Confirming pregnancy


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Here are a few facts about how pregnancy is confirmed by mother and midwife.

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Confirming pregnancy

  1. 1. Confirming Pregnancy Sarah Stewart 2010 Creative Commons BY Image: ' Motherhood '
  2. 2. Early signs of pregnancy Kangaroo Pregnancy Test
  3. 3. Missed period (amenorrhea) <ul><li>Some women have light bleeding at the time they expect their period </li></ul><ul><li>Amenorrhea can also be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress, excessive exercise, menopause, illness, contraceptive pill, low body weight, breastfeeding </li></ul></ul>Image: ' On the peak '
  4. 4. Nausea and vomiting <ul><li>Starts around 4 weeks and starts to ease at 12 weeks, but every woman is different </li></ul><ul><li>Need to exclude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastroenteritis, UTI, food poisoning </li></ul></ul>Image: ' Daisy blue 1 '
  5. 5. Breast changes <ul><li>Increased blood supply, feel tense and tender, nipple (areola) darkens & prominent veins </li></ul><ul><li>May also be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraceptive pill, menopause, hormonal inbalance </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fatigue <ul><li>Felt by many women until second trimester. Thought to be caused by initial surge of progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, anemia, illness </li></ul></ul>Image: ' Snore '
  7. 7. Frequency of micturition <ul><li>Caused by pressure of swelling uterus on bladder and increased vascularity </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UTI, Diabetes, diuretic medication </li></ul></ul>Image: ' untitled ‘
  8. 8. Later signs of pregnancy Image: ' Un beso antes de que salgas ‘
  9. 9. Skin changes <ul><li>Pigmentation, chloasma (facial pigmentation), linea nigra ( vertical line that appears on the abdomen) , darkened areola </li></ul>
  10. 10. Enlarged uterus <ul><li>Felt above symphis pubis after 12 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroids, Hydatidiform mole </li></ul></ul>Image: ' What's It Feel Like? '
  11. 11. Baby movements (quickening) <ul><li>About 20 weeks gestation for primipara (first time mother) </li></ul><ul><li>About 16 weeks gestation multiporous woman (mother who has had more than 1 pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be confused with ‘wind’ </li></ul>Image: ' Orion foot '
  12. 12. Braxton Hicks contractions <ul><li>From 16 – 20 weeks gestation </li></ul>Image: ' Mother to Be '
  13. 13. Internal changes <ul><li>Hegar’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softening of cervical isthmus, cervix appears bluish and engorged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacquemier’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal mucosa becomes lilac colour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osiander’s sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulsating felt in vaginal fornices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Softening Cx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softens from about 10 weeks gestation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hydatidiform mole <ul><li>Causes symptoms of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting, enlarged uterus, breast changes, enlarged abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often causes bleeding around 12 weeks gestation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Confirmation of pregnancy Image: ' The cross shined! '
  16. 16. Pregnancy test <ul><li>Looking for increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory blood test or home urine test </li></ul><ul><li>Urine test can detect pregnancy on first day of missed period </li></ul><ul><li>False results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too early in pregnancy, instructions not followed properly, faulty test kit, h ydatidiform mole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If negative, repeat in 1 week </li></ul>Image: ' Positive '
  17. 17. Ultrasound scan <ul><li>Fetal heart can be seen at about 5 – 6 weeks gestation </li></ul>Image: ' Baby is Mighty Mekon ‘
  18. 18. Fetal heart and parts <ul><li>Fetal heart can be heard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 10 weeks gestation with sonocaid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 24 weeks gestation with pinard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetal parts can be felt on palpation from toward end of second trimester </li></ul>Image: ' MidwifeJasper-3 '
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Better Health Channel. (2009). Pregnancy - signs and symptoms . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., & Thorogood, C. (2006). Midwifery: Preparation for practice . Chatswood : Elsevier. </li></ul>