Research Methodology


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Research Methodology

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. WHAT IS RESEARCH? Research is composed of two words ‘re’ and ‘search’, which means to search again, or to search for new facts or to modify older ones in any branch of knowledge. Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS.
  3. 3.  SYSTEMATIC because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results.  ORGANIZED in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope.
  4. 4.  FINDING ANSWERS is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer.  QUESTIONS are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose.
  5. 5. SOME DEFINITIONS OF RESEARCH: Research is sufficiently objective and systematic to make possible classification,generalisation and verification of the data observed. – Lundberg Research is a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be possible under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects data or facts, analyses them critically and reaches decisions based on the actual evidence. – C.C.Crawford Research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions – Tuckman Research is a careful inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something. – Clifford Woody
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH  Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. It may attempt to answer a question or to determine the relation between two or more variables.  Research emphasis the development of generalisations,principles or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences.  Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.  Research demands accurate observation and description.  Research involves gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
  7. 7. Contd..  Research requires expertise. The researcher knows what is already about the problem and how others have investigated it.  Research strives to be objective and logical, applying every possible test to validate the procedure employed, the data collected, and the conclusions reached.  Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity.  Research is carefully recorded and reported  Research sometimes requires courage.
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. To describe accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, group or situation. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.
  9. 9. WHAT IS BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE? Behavioural science is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of behaviour of the organism through controlled and naturalistic experimental observations and rigorous formulations. It encompasses the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.
  10. 10. How behavioural science is different from layman’s understanding of behaviour Behavioural scientists attempt to study the behaviour on the basis of systematic, rational, demonstrable-cause- effect relationship. They involve scientific methods of inquiry. The findings can be repeated and the data collection is objective. The aim of behavioural scientists is to understand and predict the behaviour.
  11. 11. The Core Disciplines Of Behavioural Science Anthropology
  12. 12. TYPES AND METHODS OF RESEARCH Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as  Fundamental research  Applied research  Exploratory research  Descriptive study  Diagnostic study  Evaluation studies  Action research
  13. 13. Contd.. According to the methods of study, research may be classified as  Experimental research  Analytical study  Historical research  Survey  Case study
  14. 14. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH  Also known as pure or basic research.  It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice,e.g.,Einstein's theory of relativity, newton’s contributions.  It aims at extension of knowledge.  It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of existing theory.
  15. 15. For example, basic science investigations probe for answers to questions such as  How did the universe begin?  What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?  How do slime molds reproduce?  What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?
  16. 16. APPLIED RESEARCH  Applied or practical research is gathering of knowledge that could aid in the betterment of human destiny.  It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed.  In reality, no sharp line of demarcation can be drawn between pure and applied research. Each is dependent on other for development and verification. Concept of Adaptive research It emphasizes that research, to be socially useful, should be conducted in situations where people live and work.
  17. 17. Connectivity between three types of research Fundamental or basic research Applied or practical research Adaptive or on-farm research 1.Discovery of nitrogen. Development of processes of manufacturing nitrogen. Determination of dose,time,methods of application of N fertilizer in different crops under varying situations. 2.Discovery of dwarfing gene. Development of dwarf high yielding crop varieties. Find out location specific dwarf high yielding crop varieties.
  18. 18. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH  Exploratory research is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.  According to Daniel Katz, it just attempts “to see what is there rather than to predict the relationships that will be founded”.  It is similar to a doctor’s initial investigation of a patient suffering from an unfamiliar malady for getting some clues for identifying it.  Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies.  At first level is the discovery of the significant variables in the situation  At second is the discovery of relationship between variables.
  19. 19. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH  Descriptive study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation.  A descriptive study is the one which describes,records,analyses and interprets the conditions that exist.  In this research, an attempt is made to discover relationship between existing non-manipulated variables, apart from some comparison or contrast among those variables. Criteria followed o Problem should be describable. o Verifiable procedure of collection of data. o Data should be amenable to an accurate objective o Possible to develop valid standards of comparison.
  20. 20. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY  It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why is it happening and what can be done about it.  It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. Diagnostic Study Vs. Descriptive Study  Diagnostic study is more directly concerned with causal relationships.  It is directed towards discovering not only what is occurring but why it is occurring and what can be done about it.  It is more actively guided by hypothesis.  It is not possible in areas where knowledge is not advanced enough.
