WHAT IS RESEARCH?
Research is composed of two words ‘re’ and ‘search’, which
means to search again, or to search for new facts or to
modify older ones in any branch of knowledge.
Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of
FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS.
because there is a definite set of procedures and
steps which you will follow. There are certain things in the
research process which are always done in order to get the
most accurate results.
in that there is a structure or method in going
about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a
spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific
is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a
hypothesis or even a simple question, research is
successful when we find answers. Sometimes the
answer is no, but it is still an answer.
are central to research. If there is no question, then the
answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful,
and important questions. Without a question, research has no
focus, drive, or purpose.
SOME DEFINITIONS OF RESEARCH:
Research is sufficiently objective and systematic to make possible
classification,generalisation and verification of the data observed.
Research is a systematic and refined technique of thinking,
employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures in order
to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be
possible under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects
data or facts, analyses them critically and reaches decisions
based on the actual evidence. – C.C.Crawford
Research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions
Research is a careful inquiry or examination in seeking facts or
principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something. –
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. It may
attempt to answer a question or to determine the relation
between two or more variables.
Research emphasis the development of
generalisations,principles or theories that will be helpful in
predicting future occurrences.
Research is based upon observable experience or empirical
Research demands accurate observation and description.
Research involves gathering new data from primary or
firsthand sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
Research requires expertise. The researcher knows what is
already about the problem and how others have investigated it.
Research strives to be objective and logical, applying every
possible test to validate the procedure employed, the data
collected, and the conclusions reached.
Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity.
Research is carefully recorded and reported
Research sometimes requires courage.
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new
insights into it.
To describe accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, group or situation.
To determine the frequency with which something occurs
or with which it is associated with something else.
To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between
WHAT IS BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE?
Behavioural science is a systematic, controlled,
empirical and critical investigation of behaviour
of the organism through controlled and
naturalistic experimental observations and
It encompasses the activities of and
interactions among organisms in the natural
How behavioural science is different from layman’s
understanding of behaviour
Behavioural scientists attempt to study the behaviour on
the basis of systematic, rational, demonstrable-cause-
They involve scientific methods of inquiry.
The findings can be repeated and the data collection is
The aim of behavioural scientists is to understand and
predict the behaviour.
The Core Disciplines Of Behavioural Science
TYPES AND METHODS OF RESEARCH
Research may be classified crudely according to its major
intent or the methods.
According to the intent, research may be classified as
According to the methods of study, research may be
Also known as pure or basic research.
It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any
intention to apply it in practice,e.g.,Einstein's theory of
relativity, newton’s contributions.
It aims at extension of knowledge.
It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or
refinement of existing theory.
For example, basic science investigations probe for
answers to questions such as
How did the universe begin?
What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?
How do slime molds reproduce?
What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?
Applied or practical research is gathering of knowledge
that could aid in the betterment of human destiny.
It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed.
In reality, no sharp line of demarcation can be drawn
between pure and applied research. Each is dependent
on other for development and verification.
Concept of Adaptive research
It emphasizes that research, to be socially useful, should be
conducted in situations where people live and work.
Connectivity between three types of research
Fundamental or basic
Applied or practical
Adaptive or on-farm
1.Discovery of nitrogen. Development of
application of N fertilizer in
different crops under
2.Discovery of dwarfing
Development of dwarf
high yielding crop
Find out location specific
dwarf high yielding crop
Exploratory research is preliminary study of an unfamiliar
problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.
According to Daniel Katz, it just attempts “to see what is there
rather than to predict the relationships that will be founded”.
It is similar to a doctor’s initial investigation of a patient suffering
from an unfamiliar malady for getting some clues for identifying
Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies.
At first level is the discovery of the significant variables in the
At second is the discovery of relationship between variables.
Descriptive study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate
A descriptive study is the one which
describes,records,analyses and interprets the conditions that
In this research, an attempt is made to discover relationship
between existing non-manipulated variables, apart from some
comparison or contrast among those variables.
o Problem should be describable.
o Verifiable procedure of collection of data.
o Data should be amenable to an accurate objective
o Possible to develop valid standards of comparison.
It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why is it
happening and what can be done about it.
It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the
possible solutions for it.
Diagnostic Study Vs. Descriptive Study
Diagnostic study is more directly concerned with causal
It is directed towards discovering not only what is occurring
but why it is occurring and what can be done about it.
It is more actively guided by hypothesis.
