Confirming pregnancy
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Confirming pregnancy

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Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

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    Confirming pregnancy Confirming pregnancy Presentation Transcript

    • Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/42998601@N00/35552588
    • Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test http://www.vectorjunky.com/detail-Cartoons-Kangaroo_Pregnancy_Test.php
    • Missed period (amenorrhea)
      • Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period
      • Amenorrhea can also be caused by:
        • Stress, excessive exercise, menopause, illness, contraceptive pill, low body weight, breastfeeding
      Image: ' On the peak ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/10545985@N04/2215963717
    • Nausea and vomiting
      • Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different
      • Need to exclude:
        • Gastroenteritis, UTI, food poisoning
      Image: ' Daisy blue 1 ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/52352295@N00/181354778
    • Breast changes
      • Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins
      • May also be caused by:
        • Contraceptive pill, menopause, hormonal inbalance
      http://www.slideshare.net/drneelesh/diagnosis-of-pregnancy
    • Fatigue
      • Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone
      • Not to be confused with:
        • Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, anemia, illness
      Image: ' Snore ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/95492938@N00/728766287
    • Frequency of micturition
      • Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity
      • Not to be confused with:
        • UTI, Diabetes, diuretic medication
      Image: ' untitled ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/38785544@N03/3920538687
    • Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un beso antes de que salgas ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/24175071@N00/3392533716
    • Skin changes
      • Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen) , darkened areola
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linea_nigra.jpg
    • Enlarged uterus
      • Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks
      • Can be caused by:
        • Fibroids, Hydatidiform mole
      Image: ' What's It Feel Like? ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/54304913@N00/2731678376
    • Baby movements (quickening)
      • About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother)
      • About 16 weeks gestation multiporous woman (mother who has had more than 1 pregnancy)
      • Can be confused with ‘wind’
      Image: ' Orion foot ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/11677434@N04/3032532231
    • Braxton Hicks contractions
      • From 16 – 20 weeks gestation
      Image: ' Mother to Be ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/52798669@N00/3656184801
    • Internal changes
      • Hegar’s sign
        • Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engorged
      • Jacquemier’s sign
        • Vaginal mucosa becomes lilac colour
      • Osiander’s sign
        • Pulsating felt in vaginal fornices
      • Softening Cx
        • Softens from about 10 weeks gestation
    • Hydatidiform mole
      • Causes symptoms of pregnancy
        • Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast changes, enlarged abdomen
      • Often causes bleeding around 12 weeks gestation
      http://www.obgyn.net/us/gallery/Gyn_Abnormal_Incomplete_Hydatidiform_Mole_Color.jpg
    • Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/62722383@N00/1362638054
    • Pregnancy test
      • Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)
      • Laboratory blood test or home urine test
      • Urine test can detect pregnancy on first day of missed period
      • False results
        • Too early in pregnancy, instructions not followed properly, faulty test kit, h ydatidiform mole
      • If negative, repeat in 1 week
      Image: ' Positive ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/11018968@N00/194870242
    • Ultrasound scan
      • Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation
      Image: ' Baby is Mighty Mekon ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/30787616@N00/54852406
    • Fetal heart and parts
      • Fetal heart can be heard:
        • About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid
        • About 24 weeks gestation with pinard
      • Fetal parts can be felt on palpation from toward end of second trimester
      Image: ' MidwifeJasper-3 ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/69041429@N00/2491593942
    • References
      • Better Health Channel. (2009). Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Pregnancy_signs_and_symptoms
      • Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., & Thorogood, C. (2006). Midwifery: Preparation for practice . Chatswood : Elsevier.