Post methods era in Language Teaching


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Post methods era in Language Teaching

  1. 1. 
  2. 2. Approach Method Set  of beliefs and for principles as a basis Specific instructional design based on particular theory Detailed specification of content, teachers role, learners role, etc .. Fixed Little scope for interpretation Short-shelf life teaching a language No specific set of prescription for teaching Flexible Allow for interpretation Long-shelf life
  3. 3.   However, since in approach there is no clear application, there is no right or wrong way of teaching.  Methods are excellent for novice teachers since they don’t have many experiences.  Methods create a professional community with a common purpose, ideology, and vernacular.
  4. 4.   In method, teachers have to accept the theory underlying the method and apply it in classroom.  The role of the teacher is marginalized, he must submit himself to the method.  Learners are passive recipients of the method and must submit themselves to body of exercises & activities. In contrast, in learner-centeredness teaching must be flexible and adoptive to learners needs &interest.
  5. 5.   In trying to apply approaches or methods, teachers sometimes ignore what is the starting point in language program design, namely, a careful consideration of the context in which teaching & learning occurs, including cultural context, political context, &local institutional context.
  6. 6.   Some traditional educational planning decisions are:  The careful examination, drawing on all available sources of knowledge &informed judgment of the teaching objectives.  The development &trail use of those methods &materials.  The assessment of the extent to which the development work has achieved its objectives.  The feedback of all the experience gained.
  7. 7.   The key figures of approaches and methods claim that they present their theory based on full understanding of second language learning process.  With some exception such as Krashen, these proponents ignore to dispense prescriptions for teching based on the result of their research, because they know that current knowledge is tentative, partial, and changing.
  8. 8.   It is very difficult for teachers to use approaches and methods in ways that precisely reflect the underlying principles of the method.  Generally, methods are quite distinctive at the early, beginning stages of a language course, and rather indistinguishable from each other at a later stage.  There are no video convincing “demonstration” with intermediate or advanced learners.
  9. 9.   Mainstream approaches & methods get a large amount of collective experience & practice.  Approaches & methods can be usefully studied & selectively mastered in order to:  To learn how to use different approaches& methods.  To understand some of the issues  To participate in language learning experiences.  To be aware of the rich set of activity resources.  To appreciate how theory & practice can be linked.
  10. 10.   In developing a personal approach to teaching, a primary reference point for the teacher is her personal belief and principles, regarding following  His or her role in the classroom.  The nature of effective teaching and learning.  The difficulties learners face.  Successful learning activities.  The structure of an effective lesson.
  11. 11.   An individual teacher may employ different principles at different times; following are examples of such principles:  Develop learner responsibility.  Be tolerant of learners mistake.  Develop learners confidence.  Teach learning strategies.  Promote cooperation among learners.  Address learners needs and interests.
  12. 12.   Some factors that have influenced language teaching trends in the past and that be expected to continue in the future.  Government policy directives.  Trends in the profession.  Guru-led innovations  Responses to technology  Influences from academic disciplines.  Research influences.  Learner-based innovations.  Crossover educational trends.  Crossover from other disciplines.
  13. 13.   Stern proposed two major weaknesses of methods:  1)They represent a fixed combination of language teaching beliefs.  2)Over-emphasis of single aspect as the central issues of language teaching.  Eclecticism is still based on the notion of a conceptual distinctiveness of different methods, however, it is the distinctiveness of the methods as complete entities that is into question.
  14. 14. Refusing method concept, Stern introduced the “strategy concept” that consists of strategy& techniques   Intentional action  Operate at policy level  Not another term for method rather operate with flexible sets of concepts which embody useful lessons.  Practical action  Operate at procedural level.
  15. 15. Stern strategy concept is based on 3 dimensions. 1. The L1-L2 connection concerning the use or nonuse of first language in learning L2 2. The code-communication dilemma, concerning the structure-message relationship. 3.The explicit-implicit option, concerning the basic approach to language learning.
  16. 16.  Intralingual  Intracultural  L2 as reference system  Immersion in L2/C2  Keeping L2 from L1  No translation  Direct method Coordinate bilingualism Crosslingual  Crosscultural  L1 as reference system  Comparison between L1&L2  Translation  GTM Compound bilingualism
  17. 17. Three reasons why L1 is useful   1. when we learn a new language, we always begin from language from language we already know.  2. our first language offers a frame of reference system for L2.  3. our native language & culture are bound up with our personal lives. A new language & culture demand a personal adjustment.
  18. 18. Stern emphasis both intra-lingual and cross-lingual are productive.  He agrees a judicious balance so that the learner does not rely too heavily on L1 support instead of taking the plunge & developing a new independent network of L2 verbal connection.
