Sustainability: FoodEnvironment – produce foodwithout:Undue degradation of the soilOveruse of waterUnacceptable levels ofpollutionDegradation/destruction ofhabitatSocio-cultural sustainibility:Rural communities ability toretain traditionRetain cohesiveness andculturalvalueProduce sufficient food forthe local areaEconomic sustainability:Agricultural system providesacceptable economic returnFor the employedSupply enough food for thenon-agricultural populationWeekly food consumption in US$Chad : $1.24Bhutan : $5.03Ecuador : $31.55Egypt : $68.53Poland : $151.27Mexico : $189.09Italy : $260.11USA : $348.98Where are the hungry people:A lack of food is most common inCountries across South East Asia,India, the Middle East, Africa andSouth America. Half of the worldshungry people live in India,Pakistan,Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria.1/3 of sub-Saharan children areThe effects of malnutrition:Kwashiorkor – caused by alackof protein and leads to swollenhands, legs and stomach.Marasmus – caused by aseverelack of food, results indiarrhoea,wasting and low immunityAnaemia – caused by a lack ofiron, makes people extremelytired. Farmers with this willproduce even lessBlindness – caused by a lackof vitamin A, effects at least250,000 children a year.
Obesity in the USA60 million adults and 9 million children areobeseCaused by an imbalance between eating toocalories and not getting enough exerciseBeing overweight/obese increases the riskof heart disease, hypertension, diabetes,dysliptemia, stroke, asteothretis, gall bladderdisease, sleep apnea, respiratory problemsand cancerObesity is measured by the body mass index(BMI)In 1991, there were 4 states with an obesityrate of 14-19% and no states over 20%In 2004, there were 7 states with 15-19%, 33states with 20-24% and 9 states over 25%Health costs reach $395 per person annuallyCosts society $117 billionDue to fast food and fizzy drinks being readilyavailableThere is a need to prevent obesity and engagein physical activityCauses 100-400,000 deaths yearlyIn 2008, 58 million were pre-diabetic,236 million were diabetic, 90-95% of whichweretype 2Famine in KenyaDroughts stretching back from 2000, 1997,1992 and 19872 years without rain (since 2004)Human fatalities counted in dozensHundreds of rotting animal carcassesChildren admitted to hospital suffering frommalnutrition rose from 2 a week to 4 a day90% of Wajir districts 407,000 populationare in a near catostrophic situation3.5-4 million people are facing starvation11 million people were effected across EastAfricaHalf of all the cows and sheep in Wajir diedAnimals were left too weak to produce milkand too emaciated to be slaughtered for meatAppealed for $150 million in aidBritain provided £12.7 million ($19.2 mil)
HinderPromotePhysicalEconomic4 new outlets and 200 employees hiredevery working day – high demandBrazil and Vietnam are the highestproducers of Arabia and Robusta coffeeBags of coffee bean bring in $800/kgand can be $50 a cup in New YorkLarge amount of money availablefor research and development infisheries = better equipment = increasedproductivityHigh demand means more shops areopened, means more jobs are availableand reduces the unemployment rate106,000 km² used for coffee beans-Not enough land to sustain demand- Demand outweighs production- Price increasesTop consumers e.g. coffee shops in theUS make the largest profit, producersmake the leastLow technology, labour intensive cheapfisheriesLow yield, low revenue, cant survive85% artisinal vessels catch a smallfraction of the worlds fish15% of the worlds vessels areindustrialand catch 80% of all the fishRelief – gentle sloping or flat relief isthemost efficient, less water run off and soilerosionSoil – fertility depends on the amountof air, water and nutrients. Increasedfertility increases productionClimate – Increased rainfall andtemperature promote growth to adegree,hot, wet conditions are the bestFactors influencing food productionRelief – steep land increases run offanderosionSoil – dry soils with a small humus layer(aridisol) or frozen soils (cryosol) cantsupport growth and hinder productionClimate – low temperatures have lowerproduction. Low rainfall climates e.g.deserts also hinder production
