Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/42998601@N0...
Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test http://www.vectorjunky.com/detail-Cartoons-Kangaroo_Pregnancy_Test.php
Missed period (amenorrhea)  <ul><li>Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period </li></ul><ul><li>...
Nausea and vomiting <ul><li>Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different </li></ul><...
Breast changes <ul><li>Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins </li></ul>...
Fatigue <ul><li>Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone  </li></u...
Frequency of micturition <ul><li>Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity </li></ul><ul>...
Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un  beso  antes de  que   salgas ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/24175071@N00/3392533716
Skin changes <ul><li>Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen...
Enlarged uterus   <ul><li>Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Baby movements (quickening) <ul><li>About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother) </li></ul><ul><li>About 16 ...
Braxton Hicks contractions <ul><li>From 16 – 20 weeks gestation </li></ul>Image: ' Mother to Be '  http://www.flickr.com/p...
Internal changes <ul><li>Hegar’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engor...
Hydatidiform mole <ul><li>Causes symptoms of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast ...
Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! '  http://www.flickr.com/photos/62722383@N00/1362638054
Pregnancy test <ul><li>Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory blood test o...
Ultrasound scan <ul><li>Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation </li></ul>Image: ' Baby is Mighty  Mekon ‘ ...
Fetal heart and parts  <ul><li>Fetal heart  can be heard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid </l...
References  <ul><li>Better Health Channel. (2009).  Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from  http:...
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Confirming pregnancy

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Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

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Confirming pregnancy

  1. 1. Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/42998601@N00/35552588
  2. 2. Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test http://www.vectorjunky.com/detail-Cartoons-Kangaroo_Pregnancy_Test.php
  3. 3. Missed period (amenorrhea) <ul><li>Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period </li></ul><ul><li>Amenorrhea can also be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress, excessive exercise, menopause, illness, contraceptive pill, low body weight, breastfeeding </li></ul></ul>Image: ' On the peak ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/10545985@N04/2215963717
  4. 4. Nausea and vomiting <ul><li>Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different </li></ul><ul><li>Need to exclude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastroenteritis, UTI, food poisoning </li></ul></ul>Image: ' Daisy blue 1 ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/52352295@N00/181354778
  5. 5. Breast changes <ul><li>Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins </li></ul><ul><li>May also be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraceptive pill, menopause, hormonal inbalance </li></ul></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/drneelesh/diagnosis-of-pregnancy
  6. 6. Fatigue <ul><li>Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, anemia, illness </li></ul></ul>Image: ' Snore ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/95492938@N00/728766287
  7. 7. Frequency of micturition <ul><li>Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UTI, Diabetes, diuretic medication </li></ul></ul>Image: ' untitled ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/38785544@N03/3920538687
  8. 8. Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un beso antes de que salgas ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/24175071@N00/3392533716
  9. 9. Skin changes <ul><li>Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen) , darkened areola </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linea_nigra.jpg
  10. 10. Enlarged uterus <ul><li>Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroids, Hydatidiform mole </li></ul></ul>Image: ' What's It Feel Like? ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/54304913@N00/2731678376
  11. 11. Baby movements (quickening) <ul><li>About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother) </li></ul><ul><li>About 16 weeks gestation multiporous woman (mother who has had more than 1 pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be confused with ‘wind’ </li></ul>Image: ' Orion foot ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/11677434@N04/3032532231
  12. 12. Braxton Hicks contractions <ul><li>From 16 – 20 weeks gestation </li></ul>Image: ' Mother to Be ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/52798669@N00/3656184801
  13. 13. Internal changes <ul><li>Hegar’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engorged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacquemier’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal mucosa becomes lilac colour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osiander’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulsating felt in vaginal fornices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Softening Cx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softens from about 10 weeks gestation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hydatidiform mole <ul><li>Causes symptoms of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast changes, enlarged abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often causes bleeding around 12 weeks gestation </li></ul>http://www.obgyn.net/us/gallery/Gyn_Abnormal_Incomplete_Hydatidiform_Mole_Color.jpg
  15. 15. Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/62722383@N00/1362638054
  16. 16. Pregnancy test <ul><li>Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory blood test or home urine test </li></ul><ul><li>Urine test can detect pregnancy on first day of missed period </li></ul><ul><li>False results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too early in pregnancy, instructions not followed properly, faulty test kit, h ydatidiform mole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If negative, repeat in 1 week </li></ul>Image: ' Positive ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/11018968@N00/194870242
  17. 17. Ultrasound scan <ul><li>Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation </li></ul>Image: ' Baby is Mighty Mekon ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/30787616@N00/54852406
  18. 18. Fetal heart and parts <ul><li>Fetal heart can be heard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 24 weeks gestation with pinard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetal parts can be felt on palpation from toward end of second trimester </li></ul>Image: ' MidwifeJasper-3 ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/69041429@N00/2491593942
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Better Health Channel. (2009). Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Pregnancy_signs_and_symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., & Thorogood, C. (2006). Midwifery: Preparation for practice . Chatswood : Elsevier. </li></ul>
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