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Diet during pregnancy. Dr. Sharda Jain


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Diet during pregnancy. Dr. Sharda Jain

  1. 1. DIET DURING PREGNANCY Dr. Sharda Jain Director :- Sec General : Delhi Gynae Forum
  2. 2. PREGNANCY: that period of your life cycle when you must eat a “healthy balanced diet”.
  3. 3. Importance of diet Direct implication of eating a bad diet during pregnancy : • • • • • Still born Low birth weight baby Premature baby Baby with brain damage or less intelligence Baby with poor immunity
  4. 4. Complications due to bad diet during pregnancy: • Anemia • Pregnancy induced hypertension • Toxic abruption of the placenta • Severe infection of lungs, kidneys and liver. • Miscarriage or abortion
  5. 5. “It is not healthy for you and your unborn baby to go even 24 hours without good food.”
  6. 6. Pregnancy: an opportunity to gain weight Components of weight gain : • • • • • • • Average baby weight-3.4 kg Extra stored protein, fat and nutrients-3.18 kg Breast enlargement-0.9 kg Enlargement of uterus-0.9 kg Amniotic fluid surrounding- 0.9 kg Extra blood- 1.8 kg Extra body fluids-1.8 kg
  7. 7. Individual weight gain targets Pre-pregnancy weight for height status/ Body mass index (BMI) is the key Step 1.Calculation of body Mass Index (BMI): BMI=weight(in Kg)/height square ( in mt.) For example: Height=1.57 Weight=53 Kg BMI=53/2.46=21.5
  8. 8. Use your BMI to find your target weight gain: BMI Under 19.8 Weight for height status Low Recommended weight gain 12.7-18 kg. 19.8 to 26 Average 11.0-15.0 kg. 26 to 29 High 6.8-11.3 kg. Over 29 Very high 0.7 kg.
  9. 9. Never plan on dieting while you are pregnant
  10. 10. Energy requirement during pregnancy An additional 300 calories to the prepregnant requirement. Sources of calories: • Carbohydrates- 4 - 55-60% of total calories. - Food sources-wheat, rice, oats, maize, bread, etc.
  11. 11. Protein Requirement 20 % increase(15 gm + normal requirement) • Food sources : - Good quality / complete protein -milk, egg,cheese, meat or non vegetarian food. - Incomplete protein-pulses, legumes, soya products etc.
  12. 12. Fats/oil requirement <30 % of calories from fats Sources : Unsaturated oil- sunflower oil, safflower oil, groundnut oil, mustard oil, palm oil, olive oil, sesame oil. Saturated oil- vanaspati ghee, ghee, butter, coconut oil.
  13. 13. Vitamins • All the vitamins, i.e. A,B,C,D,E,K to be taken in appropriate amount • B vitamins: Food sources- meat, poultry, fish, organ meats, legumes, pulses, milk, green leafy vegetables, nuts, fruits. • Folic acid: Food source- organ meats, dark green leafy vegetables, muscle meats, poultry, fish, eggs, whole grain cereals.
  14. 14. Minerals • Calcium-milk & products, pulses and legumes, egg, green leafy veg.,sea food • Iron-liver, organ meat, meat, poultry,egg yolk,whole grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables, nuts and dry fruits • Iodine- iodized salt, sea food • Zinc-sea foods, organ meat, meat and poultry, wheat germ, yeast
  15. 15. Fibre 30 - 40 g of fibre per day Dietary sources - Whole grain and cereals like ,wheat, jowar, bajra, ragi,whole pulses, legumes, fenugreek, vegetables and fruits.
  16. 16. Healthy balanced diet consists of • Milk or milk products-about 3-4 glasses • Pulses and legumes-60 g and atleast one serving in the form of sprouts • Non-veg./paneer-50-100 g • Cereals-150-200 g. Whole grains and unrefined • Vegetables-2-3 servings of green leafy veg and seasonal vegetables, 2-3 servings of salad
  17. 17. • Fruits -3-4 fruits with atleast one citrus fruit • Sugar -5-6 tsp. (in moderation) • Fat and oil- 5-6 tsp. (in moderation)
  18. 18. Pattern of eating • Take small, frequent meals • No skipping of meals • Go for healthy “in-between snacking” • Take early dinners • Avoid taking junk food
  19. 19. Concerns during pregnancy 1. Morning sickness - Suggestions to combat the • • • • • problem : Follow a healthy eating pattern Avoid greasy or fried foods, as they take longer to digest Don’t lie down right after you eat Before getting out of your bed, eat a snack like biscuit or rusk Be sure to drink juices, if you cant eat solid food
  20. 20. 2. Constipation-due to increasing pressure of the growing uterus, hormonal changes, iron and calcium supplements. To avoid it or to deal with it : • Have lots of salad • Have plenty of green leafy vegetables • Try having whole grains and pulses • Have whole fruits rather than juices devoid of fibers • Drink plenty of liquids • Go for a regular walk
  21. 21. • Heartburn-feeling of fullness. Gastric reflux of some of the food in the stomach, now a liquid food mass mixed with stomach acid may occur in the lower esophagus, causing an irritation and burning sensation.
  22. 22. Complications of pregnancy • Anemia • Pregnancy induced hypertension • Gestational diabetes • Pre-existing disease
  23. 23. Something about Smoking Implication of smoking-abortion, preterm deliveries, perinatal mortality and low birth weight babies. How does smoking interfere-10% reduction in oxygen carrying capacity. -Vascular constriction -lower serum levels of vit. C, carotene, vit. B12 and zinc.
  24. 24. Alcohol Implication- fetal alcohol syndrome Must avoid drinking alcohol
  25. 25. Caffeine Moderate caffeine- less than 300 mg/day. Caffeine content of some food and beverages: • Coffee-50-100 mg • Brewed tea-20-110 mg • Cola-30- 56 mg • Sprite and 7 up-0 mg • Chocolate-10- 50 mg • Pain relievers- 30 mg and up
  26. 26. Follow the healthy way of living to prepare for your bundle of joy • A= Avoid bad habits • B=Build good habits like exercising regularly and eating nutritious diet • C=Consistent medical checkups and nutritional guidance
  27. 27. & ADDRESS 35 , Defence Enclave, Opp. Preet Vihar Petrol Pump, Metro pillar no. 88, Vikas Marg , Delhi – 110092 CONTACT US 011-22414049, 42401339 WEBSITE : E-MAIL ID