HinderPromoteTechnologicalPoliticalSyngenta and the Royal Society ofChemistry set up the Pan-Africanchemistry network to improve farmingin AfricaTax incentives and research anddevelopment from the government canencourage farmersGovernments build roads, dams andinfrastructure and this encouragesfarmers to increase food productionGovernment subsidies for growingcertain crops make it more profitableto farmersEU is aiming to replace 5% of alltransportation fuel with biofuel by 2010,less land for farming food and less to eatIn the 1960s and 70s, policies ingovernment (Malaysia) encouragedfarmers to grow “cash crops” e.g. rubberIn the 1980s, high tech equipment inSingapore actually destroyed crops dueto the wrong climateGovernments are focused on industryand development may forget aboutagricultureGovernments can enforce limits andquotasNew equipement and technologicaldevelopments increase productivityand yield which leads to lower foodprices, allowing poorer people to eatCan provide additional employmentFood pricers are lower from lowerproduction costsFactors influencing food productionCan cost people unskilled jobs ifmachines are capable insteadCrops are grown to be used as biofuelswith new capacity for them instead ofto be eaten
The relationship between supermarkets and farmersThe supermarket Code of Practicewas introduced in Mar 2002 to redressthe balance between supermarketsand farmers. It involved 4supermarkets(ASDA, Safeway, Tesco andSainsbury)who had all been highlighted as beingof concern.Friends of the Earth with the supportof farming and public interestorganizations carried out a surveyof farmers in 2003 to find out howfarmers were faring under the code.Twenty eight farmers (17%) had to wait longer than 30 days for aninvoice to be paidMore than half the farmers (58%) did not think the code ofpractice made any difference to the way supermarkets did business52% of dairy farmers said they were getting paid the same or lessthan the price of production43% said they received “just over” the cost of production37% of fruit and veg growers said they received the same or lessthanthe cost of productionAbout 1/3 of all farmers did not complain about problems for fearof delisting and not being able to sell their produceOnly 44% were aware that a code was even in place58% of those who knew there was a code believed that it had madeno differenceFarmers may produce less so that pay is driven up, forcing bothsupermarkets and consumers to pay more. Those who feelseverely disadvantaged may even leave agriculture for a different job.
Food production and technologyNew technology canprovide additionalRural employment,but there are alwaysCounteractingpressuresto reduceLabour input andlower its costs.Agriculturaltechnologyis a primaryFactor contributing toincreases in Foodproductivity indevelopingcountries.The lowering of food prices allowsthe poor to eat more and possiblybetter which has a positive impactonnutrition, health and food security.But cheaper food also releasesincome which can be spent onothergoods and services with immediatepositive benefits to the poor suchasimproved shelter or access to keyservices such as healthcare orHowever, where productivity increasesDue to technology match or overtakeThe equivalent fall in prices, bothnet consumers and net producers canbenefit. Between1980 and 2000,production of wheat and rice inBangladeshincreased from below 15 to 25.7 milliontonnes, increasing per capita availabilityin the same time from 425 to 510grams per day.CombineharvestersTractorsPesticidesFertilisersMore outputIncreasingYield makesUp for theLoss inPrice.Food prices aredemonstrablylowerbecause oftechnology, butthesharing ofbenefitsbetweenconsumersand producersdepends onthe nature of thelocal economy.Employment onthefarms of othersis important for thelivelihood of thepoor, main sourceof income andwork.
Soil Degredation in ZimbabweThe climate of Zimbabwe (hot dryseason followed by wet season)means it is vulnerable to fluvialerosion. The rate of soil productionis 0.4 tonnes per hectare per yearwhile the soil erosion is in excessof 30 tonnes per year.The two main factorsIn soil degradation arePopulation density and soilType. The higher thedensity,The higher the erosion,henceCommunal lands havingSuch a high rate. (50t ph py)Soil has a carryingcapacity dependant onsoil type, climate andvegetation cover. Itscapacity is the numberof people and animalsit can sustain withoutdegredation.In Zimbabwe, there are two typesOf land tenure. Traditionally, landWas owned communally with noWritten contracts but now morePeople are beginning to privatelyOwn land with written ownershipthatCan be sold or bought with money.The private owners cause lessLand degredation as they havemoreIncentive to look after the land andGenerally, communal land hashigherErosion rates. 4.2 million peopleIn Zimbabwe live on communalland.Impacts:Siltation of riversDams are filled with sediment within 15 years ofconstructionDecline of soil fertilityIn some areas, cultivation of maize will only bepossiblefor the next 15 yearsIt is predicted that Sorghum cultivation will beimpossible in 30 years.
