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Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
Grade 8 history slideshow   ppt
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Grade 8 history slideshow ppt

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  • 1. Grade 8 History
  • 2. Red River Resistance <ul><li>1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Rupert’s Land (North Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, South Alberta, NWT, Nunavut) sold by HBC to Canadian government for $ 1 500 000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>PM John A Macdonald appointed William McDougall lieutenant-governor: sent to establish new government in Red River </li></ul>
  • 3. Rupert’s Land
  • 4. Who was affected? <ul><li>No one consulted residents of area </li></ul><ul><li>Who were residents of area? </li></ul>
  • 5. Metis predicted that: <ul><li>traditional way of life destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>land would be divided into lots, sold to settlers, farms, fences </li></ul><ul><li>bison hunt? </li></ul>
  • 6.  
  • 7. Louis Riel <ul><li>leader of Métis at age 25, provisional government </li></ul><ul><li>“Metis List of Demands” </li></ul><ul><li>prevented McDougall from entering territory, executed Scott </li></ul><ul><li>Manitoba became a province - “Manitoba Act” </li></ul><ul><li>What were similarities/differences between “Metis List of Demands” and “Manitoba Act”? </li></ul>
  • 8. Division of Land <ul><li>Metis land traditionally divided like seigneuries, like in New France: long, narrow lots, access to neighbours, water </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian government preferred British grid system </li></ul><ul><li>Divided existing properties </li></ul>
  • 9. Seigneuries
  • 10. Grid System
  • 11. Land Use Conflicts <ul><li>Native view of land: Great Spirit give to them to care for, take what’s needed for survival </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers’ view of land: own plots of land, fence, farm, use for own purposes </li></ul>
  • 12. Treaties <ul><li>First Nations gave up land </li></ul><ul><li>Government provided: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fish/hunt on reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>annual compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supply farming tools/seeds/livestock/farming education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schools </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Problems with Treaties <ul><li>Treaties not written in Natives’ languages </li></ul><ul><li>taken as sacred agreements </li></ul><ul><li>threat to end up with nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Were both sides treated fairly in creating treaties? </li></ul>
  • 14. Life for Natives <ul><li>Winter of 1883-1884, 10% of Native population on Prairies died of starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes? </li></ul>
  • 15. Indian Act <ul><li>1876 </li></ul><ul><li>full-blooded </li></ul><ul><li>reserves </li></ul><ul><li>wards of state, no voting, no alcohol (led to residential schools) </li></ul><ul><li>women married and lost status, men married and gained status </li></ul><ul><li>selling timber </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian, not traditional court </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian citizenship OR Indian Status </li></ul>
  • 16. Art from 1995
  • 17. Was the Indian Act fair? <ul><li>seen as less than human? </li></ul><ul><li>1985 - keep status when married </li></ul><ul><li>2003 - recognized Metis </li></ul><ul><li>2008 - apologies for residential schools </li></ul>
  • 18. Increasing the Population in the West <ul><li>1870s, 6% of Canada’s population </li></ul><ul><li>CPR </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Act </li></ul><ul><li>Dominion Lands Act </li></ul>
  • 19. Canadian Pacific Railway <ul><li>expansion of settlement to Prairies </li></ul><ul><li>efficient transportation, supplies in, farm products out </li></ul><ul><li>symbol of Canadian unity </li></ul>
  • 20.  
  • 21. CPR Scandal <ul><li>Macdonald offered free land, financial help </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Hugh Allan contract to build railway - donation to Macdonald’s Conservative election campaign ($360 000) </li></ul><ul><li>Bribe? </li></ul><ul><li>Macdonald lost election 2 years later to Alexander Mackenzie </li></ul>
  • 22. Immigration Act <ul><li>1869 </li></ul><ul><li>keep contagious disease out </li></ul><ul><li>quarantine </li></ul><ul><li>limits to numbers on ships </li></ul><ul><li>must have passenger list </li></ul>
  • 23. Dominion Lands Act <ul><li>1872 </li></ul><ul><li>townships of 36 sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 HBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 railway construction rental/sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 homesteads </li></ul></ul>
  • 24.  
  • 25. Homesteads <ul><li>$10 per family </li></ul><ul><li>farm in 3 years </li></ul>
  • 26. Homesteading wasn’t for everyone <ul><li>Metis (equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>government gave away land </li></ul><ul><li>squatting on own property </li></ul><ul><li>“Road Allowance People” </li></ul>
  • 27. National Policy <ul><li>1878 “National Policy”, Macdonald wins again (and three following elections) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher taxes for manufactured imported goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower tax on imported raw materials (jobs in factories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s - Free Trade </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Railway Back in Action <ul><li>No more Hugh Allan </li></ul><ul><li>5 summers to build (completed in 1885) </li></ul><ul><li>William Van Horne appointed General Manager, supervised </li></ul><ul><li>transportation of goods </li></ul><ul><li>visible symbol of separation from US </li></ul>
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Chinese Railway Workers <ul><li>dangerous, nitroglycerine accidents, falling rocks </li></ul><ul><li>crowded living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poor diet </li></ul><ul><li>lack of medical care </li></ul><ul><li>weather </li></ul><ul><li>white workers $1.50-2.50/day, Chinese workers $1/day </li></ul><ul><li>government sent them back, “Head Tax” </li></ul>
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. North West Rebellion <ul><li>Metis in Saskatchewan, bison disappearing, starvation </li></ul><ul><li>sent petitions to Ottawa - secure title for land, agricultural aid, schools, local police </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Riel comes back, forms second provisional government </li></ul>
  • 36.  
  • 37. Macdonald’s Advantages <ul><li>fight right away </li></ul><ul><li>North West Mounted Police formed, officers ready </li></ul><ul><li>CPR almost complete - mobilization of troops </li></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>Riel appointed Gabriel Dumont as military commander </li></ul><ul><li>guerrilla tactics - ambush, surprise attack </li></ul>
  • 39. Events of the NW Rebellion <ul><li>miniature re-enactments in groups of 2-3 </li></ul>

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