COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

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COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

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COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

  1. 1. Habip TÜREYEN SECTION 2 Tarık YÜTÜK HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction - Background General Principles Activities Materials Criticism -Advantages and Disadvantages References
  3. 3. BACKGROUND The Communicative Approach emerged in the early 1970s as a result of the work of the Council of Europe experts. A group of experts saw the need to focus in communicative proficiency rather than mastery of structures.
  4. 4. D.A. Wilkins (1972) proposed a functional or communicative definition of language that served as a basis for developing communicative syllabuses for language teaching. Wilkins's contribution was an analysis of the communicative meanings that a language learner needs to understand and express, rather than describe the core of language through traditional concepts of grammar and vocabulary.
  5. 5. Chomsky held that linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogeneous speech community, who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions. CHOMSKY  Communicative competence  “There are rules of use without which the rules of grammar would be useless.” HYMES
  6. 6. PRINCIPLES Goals of teachers who use Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): «The goal is to enable students to communicate in the target language. To do this students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. They need to know that many different forms can be used to perform a function and also that a single form call often serve a variety of functions.»
  7. 7. Role of the participants: «The teacher facilitates the communication in the classroom, and he also acts like an adviser and a guide. Students are communicators. They are actively engage in trying to make themselves understood and in understanding others.»
  8. 8. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: «The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. Dialogues, if used, center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized. Drilling may occur, but not so important. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought. Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it.»
  9. 9.  Interaction: «The teacher may present some part of the lesson, such as when working with linguistic accuracy. At other times, he is the facilitator of the activities, but he does not always himself interact with the students. Students interact a great deal with one another. They do this in various configurations: pairs, triads, small groups, and whole group.»
  10. 10.  Students’ feelings: «Students are given an opportunity to express their individuality by having them share their ideas and opinions on a regular basis.»  Viewing the language: «Language is for communication. Linguistic competence, the knowledge of forms and their meanings, is just one part of communicative competence. So, learners need knowledge of forms and meanings and functions.»
  11. 11. Emphasized language skills: «Students work on all four skills from the beginning. Just as oral communication is seen to take place through negotiation between speaker and listener, so too is meaning thought to be derived from the written word through an interaction between the reader and the writer.»
  12. 12. Students’ native language: «Students’ native language is permitted in CLT. However, whenever possible, the target language should be used not only during communicative activities, but also for explaining the activities to the students or in assigning homework.» Teacher’s response to errors: «Errors of form are tolerated during fluencybased activities and are seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.»
  13. 13.  Evaluation: «A teacher evaluates not only the students’ accuracy, but also their fluency. He can informally evaluate his students’ performance in his role as an adviser or cocommunicator.
  14. 14. ACTIVITIES  Scrambled sentences - The students are given a passage(a text ) in which the sentences are in a scrambled order  Language Games - Games are used frequently in CLT. The students find them enjoyable, and if they are properly designed, they give students valuable communicative practice.  Picture Strip Story  Role Play - Role plays are very important in CLT because they give students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles.
  15. 15.  Newspaper, radio and television broadcast, menus, weather forecast, timetables  Realia  Wh- questions (Why, What, When, Where, Who)  Simulations
  16. 16. CRITICISM
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES  This technique increases the teacher-student relationship. It is an interactive relationship.  The requirements are difficult. Not all classrooms can allow for group work activities and for teaching aids and materials.  CLT provides the opportunity for students to be aware of their abilities and exhibit them.  It is contraversial whether it can be used in every level of students.  The students in this way can learn the target language in an enjoyable way.  The teacher should prepare the syllabus by taking students’ interests and needs into account. However, the energy and time of the teacher are limited.
  18. 18. REFERENCES  Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (second ed.). Oxford University Press.  http://www.gebzekoleji.k12.tr/sunumlar/%C4%B0ngilizce%2 0E%C4%9Fitiminde%20%C4%B0leti%C5%9Fimsel%20Ya kla%C5%9F%C4%B1m.ppt ACCESS DATE:12.11.2013 – 09:47  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_language_teach ing ACCESS DATE: 12.11.2013 – 09:40  http://www.slideshare.net/Patrmartin/clt- 14685674?from_search=3 ACCESS DATE: 13.11.2013 – 10.06
  19. 19. REFERENCES  Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (second ed.). Oxford University Press.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_language_teaching access date: 29.11.2013 – 19:40  http://www.gebzekoleji.k12.tr/sunumlar/%C4%B0ngilizce%20E%C 4%9Fitiminde%20%C4%B0leti%C5%9Fimsel%20Yakla%C5%9F %C4%B1m.ppt access date: 29.11.2013 – 18:57  http://www.slideshare.net/sherzadjana/richards- communicativelanguage-20699739 access date: 29.11.2013 – 18:33

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