Confirming pregnancy
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Confirming pregnancy



Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.



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Confirming pregnancy Confirming pregnancy Presentation Transcript

  • Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood '
  • Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test
  • Missed period (amenorrhea)
    • Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period
    • Amenorrhea can also be caused by:
      • Stress, excessive exercise, menopause, illness, contraceptive pill, low body weight, breastfeeding
    Image: ' On the peak '
  • Nausea and vomiting
    • Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different
    • Need to exclude:
      • Gastroenteritis, UTI, food poisoning
    Image: ' Daisy blue 1 '
  • Breast changes
    • Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins
    • May also be caused by:
      • Contraceptive pill, menopause, hormonal inbalance
  • Fatigue
    • Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone
    • Not to be confused with:
      • Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, anemia, illness
    Image: ' Snore '
  • Frequency of micturition
    • Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity
    • Not to be confused with:
      • UTI, Diabetes, diuretic medication
    Image: ' untitled ‘
  • Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un beso antes de que salgas ‘
  • Skin changes
    • Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen) , darkened areola
  • Enlarged uterus
    • Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks
    • Can be caused by:
      • Fibroids, Hydatidiform mole
    Image: ' What's It Feel Like? '
  • Baby movements (quickening)
    • About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother)
    • About 16 weeks gestation multiporous woman (mother who has had more than 1 pregnancy)
    • Can be confused with ‘wind’
    Image: ' Orion foot '
  • Braxton Hicks contractions
    • From 16 – 20 weeks gestation
    Image: ' Mother to Be '
  • Internal changes
    • Hegar’s sign
      • Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engorged
    • Jacquemier’s sign
      • Vaginal mucosa becomes lilac colour
    • Osiander’s sign
      • Pulsating felt in vaginal fornices
    • Softening Cx
      • Softens from about 10 weeks gestation
  • Hydatidiform mole
    • Causes symptoms of pregnancy
      • Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast changes, enlarged abdomen
    • Often causes bleeding around 12 weeks gestation
  • Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! '
  • Pregnancy test
    • Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)
    • Laboratory blood test or home urine test
    • Urine test can detect pregnancy on first day of missed period
    • False results
      • Too early in pregnancy, instructions not followed properly, faulty test kit, h ydatidiform mole
    • If negative, repeat in 1 week
    Image: ' Positive '
  • Ultrasound scan
    • Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation
    Image: ' Baby is Mighty Mekon ‘
  • Fetal heart and parts
    • Fetal heart can be heard:
      • About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid
      • About 24 weeks gestation with pinard
    • Fetal parts can be felt on palpation from toward end of second trimester
    Image: ' MidwifeJasper-3 '
  • References
    • Better Health Channel. (2009). Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from
    • Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., & Thorogood, C. (2006). Midwifery: Preparation for practice . Chatswood : Elsevier.