It is not possible in areas where knowledge is not advanced
It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic
programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of
Evaluation these days does not only aim at the physical
achievement of a project but also at the size and direction of
variables that the project has resulted in attitudes,interests,thinking
patterns, works habits,socio-cultural adaptability,psyco-dynamics of
the population in which the project has been launched.
Evaluation research Is of 3 types
1. Concurrent Evaluation
2. Phasic Or Periodic Evaluation
3. Terminal Evaluation
This is a recent classification. This type of research is
conducted through direct action.
The process of action research
problem or area
An experimental research is one in which the primary
focus is upon the relationship of variables.
It aims at determining whether and in what manner
variables are related to each other.
Experimental research basically describes what will be,
when certain variables are carefully controlled or
The purpose of experimental research is to study cause
and effect relationships.
Analytical study is a system of procedures and
techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data.
It may consist of a system of mathematical models or
statistical techniques applicable to numerical data.
It concentrates on analyzing data in depth and examining
the relationships from various angles by bringing in as
many relevant variables as possible in the analysis plan.
There is vast scope for making analytical studies by
using data published by various Departments of
Government and institutions like the Reserve Bank of
India, Bureau of Public Enterprise,NABARD and Central
Any research which makes use of observations based on past events is
known as research in historical approach.
The main aim of historical research is to apply the method of reflective
thinking to social and economic problems still unsolved by means of
discovery of past trends of events, facts and attitudes.
Feasibility of the study should be examined.
Formulation of selected problem and plan of study should be designed.
Sources of data should be located.
Genuineness of sources and validity of facts.
Collection of relevant facts.
Facts should be arranged in logical sequence.
Interpretations and generalization should be made.
It is a method of research involving collection of data
directly from a population or a sample thereof at
The term survey is used for the technique of investigation
by a direct observation of a phenomena or systematic
gathering of data from population by applying personal
contact and interviews when an adequate information
about a certain problem is not available in records.
Types of surveys
General and specific
Regular and ad hoc surveys
Preliminary and final surveys
Census and sample survey
The case study is a one-way method of organizing social
data for the purpose of viewing social reality.it tends to
examine social unit as a whole.
The unit may be a person, a family, a social group, a social
institution or even a community.
In case study, the researcher gathers data usually through
and other psychological tests.
Since case study is a descriptive research, no variable is
It is in-depth analysis of a social unit being studied.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A literature review can be just a simple summary of the
sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and
combines both summary and synthesis.
The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline
to discipline and from assignment to assignment.
A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself --
or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary
A review is a required part of grant and research proposals
and often a chapter in theses and dissertations.
Purpose of review
To gain a background knowledge.
To identify concepts relating to it.
To identify appropriate methodology, research design,
techniques of analysis.
To identify data sources used by other researchers.
To learn how others structures their reports.
Sources of literature
1.Subject Catalogues Of Libraries 2.Documentation centers
3.Bibliographies 4.List Of Books And Publishers Bulletins
5.Journals 6.Government Reports 7.Research Abstracts
8.Information on research done.
• Introduce the literature review by pointing out the major
research topic that will be discussed.
• Identify the broad problem area but don’t be too global.
• Discuss the general importance of your topic for those in
• Don’t attempt to cover everything written on your topic.
• You will need to pick out the research most relevant to
the topic you are studying.
• You will use the studies in your literature review as
“evidence” that your research question is an important
It is important to cover research relevant to all the
variables being studied.
Research that explains the relationship between these
variables is a top priority.
You will need to plan how you will structure your
literature review and write from this plan.
Planning the review work
i. To decide what information is useful and what is not
ii. To determine how to record what is gathered from a
iii. To set up an orderly recording or note-taking system.
The selection of a problem is the first step in research. The term
‘problem’ means a question or issue to be examined. The nature
of the problem to be selected depends upon the level at which
the research is done.
Sources Of Problems
Exposure to field situations
To help locate your research problem for your thesis, ask
yourself such questions as:
What was the issue/problem you want to study?
What is the concern being addressed “behind” this study?
Why do you want to undertake this study?
Why is this study important to the scholarly community?
FORMULATION OF THE SELECTED PROBLEM
The problem selected for research may initially be
vague.The question to be studied or the problem to be
solved may not be clear. Hence, the selected problem
should be defined and formulated.
It requires intensive reading of a few selected articles or
chapters in books in order to understand the nature of the
selected problem. The reading at this stage should be
focused on the ‘classics and research papers’ on the topic.