  21. 21. EVALUATION STUDIES  It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects.  Evaluation these days does not only aim at the physical achievement of a project but also at the size and direction of variables that the project has resulted in attitudes,interests,thinking patterns, works habits,socio-cultural adaptability,psyco-dynamics of the population in which the project has been launched. Evaluation research Is of 3 types 1. Concurrent Evaluation 2. Phasic Or Periodic Evaluation 3. Terminal Evaluation
  22. 22. ACTION RESEARCH  This is a recent classification. This type of research is conducted through direct action. The process of action research Identify the problem or area Review related research literature Collect data Organize,analyze & interpret Take action; apply findings
  23. 23. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH  An experimental research is one in which the primary focus is upon the relationship of variables.  It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other.  Experimental research basically describes what will be, when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated.  The purpose of experimental research is to study cause and effect relationships.
  24. 24. Poverty Low salaries Unemployment Discrimination Malnutrition Inadequate housing Family problems CAUSES EFFECTS
  25. 25. ANALYTICAL STUDY  Analytical study is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data.  It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data.  It concentrates on analyzing data in depth and examining the relationships from various angles by bringing in as many relevant variables as possible in the analysis plan.  There is vast scope for making analytical studies by using data published by various Departments of Government and institutions like the Reserve Bank of India, Bureau of Public Enterprise,NABARD and Central Statistical Organization.
  26. 26. HISTORICAL METHOD  Any research which makes use of observations based on past events is known as research in historical approach.  The main aim of historical research is to apply the method of reflective thinking to social and economic problems still unsolved by means of discovery of past trends of events, facts and attitudes. Steps involved  Feasibility of the study should be examined.  Formulation of selected problem and plan of study should be designed.  Sources of data should be located.  Genuineness of sources and validity of facts.  Collection of relevant facts.  Facts should be arranged in logical sequence.  Interpretations and generalization should be made.
  27. 27. SURVEY  It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time.  The term survey is used for the technique of investigation by a direct observation of a phenomena or systematic gathering of data from population by applying personal contact and interviews when an adequate information about a certain problem is not available in records. Types of surveys  General and specific  Regular and ad hoc surveys  Preliminary and final surveys  Census and sample survey
  28. 28. CASE STUDY  The case study is a one-way method of organizing social data for the purpose of viewing social tends to examine social unit as a whole.  The unit may be a person, a family, a social group, a social institution or even a community.  In case study, the researcher gathers data usually through observation,Interview,questionnaire,opinionnaire,checklist and other psychological tests.  Since case study is a descriptive research, no variable is manipulated.  It is in-depth analysis of a social unit being studied.
  29. 29. REVIEW OF LITERATURE A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself -- or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations.
  30. 30. Purpose of review  To gain a background knowledge.  To identify concepts relating to it.  To identify appropriate methodology, research design, techniques of analysis.  To identify data sources used by other researchers.  To learn how others structures their reports. Sources of literature 1.Subject Catalogues Of Libraries 2.Documentation centers 3.Bibliographies 4.List Of Books And Publishers Bulletins 5.Journals 6.Government Reports 7.Research Abstracts 8.Information on research done.
  31. 31. GENERALGUIDELINESTOWRITINGA LITERATURE REVIEW • Introduce the literature review by pointing out the major research topic that will be discussed. • Identify the broad problem area but don’t be too global. • Discuss the general importance of your topic for those in your field. • Don’t attempt to cover everything written on your topic. • You will need to pick out the research most relevant to the topic you are studying. • You will use the studies in your literature review as “evidence” that your research question is an important one.
  32. 32. Contd…  It is important to cover research relevant to all the variables being studied.  Research that explains the relationship between these variables is a top priority.  You will need to plan how you will structure your literature review and write from this plan. Planning the review work i. To decide what information is useful and what is not useful. ii. To determine how to record what is gathered from a published material. iii. To set up an orderly recording or note-taking system.
  33. 33. RESEARCH PROBLEM The selection of a problem is the first step in research. The term ‘problem’ means a question or issue to be examined. The nature of the problem to be selected depends upon the level at which the research is done. Sources Of Problems Reading Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition
  34. 34. Ask yourself To help locate your research problem for your thesis, ask yourself such questions as: What was the issue/problem you want to study? What is the concern being addressed “behind” this study? Why do you want to undertake this study? Why is this study important to the scholarly community?
  35. 35. FORMULATION OF THE SELECTED PROBLEM The problem selected for research may initially be vague.The question to be studied or the problem to be solved may not be clear. Hence, the selected problem should be defined and formulated. It requires intensive reading of a few selected articles or chapters in books in order to understand the nature of the selected problem. The reading at this stage should be focused on the ‘classics and research papers’ on the topic.