Rice production in LaosRice production in the Lao PDRincreased by 75% from 1.4 miltonnes in 1986 to 2.5 mil in 2004Policy chances in agriculturalsector have contributed to theeconomic growth andimprovements in welfareThe current strategic objectivesfor agricultural development areto improve rural livelihoods,reduce vulnerability of poorhouseholds, create opportunitiesfor diversifying livelihoods andmaintain environmental quality.Lao people consume 171kg percapita of milled rice per annum,which constitutes 70% of theircalorie and protein intakeChampasack and Saravane aretwo major rice producingprovincesin the southern region. Thenorthern region is mountainousand contributes 22% if output.Strategy 1 – Improve the marketaccess of rural communitiesthrough investment ininfrastructureStrategy 2 – Raise productivityso that farmers needs are metRice yield increased at anannual rate of 2.6% whilearea expanded 1.8%.Many factors influenced yield.The adoption of modernvarietiesUse of inorganic fertilizersAvailability of irrigation facilities.Government commitment tosupport rice productionAlthough food availibility at anational level has improved,household food security has notbeen achieved fully. Farmers withlimited incomes and those inremote areas are still unable tomeet their rice needs fullyTo maintain self-sufficiency inrice,Laos PDR will need to producean additional 1 mil tonnesannually by 2020 to meet theincreasing demand from pop.growthAt the current rate ofpop.growth,as assuming the current rate ofrice consumption per capita,demand will rise by 3.6 miltonnesRice area has increasedfromapprox. 642,000 ha in 1986To 770,000 ha, more than20%Rice production averagedaround 1.3 mil tonnes perannum until the 1990s, withno clear trend in production.A significant breakthroughoccurred during the mid 90swith production rising steeplyto 2.5 mil t in 2004.The rice area cultivated intheuplands decreased by 52%and its contribution to thetotalrice area declined from 41%in 1991 to 15% in 2004.
GM CropsFor AgainstLess pesticides are needed as the plantsthemselves are resistantHigher crop yieldsDecrease in food prices due to lower costsand higher yield. As people in poor countriesspend over half of their income on food alone,lower food prices mean an automatic reductionof poverty.Less deforestation needed to feed the worldsgrowing population (UN projections saythat the world population will reach 8.15 billioncompared to 6.18 billion in year 2000). Thisdecreases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,which in turn slows global warming.Rigorous testing of ALL GMOcrops and products. This makes GMOsmuch safer than organic crops.Crops can be altered to taste better or holdmore nutrientsCrops can be made drought resistant andsurvive in harsher environments, also openingup more land such as deserts to be agriculturallandAccidental cross-contamination betweenGM and non-GM cropsCreation of pest of herbicide resistantcrops could result in superweeds that evolveNeed to adopt precautionary principleon all new technology and the impact on humanhealth, food safety and the environment cannotbe accurately predictedGM crops have additional proteins and alteredgenetic compositions which may result inallergic reactionsGM crops will result in increased dependency ontransnational biotech companies to supplyseeds and chemicals, resulting in monocultures.This will prove costly and damaging to smallscale farmers in the developing worldGM is not the key to global food security as allthose developed to date have largely benefitedNorthern countries and markets, not smallscale farmers. Food security lies as much indistribution as in quantity.In 2012, a test on rats in France resulted inGM maize being linked with tumours andmultiple organ failureSuccessful alteration is marked with an antibiotic,if consumed to much, people develop resistance
