rwanda and Tanganyika (now Namibia) was claimed. (the mainland part of present Tanzania) Other Factors – 1893France began colonizing West Africa and Timbuktu came under French rule until Mali became independent in 1960
Best Theory – Sudan Best Theory – Egypt Peripheral MetropolitanIt seems as though the biggest The Suez canal plays a vital role Trigger for entering the Sudan in Egypt, whether it is for causing Was to squash Mahdist and tension between European Nationalist revolts that may powers or being used as a threat lead by nationalists. As the canal was To problems concerning used as a trade route to India, the main interest is in generating Investments in Egypt and the profit. Best Theory Canal. Coast Suez – Gold International Relations Best Theory – Nigeria Gold Coast had been a Dutch Metropolitan Area Though there was international of land but they were looking to rivalry over the land surrounding sell the Niger river, most of it can it. The British knew that If they did not take Gold Coast, it would be put down to the highbe offered to the French Germans economicor Italians and they believed they value of the palm oil trade should have it because of situated there. how close it was to the Niger Best Theory – Kenya Best Theory – Uganda International Relations Metropolitan Kenya was given to Britain in Explorers like Peters and the Berlin Conference seems Lugard to had described the riches and have been Used primarily as mineral wealth in Uganda, an encouraging men like Access Point to landlocked Mackinnon Uganda and to fit betweenwith thoughts of South Africa Best Theory – making large German East Africa and profit there. Metropolitan Italian NorthernRhodesia Best Theory – Somalia. The main reason for an Metropolitan interest The main push for Rhodesia in South Africa is because of came from Cecil Rhodes whothe diamonds and gold found wanted money and power. He there. If it had not been for believed that the gold and that, diamond seams in the it is highly unlikely that towns Transvaal like may run up further so took Kimberly or Johannesburg over