Confirming pregnancy

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Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

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  • 1. Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/42998601@N00/35552588
  • 2. Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test http://www.vectorjunky.com/detail-Cartoons-Kangaroo_Pregnancy_Test.php
  • 3. Missed period (amenorrhea)
    • Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period
    • Amenorrhea can also be caused by:
      • Stress, excessive exercise, menopause, illness, contraceptive pill, low body weight, breastfeeding
    Image: ' On the peak ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/10545985@N04/2215963717
  • 4. Nausea and vomiting
    • Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different
    • Need to exclude:
      • Gastroenteritis, UTI, food poisoning
    Image: ' Daisy blue 1 ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/52352295@N00/181354778
  • 5. Breast changes
    • Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins
    • May also be caused by:
      • Contraceptive pill, menopause, hormonal inbalance
    http://www.slideshare.net/drneelesh/diagnosis-of-pregnancy
  • 6. Fatigue
    • Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone
    • Not to be confused with:
      • Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, anemia, illness
    Image: ' Snore ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/95492938@N00/728766287
  • 7. Frequency of micturition
    • Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity
    • Not to be confused with:
      • UTI, Diabetes, diuretic medication
    Image: ' untitled ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/38785544@N03/3920538687
  • 8. Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un beso antes de que salgas ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/24175071@N00/3392533716
  • 9. Skin changes
    • Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen) , darkened areola
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linea_nigra.jpg
  • 10. Enlarged uterus
    • Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks
    • Can be caused by:
      • Fibroids, Hydatidiform mole
    Image: ' What's It Feel Like? ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/54304913@N00/2731678376
  • 11. Baby movements (quickening)
    • About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother)
    • About 16 weeks gestation multiporous woman (mother who has had more than 1 pregnancy)
    • Can be confused with ‘wind’
    Image: ' Orion foot ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/11677434@N04/3032532231
  • 12. Braxton Hicks contractions
    • From 16 – 20 weeks gestation
    Image: ' Mother to Be ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/52798669@N00/3656184801
  • 13. Internal changes
    • Hegar’s sign
      • Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engorged
    • Jacquemier’s sign
      • Vaginal mucosa becomes lilac colour
    • Osiander’s sign
      • Pulsating felt in vaginal fornices
    • Softening Cx
      • Softens from about 10 weeks gestation
  • 14. Hydatidiform mole
    • Causes symptoms of pregnancy
      • Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast changes, enlarged abdomen
    • Often causes bleeding around 12 weeks gestation
    http://www.obgyn.net/us/gallery/Gyn_Abnormal_Incomplete_Hydatidiform_Mole_Color.jpg
  • 15. Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/62722383@N00/1362638054
  • 16. Pregnancy test
    • Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)
    • Laboratory blood test or home urine test
    • Urine test can detect pregnancy on first day of missed period
    • False results
      • Too early in pregnancy, instructions not followed properly, faulty test kit, h ydatidiform mole
    • If negative, repeat in 1 week
    Image: ' Positive ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/11018968@N00/194870242
  • 17. Ultrasound scan
    • Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation
    Image: ' Baby is Mighty Mekon ‘ http://www.flickr.com/photos/30787616@N00/54852406
  • 18. Fetal heart and parts
    • Fetal heart can be heard:
      • About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid
      • About 24 weeks gestation with pinard
    • Fetal parts can be felt on palpation from toward end of second trimester
    Image: ' MidwifeJasper-3 ' http://www.flickr.com/photos/69041429@N00/2491593942
  • 19. References
    • Better Health Channel. (2009). Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Pregnancy_signs_and_symptoms
    • Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., & Thorogood, C. (2006). Midwifery: Preparation for practice . Chatswood : Elsevier.