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Grade 8 history slideshow ppt

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Transcript

  • 1. Grade 8 History
  • 2. Red River Resistance
    • 1869
    • Rupert’s Land (North Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, South Alberta, NWT, Nunavut) sold by HBC to Canadian government for $ 1 500 000.00
    • PM John A Macdonald appointed William McDougall lieutenant-governor: sent to establish new government in Red River
  • 3. Rupert’s Land
  • 4. Who was affected?
    • No one consulted residents of area
    • Who were residents of area?
  • 5. Metis predicted that:
    • traditional way of life destroyed
    • land would be divided into lots, sold to settlers, farms, fences
    • bison hunt?
  • 6.  
  • 7. Louis Riel
    • leader of Métis at age 25, provisional government
    • “Metis List of Demands”
    • prevented McDougall from entering territory, executed Scott
    • Manitoba became a province - “Manitoba Act”
    • What were similarities/differences between “Metis List of Demands” and “Manitoba Act”?
  • 8. Division of Land
    • Metis land traditionally divided like seigneuries, like in New France: long, narrow lots, access to neighbours, water
    • Canadian government preferred British grid system
    • Divided existing properties
  • 9. Seigneuries
  • 10. Grid System
  • 11. Land Use Conflicts
    • Native view of land: Great Spirit give to them to care for, take what’s needed for survival
    • Settlers’ view of land: own plots of land, fence, farm, use for own purposes
  • 12. Treaties
    • First Nations gave up land
    • Government provided:
      • reserves
      • fish/hunt on reserves
      • annual compensation
      • supply farming tools/seeds/livestock/farming education
      • schools
  • 13. Problems with Treaties
    • Treaties not written in Natives’ languages
    • taken as sacred agreements
    • threat to end up with nothing
    • Were both sides treated fairly in creating treaties?
  • 14. Life for Natives
    • Winter of 1883-1884, 10% of Native population on Prairies died of starvation
    • Causes?
  • 15. Indian Act
    • 1876
    • full-blooded
    • reserves
    • wards of state, no voting, no alcohol (led to residential schools)
    • women married and lost status, men married and gained status
    • selling timber
    • Canadian, not traditional court
    • Canadian citizenship OR Indian Status
  • 16. Art from 1995
  • 17. Was the Indian Act fair?
    • seen as less than human?
    • 1985 - keep status when married
    • 2003 - recognized Metis
    • 2008 - apologies for residential schools
  • 18. Increasing the Population in the West
    • 1870s, 6% of Canada’s population
    • CPR
    • Immigration Act
    • Dominion Lands Act
  • 19. Canadian Pacific Railway
    • expansion of settlement to Prairies
    • efficient transportation, supplies in, farm products out
    • symbol of Canadian unity
  • 20.  
  • 21. CPR Scandal
    • Macdonald offered free land, financial help
    • Sir Hugh Allan contract to build railway - donation to Macdonald’s Conservative election campaign ($360 000)
    • Bribe?
    • Macdonald lost election 2 years later to Alexander Mackenzie
  • 22. Immigration Act
    • 1869
    • keep contagious disease out
    • quarantine
    • limits to numbers on ships
    • must have passenger list
  • 23. Dominion Lands Act
    • 1872
    • townships of 36 sections
      • 2 HBC
      • 2 school
      • 16 railway construction rental/sales
      • 16 homesteads
  • 24.  
  • 25. Homesteads
    • $10 per family
    • farm in 3 years
  • 26. Homesteading wasn’t for everyone
    • Metis (equipment)
    • government gave away land
    • squatting on own property
    • “Road Allowance People”
  • 27. National Policy
    • 1878 “National Policy”, Macdonald wins again (and three following elections)
      • higher taxes for manufactured imported goods
      • lower tax on imported raw materials (jobs in factories)
      • 1990s - Free Trade
  • 28. Railway Back in Action
    • No more Hugh Allan
    • 5 summers to build (completed in 1885)
    • William Van Horne appointed General Manager, supervised
    • transportation of goods
    • visible symbol of separation from US
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Chinese Railway Workers
    • dangerous, nitroglycerine accidents, falling rocks
    • crowded living conditions
    • poor diet
    • lack of medical care
    • weather
    • white workers $1.50-2.50/day, Chinese workers $1/day
    • government sent them back, “Head Tax”
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. North West Rebellion
    • Metis in Saskatchewan, bison disappearing, starvation
    • sent petitions to Ottawa - secure title for land, agricultural aid, schools, local police
    • Ottawa ignored
    • Riel comes back, forms second provisional government
  • 36.  
  • 37. Macdonald’s Advantages
    • fight right away
    • North West Mounted Police formed, officers ready
    • CPR almost complete - mobilization of troops
  • 38.
    • Riel appointed Gabriel Dumont as military commander
    • guerrilla tactics - ambush, surprise attack
  • 39. Events of the NW Rebellion
    • miniature re-enactments in groups of 2-3