Additional factors that hinder food productionChanges in the European consumption of fishUK, Germany and France consume more than70% of all fish sold in supermarketsConvenient, easy to prepare food is risingMore fish is sold in restaurantsGreater consideration of health benefitsGreater concern for food safety, environment,welfare – increased demand for organicRejection of intensive methods has increaseddemand for higher qualityFishing vesselsLarge ships owned by companies haveincreased in numberThey have powerful sonar to locate wholeshoals of fishFine mesh nets reach greater depthsTheyre unselective and extract baby fishEUCountries bordering the North Sea all claim12 nautical miles of territory which they canfish inCommon fisheries policy assists in disputesQuotas for how many of each species canbe caughtEach member state polices its own quotaSeveral different systems: different fish,different areas, how long fishermen can be atseaFactoriesLarge numbers of coastal people andindustryHigh pollutionSeaMostly <200m deep and shallower in SouthSupports a diverse ecosystemPlankton provide food for 200 species of fishRising temperature reduces the amount ofplanktonLand reclamation declines fish stocks due tosilting and pollution (UK and Netherlands)
Sustainable food management: Hydroponics and aeroponicsHydroponics AeroponicsMethod:Crops are grown with water containing theNecessary nutrients without the use of soil.Case Study: Thanet Earth, KentIt contains 3 greenhouses, each the size of 10football pitches4 more are under constructionEach will be mono-crop and grow just onetype of crop, however may have many varietiesIt increased UK salad crop supplies by 15%Positives:Costs less as no soil is needed and water staysin the system so less soil erosionComplete control – no weedsStable and high yields95% of light is kept inside the greenhouse,preventing light pollutionCan grow crops out of season and fasterNegatives:Maintenance required is very highAny failure leads to mass plant deathTechnical knowledge is necessaryCan cost $3,000 for each systemConditions must be kept constant, slightalterationto heat or pH can cause disasterNot all crops can be grown this wayMethod:Crops are grown in air or mist containing nutrientsRather than soil or water.Case Study: Lim Chu Kang, SingaporeAerogreen Technology is a $12 mil companyThe Kampong Bugis development plan proposedthat all rooftops and 60% of vertical surfacesshould have aeroponics to create sustainibilityIn Singapore, 1,500 hectares are used for 6agrotechnological parksSingapore is the world leader in rooftopproduction of fresh foodPositives:It reduces the cost and energy demand requiredto transport food from out of the city39,000 tonnes of vegetables could be grown in212 hectaresSubstantial savings in water and landIdeal for countries with scarce water and landNegatives:Not all countries have access to cutting edgetechnologyMay go against certain cultures or traditionsAir around the plant must be pure and it isnecessary to have as little contact with humansare possibleThe cooling of the nutrient solution is expensive
Sustainable food management: Blue revolution and Green revolutionBlue revolution Green revolutionMethod:Man made establishments such as ponds areusedTo rear aquatic lifeforms with the aim of improvingFish farming techniques and increase yields.Case Study: MalawiIn Zomba West, the WorldFish centre haveassisteddigging 10x15m pondsChambo and mlamba are the main fish bredManure from farms used to fertilize ponds, siltfromponds fertilizes crops (linked agri/aquaculture)Fish provide locals with Vitamin A, expanding thelife expectancy of 1,200 HIV sufferersPositives:Increases yield85% of shrimp in Asia are farmed this wayIncreased from 26,000 tonnes in 1970 to 700,000in 1990Retail value over £20 bil – increased economyandsustainable incomeRelatively cheap – tool for feeding the poorNegatives:Rapid expansion has caused degredation and lossof natural resourcesMethod:Research, development and technology transferinitiatives change the way agricultural productionhappenedCase Study: IndiaFirst country to benefit, used high-yielding varietyseed program (HPV) in 1966HPV introducted new hybrid varieties of fivecereals which were drought resistantAll responsive to fertilizersAll had shorter growing seasons than traditionalvarietiesPositives:Targets all aspects of modern agricultureYields of new varieties are 2-4 times higherDiet of rural areas becomes more variesFarming incomes increased allowing purchase ofmachinary and technologyShorter growing season allows growth of extraNegatives:Contrly in both economic and environmental termsRural debt due to farmers borrowing money forchemicalsMiddle and high income farmers benefited – widerincome gapIncreased rural-urban migrationSalinization increasedDependence on transnationals for supplies