of beliefs and for
principles as a basis
design based on particular
Detailed specification of
learners role, etc ..
Little scope for
teaching a language
No specific set of
prescription for teaching
Allow for interpretation
However, since in approach there is no clear
application, there is no right or wrong way of
Methods are excellent for novice teachers since they
don’t have many experiences.
Methods create a professional community with a
common purpose, ideology, and vernacular.
In method, teachers have to accept the theory
underlying the method and apply it in classroom.
The role of the teacher is marginalized, he must
submit himself to the method.
Learners are passive recipients of the method and
must submit themselves to body of exercises &
activities. In contrast, in learner-centeredness
teaching must be flexible and adoptive to learners
In trying to apply approaches or methods, teachers
sometimes ignore what is the starting point in
language program design, namely, a careful
consideration of the context in which teaching &
learning occurs, including cultural context, political
context, &local institutional context.
Some traditional educational planning decisions are:
The careful examination, drawing on all available
sources of knowledge &informed judgment of the
The development &trail use of those methods
The assessment of the extent to which the
development work has achieved its objectives.
The feedback of all the experience gained.
The key figures of approaches and methods claim
that they present their theory based on full
understanding of second language learning process.
With some exception such as Krashen, these
proponents ignore to dispense prescriptions for
teching based on the result of their research, because
they know that current knowledge is tentative,
partial, and changing.
It is very difficult for teachers to use approaches and
methods in ways that precisely reflect the underlying
principles of the method.
Generally, methods are quite distinctive at the early,
beginning stages of a language course, and rather
indistinguishable from each other at a later stage.
There are no video convincing “demonstration” with
intermediate or advanced learners.
Mainstream approaches & methods get a large
amount of collective experience & practice.
Approaches & methods can be usefully studied &
selectively mastered in order to:
To learn how to use different approaches& methods.
To understand some of the issues
To participate in language learning experiences.
To be aware of the rich set of activity resources.
To appreciate how theory & practice can be linked.
In developing a personal approach to teaching, a
primary reference point for the teacher is her
personal belief and principles, regarding following
His or her role in the classroom.
The nature of effective teaching and learning.
The difficulties learners face.
Successful learning activities.
The structure of an effective lesson.
An individual teacher may employ different
principles at different times; following are examples
of such principles:
Develop learner responsibility.
Be tolerant of learners mistake.
Develop learners confidence.
Teach learning strategies.
Promote cooperation among learners.
Address learners needs and interests.
Some factors that have influenced language teaching trends in
the past and that be expected to continue in the future.
Government policy directives.
Trends in the profession.
Responses to technology
Influences from academic disciplines.
Crossover educational trends.
Crossover from other disciplines.
Stern proposed two major weaknesses of methods:
1)They represent a fixed combination of language
2)Over-emphasis of single aspect as the central issues
of language teaching.
Eclecticism is still based on the notion of a
conceptual distinctiveness of different methods,
however, it is the distinctiveness of the methods as
complete entities that is into question.
Refusing method concept, Stern introduced the
“strategy concept” that consists of strategy& techniques
Operate at policy level
Not another term for
method rather operate
with flexible sets of
embody useful lessons.
Operate at procedural
Stern strategy concept is based on 3
1. The L1-L2 connection concerning the use
or nonuse of first language in learning L2
concerning the structure-message
explicit-implicit option, concerning
the basic approach to language learning.
L2 as reference system
Immersion in L2/C2
Keeping L2 from L1
L1 as reference system
Three reasons why L1 is useful
1. when we learn a new language, we always begin
from language from language we already know.
2. our first language offers a frame of reference
system for L2.
3. our native language & culture are bound up with
our personal lives. A new language & culture
demand a personal adjustment.