  19. 19.  Experiential   Analytic  Focus on code  Medium centered  Observation  Usage  Focus on language  Decontextualized  Language practice  Predictably of response  Emphasis on accuracy  Linguistic interaction  Focus on communicatin  Message centered  Participation  Use  Focus on topic/purpose  Contextualized  Language use  Information gap  Emphasis on fluency  Interpersonal intraction
  20. 20.   Explicit  Rational/formal  Conscious learning  Deliberate  Analysis  Cognitivism  Inferencing  Rationalist approach  Systematic study          Implicit Intuitive Subconscious Incidental Global understanding Behaviorism Mimicry & memory Empiricist approach Exposure to language in use
  21. 21. FOUR TYPES OF SYLLABUS 1. The language syllabus 2. The communicative syllabus 3. The cultural syllabus 4. The general language education. HE ADVISED TEACHERS TO: 1. Recognize that the 4 syllabus complement each other. 2. Build bridges from syllabus to syllabus 3. To develop & use teaching materials that cut across the syllabus division. 4. Start from one syllabus & work toward the other. 5. Establish the longitudinal proportional pattern of content. 
  22. 22.   Exploratory teaching is to find out what makes the tried and trusted idea successful.  The principles of exploratory practice:  1. the quality of life  2. ensuring our understanding of the quality of classroom life is important than improved technique  3. understanding such a quality is a social, not asocial matter.
  23. 23.   Step1: identifying a puzzle  Step2: reflecting upon the puzzle  Step3: monitoring  Step4: taking direct action to generate data  Step5: considering the out comes reached so far, and deciding what to do next.  Step6: moving on  Step7: going public
  24. 24.   Think globally, act locally, think locally  We feel we have largely discovered Exploratory Practice in teachers current practice, rather than invented it out of the blue for teachers.  Global thinking is simply multiple context-bound, rather than in any strong sense context-free
  25. 25.   Teachers are seen both as creaters of learning opportunities & utilizers of learning opportunities  It entails a willingness for teacher to modify their lesson plans based on given feedback.  Teachers simply as teachers and learners simply as learners are both managers of learning.  A difficulty of one learner may be a difficulties of other learners in a homo-genous.
  26. 26.   It is refers to meaningful learner-learner, learnerteacher interaction in class where the learners have the freedom and flexibility to initiate and navigate talk.  Learners need to provided with opportunities for negotiated interaction in order to accelerate their comprehension and production.
  27. 27.   Ten sources that lead to mismatch:  1. Cognitive  2. Communicator  3. Linguistic  4. Pedagogic  5. Strategic  6. Cultural  7. Evaluative  8. Procedural  9. Instructional  10Attitudes
  28. 28.   One way of activating the intuitive heuristic of the learner is to provide enough textual data so that the learner can infer certain underlying rules of the form and function.  Also self-discovery plays a crucial role in learner comprehension and retention regardless of the learners language ability.
  29. 29.   Language awareness refers to the deliberate attempt to draw attention to the formal properties of their L2 in order to increase the degree of explicitness required to promote L2 learning.  Language awareness is based on strategies that emphasize understanding, general principles, and operational experience.  Learners need to develop critical language awareness for the aim of maintain a social & political power structure.
  30. 30.   The features of language as discourse call for contextualization of linguistic input so that learners can benefit from the interactive effects of systematic as well as discoursal components of language.  It is thus essential to bring to the learners attention the integrated nature of language.
  31. 31.   We know that the nature of L2 learning involves not merely an integration of linguistic components of language but also an integration of language skills.  Language skills are essentially interrelated and mutually reinforcing.  The learning and use of any one skill can trigger cognitive and communicative associations with other skills.
  32. 32.   Post-method learner is an autonomous learner.  Language learning is an autonomous activitybecause of this promoting learners autonomy is important. It involves helping learners learn how to learn, equipping them with the metacognitive, cognitive, social, and effective strategies necessary to self-direct their own learning, improve their language abilities.
  33. 33.   Social relevance refers to the need for teachers to be sensitive to the social, political, economic, and educational environment in which L2 education take place.  Social issues include 1)the motivation for L2 learning  2)the goal of L2 learning, 3)the function L2 , 4) the availability of input to the learner, 5) the variation in the input, 6)the norms of proficiency.  Learning purpose and language use are the most crucial in determining the social relevance of an L2 program.
  34. 34.   Culture teaching is an integral part of L2 teaching.  Traditionally, it is aimed at creating in the L2 learner awareness of and empathy toward the culture of the L2 community.  These days global cultural consciousness is important and we should treat learner as a cultural informant.
  35. 35.   Micro-strategy are classroom procedures to realize the objective of a particular macro-strategy.  Each macro-strategy can have any number, any type of micro-strategies, depending on the local learning and teaching situation; however they are limited by the national, regional, local language policy, curricular objectives.
  36. 36.