Confirming pregnancy
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Confirming pregnancy



Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.



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    Confirming pregnancy Confirming pregnancy Presentation Transcript

    • Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood '
    • Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test
    • Missed period (amenorrhea)
      • Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period
      • Amenorrhea can also be caused by:
        • Stress, excessive exercise, menopause, illness, contraceptive pill, low body weight, breastfeeding
      Image: ' On the peak '
    • Nausea and vomiting
      • Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different
      • Need to exclude:
        • Gastroenteritis, UTI, food poisoning
      Image: ' Daisy blue 1 '
    • Breast changes
      • Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins
      • May also be caused by:
        • Contraceptive pill, menopause, hormonal inbalance
    • Fatigue
      • Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone
      • Not to be confused with:
        • Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, anemia, illness
      Image: ' Snore '
    • Frequency of micturition
      • Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity
      • Not to be confused with:
        • UTI, Diabetes, diuretic medication
      Image: ' untitled ‘
    • Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un beso antes de que salgas ‘
    • Skin changes
      • Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen) , darkened areola
    • Enlarged uterus
      • Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks
      • Can be caused by:
        • Fibroids, Hydatidiform mole
      Image: ' What's It Feel Like? '
    • Baby movements (quickening)
      • About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother)
      • About 16 weeks gestation multiporous woman (mother who has had more than 1 pregnancy)
      • Can be confused with ‘wind’
      Image: ' Orion foot '
    • Braxton Hicks contractions
      • From 16 – 20 weeks gestation
      Image: ' Mother to Be '
    • Internal changes
      • Hegar’s sign
        • Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engorged
      • Jacquemier’s sign
        • Vaginal mucosa becomes lilac colour
      • Osiander’s sign
        • Pulsating felt in vaginal fornices
      • Softening Cx
        • Softens from about 10 weeks gestation
    • Hydatidiform mole
      • Causes symptoms of pregnancy
        • Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast changes, enlarged abdomen
      • Often causes bleeding around 12 weeks gestation
    • Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! '
    • Pregnancy test
      • Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)
      • Laboratory blood test or home urine test
      • Urine test can detect pregnancy on first day of missed period
      • False results
        • Too early in pregnancy, instructions not followed properly, faulty test kit, h ydatidiform mole
      • If negative, repeat in 1 week
      Image: ' Positive '
    • Ultrasound scan
      • Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation
      Image: ' Baby is Mighty Mekon ‘
    • Fetal heart and parts
      • Fetal heart can be heard:
        • About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid
        • About 24 weeks gestation with pinard
      • Fetal parts can be felt on palpation from toward end of second trimester
      Image: ' MidwifeJasper-3 '
    • References
      • Better Health Channel. (2009). Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from
      • Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., & Thorogood, C. (2006). Midwifery: Preparation for practice . Chatswood : Elsevier.