Stern emphasis both intra-lingual and cross-lingual are
He agrees a judicious balance so that the learner does
not rely too heavily on L1 support instead of taking the
plunge & developing a new independent network of L2
Focus on code
Focus on language
Predictably of response
Emphasis on accuracy
Focus on communicatin
Focus on topic/purpose
Emphasis on fluency
Mimicry & memory
Exposure to language in
FOUR TYPES OF SYLLABUS
1. The language syllabus
2. The communicative syllabus
3. The cultural syllabus
4. The general language education.
HE ADVISED TEACHERS TO:
1. Recognize that the 4 syllabus complement each other.
2. Build bridges from syllabus to syllabus
3. To develop & use teaching materials that cut across
the syllabus division.
4. Start from one syllabus & work toward the other.
5. Establish the longitudinal proportional pattern of
Exploratory teaching is to find out what makes the
tried and trusted idea successful.
The principles of exploratory practice:
1. the quality of life
2. ensuring our understanding of the quality of
classroom life is important than improved technique
3. understanding such a quality is a social, not
Step1: identifying a puzzle
Step2: reflecting upon the puzzle
Step4: taking direct action to generate data
Step5: considering the out comes reached so far, and
deciding what to do next.
Step6: moving on
Step7: going public
Think globally, act locally, think locally
We feel we have largely discovered Exploratory
Practice in teachers current practice, rather than
invented it out of the blue for teachers.
Global thinking is simply multiple context-bound,
rather than in any strong sense context-free
Teachers are seen both as creaters of learning
opportunities & utilizers of learning opportunities
It entails a willingness for teacher to modify their
lesson plans based on given feedback.
Teachers simply as teachers and learners simply as
learners are both managers of learning.
A difficulty of one learner may be a difficulties of
other learners in a homo-genous.
It is refers to meaningful learner-learner, learnerteacher interaction in class where the learners have
the freedom and flexibility to initiate and navigate
Learners need to provided with opportunities for
negotiated interaction in order to accelerate their
comprehension and production.
Ten sources that lead to
One way of activating the intuitive heuristic of the
learner is to provide enough textual data so that the
learner can infer certain underlying rules of the form
Also self-discovery plays a crucial role in learner
comprehension and retention regardless of the
learners language ability.
Language awareness refers to the deliberate attempt
to draw attention to the formal properties of their L2
in order to increase the degree of explicitness
required to promote L2 learning.
Language awareness is based on strategies that
emphasize understanding, general principles, and
Learners need to develop critical language
awareness for the aim of maintain a social & political
The features of language as discourse call for
contextualization of linguistic input so that learners
can benefit from the interactive effects of systematic
as well as discoursal components of language.
It is thus essential to bring to the learners attention
the integrated nature of language.
We know that the nature of L2 learning involves not
merely an integration of linguistic components of
language but also an integration of language skills.
Language skills are essentially interrelated and
The learning and use of any one skill can trigger
cognitive and communicative associations with other
Post-method learner is an autonomous learner.
Language learning is an autonomous activitybecause of this promoting learners autonomy is
important. It involves helping learners learn how to
learn, equipping them with the metacognitive,
cognitive, social, and effective strategies necessary to
self-direct their own learning, improve their
Social relevance refers to the need for teachers to be
sensitive to the social, political, economic, and educational
environment in which L2 education take place.
Social issues include 1)the motivation for L2 learning
2)the goal of L2 learning, 3)the function L2 , 4) the
availability of input to the learner, 5) the variation in the
input, 6)the norms of proficiency.
Learning purpose and language use are the most crucial
in determining the social relevance of an L2 program.
Culture teaching is an integral part of L2 teaching.
Traditionally, it is aimed at creating in the L2 learner
awareness of and empathy toward the culture of the
These days global cultural consciousness is
important and we should treat learner as a cultural
Micro-strategy are classroom procedures to realize
the objective of a particular macro-strategy.
Each macro-strategy can have any number, any type
of micro-strategies, depending on the local learning
and teaching situation; however they are limited by
the national, regional, local language policy,